עמוד בית
יום ו, 22.01.21

נובמבר 2000


1 בנובמבר 2000
יעקב אריאל, משה ורמוט, פנינה אברמוביץ-שניידר ואבינועם שופר

Juridical and Halachic Aspects of Postmortem Sperm Procurement

 

Ya'akov Ariel, Moshe Vermout, Pnina Abramovitz-Shneider, Avinoam Shuper

 

Institute of Halachic and Ethical Aspects of Medicine, Ramat Gan

 

The ability to fertilize human ova with sperm retrieved soon after death has been utilized in Israel and in other countries. However, postmortem sperm procurement (PMSP) has significant Halachic, juridical and ethical implications with regard to both the action of sperm and its implications for mother and offspring. In specific situations, and with reliable supervision aimed at preventing sperm interchange, Halacha may allow the procedure, while the juridical approach in such a situation is not as yet well established.

As for Halacha, even if a son is born, the widowed mother will still be obligated by the Halacha of yibum (marrying the deceased husband's brother). The child's rights as heir, aspects of implications for its future life, or even social aspects of PMSP, all are factors to be seriously considered before PMSP is performed, without bias by temporary emotions. Thus, PMSP should be reserved for only very special circumstances, and only after consultation with the appropriate medical, Halachic, juridical and ethical experts.

משה פייגין, יעל גרשטנסקי וטליה חלמיש-שני

Problems in Fetal Monitoring: Characteristics of Risks for Malpractice Suits

 

Moshe D. Fejgin, Yael Gershtanski, Talia Halamish-Shani

 

Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Meir Hospital, Kfar Saba; and Medical Risk Management Co., Tel Aviv

 

Medical malpractice suits in obstetrics comprise about 10% of all claims against medical institutions in Israel. A significant proportion are due to failures relating to fetal monitoring. We studied the characteristics of 102 of 4125 obstetrical cases reported to the Medical Risk Management Co. as being at risk for a malpractice suit.

The cases were divided into those with medical management failures (misinterpretation of fetal monitor tracing, failure to respond promptly to fetal monitoring indicating distress, etc.) and technical failures (loss of monitor tracings, interruption in the tracing at a critical time, unreadable tracings, etc.).

The monetary quantum in fetal monitoring failures exceeded $30,000,000. The majority of these failures could have been avoided by using central electronic fetal monitoring systems with alerting and archival capabilities.

אורי פרוינד, עמי מאיו, איבן שוורץ, דוד נויפלד וחיים פארן

Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy - 1,000 Procedures in a Surgical Department

 

Uri Freund, Ami Mayo, Ivan Schwartz, David Neufeld, Haim Paran

 

Dept. of Surgery A, Meir Hospital, Kfar Saba; and Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University

 

The first 1,000 laparoscopic cholecystectomies performed in our department were reviewed. There was no operative mortality; conversion to open cholecystectomy was necessary in 2%. In the last 600 cases the rate of conversion had decreased to 0.5%. There was common bile duct injury in 0.3%, with the injuries identified during primary surgery. This clinical experience is consistent with previous studies, which proved that laparoscopic cholecystectomy is safe and should replace open operation as the procedure of choice. 

טל לביא, בתיה הרן, יהושע שמר ושגב שני

Regulation of Natural Medicines in Israel and Abroad

 

T. Lavy, B. Haran, J. Shemer, S. Shani

 

Israel Ministry of Health, Pharmaceutical Policy and Economics Unit; Israel Center for Technology Assessment in Health Care; Gertner Institute for Epidemiology and Health Policy Research; Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University

 

Hand-in-hand with the public's growing interest in health care, there has been an increasing demand for natural health products considered both safe and medically effective. But many such products have not been shown to meet efficacy and safety criteria and therefore can not be registered as pharmaceuticals. On the other hand, it is quite clear that some products do have pharmacological activity and are being used for therapeutic or preventive effects.

In Israel, the marketing rules for food or dietary supplements prevent their manufacturers from claiming medicinal/healing properties that the product might have, and allow only limited health statements. But great demand for these products has created massive publication attributing medicinal indications for products whose quality, efficacy and safety have neither been examined nor proven according to accepted medical criteria.

We review the regulation and supervision of natural health products in Israel and other developed countries and find a broad range of opinions about natural health products. They range from acceptance as conventional drugs reimbursable by the health insurance, as in Switzerland and Germany, to their status as dietary supplements requiring no significant authorization or supervision, as in the USA.

Analysis of the current situation in Israel and the western world would indicate that some natural health products do possess pharmacological activity and therefore manufacturers should be allowed to make limited claims for specified therapeutic properties. A stricter set of registration regulations are needed for proof of safety, efficacy and quality of these products, but more lenient than those for registering a pharmaceutical product.

בן-ציון סילברסטון

Coloring the Floor of Schlemm's Canal in Deep Sclerectomy

 

Ben Zion Silverstone

 

Eye Dept., Shaare Zedek Medical Center, Jerusalem

 

Increased intraocular pressure in glaucoma, resistant to maximal tolerated medical therapy, can be relieved by deep sclerectomy. Its advantage over classical trabeculotomy is fewer postoperative complications. This probably results from its being relatively noninvasive, since the anterior chamber is not penetrated.

Successful deep sclerectomy requires preservation of the trabeculo-descemetic membrane, which forms part of the floor of Schlemm's canal. Aqueous flows from the anterior chamber across the trabeculo-descemetic membrane and into the ocular venous drainage. Despite the importances of its preservation, during deep sclerectomy it is perforated in 10-15% of cases.

Coloring the endothelium lining the floor of the canal with gentian violet solution improves visualization of the membrane and thus aids in its preservation. Its use makes the procedure easier and should improve results.

