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        דצמבר 1998

        1 בדצמבר
        סרגיי גולדשטיין, יאיר לוי ויהודה שינפלד

        Pulmonary Hypertension and Multi-Valvular Damage Caused by Anorectic Drugs


        Serge E. Goldstein, Yair Levy, Yehuda Shoenfeld


        Medical Dept. B and Institute for Immunological Disease Research, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University


        Marked obesity is an independent risk factor for multisystem morbidity. The use of anorectic drugs is an aggressive strategy for weight reduction. It appears to be an easy way of dealing with the problem, because the patient needn't change his behavior. However, such treatment is not harmless. At the end of the 60's an outbreak of pulmonary hypertension was associated with the drug aminorex, and it was soon withdrawn from the market. 30 years later it became clear that new-generation anorectic drugs (fenfluramine, dexfenfluramine, phentermine), which were being used world-wide, lead to both pulmonary hypertension and valvular damage.


        We describe a woman of 70 with both these complications which developed after prolonged anorectic therapy with a fenfluramine-phentermine combination.

        יהונתן פינטהוס, יורם מור ויעקב רמון

        The Mitrofanoff Pouch in Lower Urinary Tract Reconstruction


        J.H. Pinthus, Y. Mor, J. Ramon


        Urology Dept., Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer


        The Mitrofanoff principle, first described in 1980, consists of implanting a tubular organ such as the appendix, ureter, or fallopian tube into the wall of the bladder (or urinary reservoir) to create a non-refluxing, catherizable urinary conduit. Between 1993-1996, 7 men and 1 woman (aged 48-64, average 59) underwent radical cystectomy and urethrectomy combined with the creation of a MAINZ I urinary reservoir (based on the Mitrofanoff principle). In men the indication for the procedure was the diagnosis of invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder with involvement of the prostatic urethra. All patients had refused urinary diversion to an ileal conduit because of its deleterious effect on the quality of life.


        In all patients the postoperative course was uneventful, apart from intraperitoneal urinary leakage from the reservoir in 1, successfully managed conservatively. The patients have gained full control of urinary drainage, performing intermittent self-catheterizations every 4-5 hours. In 3 patients there were difficulties with catheterization due to stenosis of the conduit, usually at the skin level. None have suffered leakage from the reservoir, during the day, even when it was full.

        Our experience shows that creation of a continent urinary reservoir according to the MAINZ I technique is an excellent surgical solution for patients in whom the creation of an orthotopic reservoir is impractical. The use of the umbilicus as a stomal site preserves normal body image and thus does not interfere with quality of life as in those undergoing radical cystectomy.

        פרי קדם-פרידריך ורינה נחמני

        Willingness to Donate Organs: Attitude Survey among Israeli Jews


        Peri Kedem-Friedrich, Rina Rachmani


        Psychology Dept., Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan and Information and Education Unit, Israel Transplant Center


        A public opinion survey of Israeli Jewish adults (September) showed a large potential willingness to donate organs after death, while only a third of the sample was opposed. Nevertheless, only a very minor proportion held donor's cards, and over half expressed opposition to holding a donor card. As to next-of-kin's organs, when the wishes of the relative were not known, a quarter of the sample opposed, a quarter agreed, and the remaining half hesitated to make a decision.


        Willingness to donate was not correlated with gender, age or income, but was related to religiosity: the more religious, the less willing to donate. And the religious reason was the salient one given for hesitation about donating, although there were many who could give no reason for their hesitation. Family members, doctors and rabbis (in ascending order) influenced willingness to consent to next-of-kin donations.

        בלה בר-כהן, אורלי רותם-פיקר וצבי שטרן

        Use of Restraints in a General Hospital


        Bella Bar-Cohen, Orly Rotem-Picker, Zvi Stern


        Nursing Services and Administration, Hadassah University Medical Center, Jerusalem


        28 in-patient units were surveyed during a 5-day period to determine the extent of the use of physical restraints in hospitalized patients. Information was gathered on the characteristics of restrained patients and indications for use and removal of restraints, patterns and means of restraints, monitoring, and written notations. 31 different patients (6% of those surveyed) were restrained in 13 units during the 5 days of the survey, an average of 15 (3%) daily.


        Characteristics of restrained patients were: age 70 and over requiring emergency hospitalization, reduced level of consciousness, limitation of mobility, incontinence, history of 2 or more chronic diseases, requiring multiple drugs, and use of multiple medical devices. Bilateral, soft hand restraints were most often used to prevent patients from removing tubes. Nurses initiated the decision to apply or remove restraints, which were usually removed as the patients' condition improved. Written policies were lacking regarding monitoring and follow-up of restrained patients. Clearly written policies and increased staff awareness of potential hazards may reduce the use of restraints and the length of time they are employed.