ר' גייסט, י' יקל, ב' אברמוב, ס' גריסטרו וא' סמואלוב

The Zavanelli Maneuver - Back to the Womb

 

R. Geist, Y. Yekel, B. Abramov, S. Grisaru, A. Samueloff

 

Obstetrics and Gynecology Dept., Shaare Zedek Medical Center, Jerusalem

 

The Zavanelli maneuver is the manual replacement of a partially-born fetus due to severe shoulder dystocia. It is described in obstetrical textbooks as being among the last to be tried in a series of maneuvers to rescue the fetus with severe shoulder dystocia, as it is considered a very difficult and heroic maneuver. Few obstetricians have seen it and fewer have done it themselves. It is even more rare when a single obstetrician has done the Zavanelli maneuver repeatedly. Therefore, both experienced obstetricians and certainly young residents are fearful when they have to use this maneuver and can lose control in cases of shoulder dystocia.

We have found descriptions of 93 cases of use of the Zavanelli maneuver in vertex presentations. We also describe a recent case in our experience. We conclude that this maneuver is safe and not too difficult to perform even without previous experience. Fetal and maternal complications are few, but there is of course a bias against reporting bad results.

We recommend that every obstetrician become familiar with this maneuver so as to feel sure that it is safe for him to use in severe cases of shoulder dystocia.

משה בוסתן, שבתאי רומנו, ראיד סלים, יעקב רוזנמן ואליעזר שלו

Burch Laparoscopic Procedure for Repairing Proven Stress Incontinence

 

Moshe Bustan, Shabtai Romano, Raed Salim, Jacob Rosenman, Eliezer Shalev

 

Depts. of Obstetric and Gynecology and of Urology, HaEmek Medical Center, Afula

 

There are more than 200 procedures for repairing stress urinary incontinence. We evaluated the safety and efficiency of the Burch laparoscopic procedure in 32 women with urodynamically proven genuine stress incontinence.

Mean operating time was 40 minutes and mean hospitalization time after the procedure was 30 hours. The cure rate was 97%, similar to that rin other studies (80-95%). The major complications w2 cases (6.2%) of unintended bladder injury, diagnosed and repaired laparoscopically. Although follow-up has only been for 3-42 months, the high cure rate and safety and advantages of laparoscopy over laparotomy, make laparoscopic Burch colposuspension the procedure of choice for repairing stress incontinence.

עפר שנפלד ודין עד-אל

Penile Reconstruction after Complete Glans Amputation during Ritual Circumcision

 

Ofer Z. Shenfeld, Dean Ad-El

 

Depts. of Urology and of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical Center, Jerusalem

 

Circumcision, so commonly performed, is considered a safe procedure rarely associated with significant complications. A case of complete amputation of the glans penis during neonatal circumcision is reported. The glans was successfully reimplanted, with good post-operative functional and esthetic results.

יצחק רוזן, יאיר לוי ויהודה שינפלד

Pulmonary Adenocarcinoma in Myasthenia Gravis - Auto-Immunity and Late Development of Malignancy

 

Yitzhak Rosen, Yair Levy, Yehuda Shoenfeld

 

Dept. of Internal Medicine B, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University

 

We report a 75-year-old man with myasthenia gravis for many years, who was hospitalized because of cough, fever, and dyspnea. Chest x-ray revealed a bilateral pleural effusion. Adenocarcinomatous cells were found in the pleural fluid. Computerized tomography of the chest showed widespread pulmonary dissemination of the tumor.

The relationship between myasthenia gravis, an autoimmune disease involving the motor end-plate, and malignancy (thymoma) has been widely recognized. Current literature documents few reports of lung malignancies with concurrent development of myasthenia gravis. A tentative explanation, based on current research, is provided for the possible role of myasthenia gravis and the late development of lung cancer. Moreover, a model for the autoimmune phenomenon and the development of late malignancies will be provided with explicit explanations. It is important to search for occult, developing malignancies in newly diagnosed autoimmune diseases.

צבי ויצמן, אחמד אלשיך, לורה הרצוג, אשר טל ורפאל גורודישר

Advantages of Standardized Protocol for Oral Rehydration in Acute Pediatric Gastroenteritis

 

Avi Weizman, Ahmed Alsheikh, Laura Herzog, Asher Tal, Rafael Gorodischer

 

Pediatric Depts. A and B, Soroka Medical Center; and Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheba

 

Oral rehydration (OR) for acute gastroenteritis in infants and children has been shown to be as effective as IV therapy, with less discomfort and lower costs. In this retrospective study we compared 2 pediatric wards, in 1 of which only a standardized, simplified, bedside protocol, based on American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines, was used.

There were no significant clinical characteristics in the 208 patients. In the ward which used the above protocol, OR utilization was significantly more frequent than in the other ward (48% versus 15%), thus saving equipment costs of nearly $1,000/3 months. There were no significant differences in outcome between the wards.

We conclude that introducing a standardized management protocol may increase OR utilization in hospitalized children with acute diarrhea.
 

הבהרה משפטית: כל נושא המופיע באתר זה נועד להשכלה בלבד ואין לראות בו ייעוץ רפואי או משפטי. אין הר"י אחראית לתוכן המתפרסם באתר זה ולכל נזק שעלול להיגרם. כל הזכויות על המידע באתר שייכות להסתדרות הרפואית בישראל. מדיניות פרטיות
כתובתנו: ז'בוטינסקי 35 רמת גן, בניין התאומים 2 קומות 10-11, ת.ד. 3566, מיקוד 5213604. טלפון: 03-6100444, פקס: 03-5753303