        דורון זמיר, רסמי מג'דלה ופלטיאל וינר

        Normotensive Hydrocephalus Complicating Recurrent E. Coli Meningitis


        Doron Zamir, Rasmi Magadle, Paltiel Weiner


        Dept. of Medicine A, Hillel Yaffe Medical Center, Hadera


        E. coli meningitis is a disease that occurs in predisposed patients, either as a result of trauma or in neonates after neurosurgery. Recurrent E. coli meningitis in an adult without any apparent predisposition is uncommon, and hydrocephalus complicating bacterial meningitis is even more rare. We report a unique case of a 67-year-old alcoholic man who had had 2 consecutive episodes of E. coli meningitis within 2 months. In both episodes there was a favorable response to ceftriaxone. However, normotensive hydrocephalus appeared a few weeks later, with mental and physical deterioration.

        עמוס כץ, אנגל קנטור ואלכסנדר בטלר

        Serotonin Re-Uptake Inhibitors as Primary Therapy for Carotid Sinus Hypersensitivity


        Amos Katz, Angel Kantor, Alexander Battler


        Cardiology Dept., Soroka Medical Center and Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheba


        Carotid sinus syndrome is a well-recognized cause of unexplained syncope in older patients, and may lead to significant morbidity due to trauma from falls. Dual chamber pacing has been shown to be effective in relieving symptoms due to bradycardia, but not due to vasodepressor response. We report an 84-year-old man with recurrent syncope due to carotid sinus hypersensitivity. He was treated only with a serotonin re-uptake inhibitor and was symptom-free after 3 weeks of therapy. He has remained symptom-free for the past year.

        אילן שלף, אבי כהן ויחיאל ברקי

        Ultrasonographic Imaging of Superior Sagittal Thrombosis


        Ilan Shelef, Avi Cohen, Yehiel Barki


        Depts. of Radiology and Neurosurgery, Soroka Medical Center and Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheba


        Ultrasonographic findings of superior sagittal sinus thrombosis include dilated and hyperechoic sinus (direct imaging of the thrombus). No flow should be demonstrated by the various Doppler techniques. In the deeper sinuses, if the thrombus can not be visualized after a negative Doppler study, MR imaging is recommended. Recanalization and reflow can be demonstrated on follow-up study.

        ריבה בריק

        Methotrexate Treatment in Refractory Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis


        R. Brik


        Pediatrics B Dept., Rambam Medical Center, Haifa


        The mean time from initiation of methotrexate (MTX) treatment of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) to partial remission of clinical symptoms and total clinical remission was assessed. 9 girls and 8 boys, from 3 to 18 years of age (mean 11.4±5.4) with active JRA by American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria (5 systemic, 8 polyarticular and 4 pauciarticular disease onset), who failed to respond to adequate courses of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), steroids or disease-modidrugs were studied.


        Clinic visits were scheduled at monthly intervals for physical and laboratory assessment disease activity and drug safety. Partial response to MTX was defined a 25% reduction of the active joint count and/or articular severity score. Total clinical remission was defined as in adult rheumatoid arthritis. The duration of disease activity until enrollment ranged from 6 months to 14 years (4.5±3.7 yr); duration of therapy was 3 months to 3 years (14.6±9.3mo) and dosage ranged from 5 to 15 mg/m²/week. Prednisone in doses below 10 mg/day and NSAID were permitted.

        14 of 17 patients (82%) had a 25% reduction in joint activity after 6 weeks to 4 months (9.2±3.2 weeks); 10 (59%) went into full clinical remission after 5 to 26 months (14.3±9 months); 3 relapsed after an initial response to treatment, and 4 (23%) did not respond to MTX. The non-responders were males who required higher doses of prednisone (p<0.0001).

        MTX appears to be effective therapy for children with JRA. An initial response can be expected in most patients after 9 weeks of treatment, and full clinical remission occurs after a mean of 14 months.

        15 בדצמבר
        א' אדונסקי, ש' לבנקרון, י' פלייסיג, א' שטרית וצ' בלומשטיין

        Evaluation of Predictive Factors for Stroke Rehabilitation


        Abraham Adunsky, Shlomo Levenkrohn, Yehudit Fleissig, Angela Chetrit, Zvia Blumstein


        Geriatric Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology Depts., Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer


        Our objective was to assess the functional disability of stroke patients by the functional independence measure (FIM) and to examine predictive factors for successful rehabilitation. In 127 consecutive stroke patients efficacy of FIM was 23.9±188, efficiency 0.54±0.45 and 81.9% of patients returned home. Functional improvement was statistically significant (p<0.001) in all FIM domains. Multivariate analysis showed that improvement in FIM score was significantly greater in the younger, among the married, the hemiparetic, and those with an admission FIM of 40-60, while efficiency was related only to type of diagnosis. In addition, the hemiparetic were 3.3 times more likely to return home than the hemiplegic.


        We conclude that rehabilitation priorities should be directed towards patients younger than 75 years and to those with an admission FIM of 40-60 points. The results of this study reaffirm the usefulness of the FIM index in assessing stroke rehabilitation.

        הקבוצה הישראלית לסקרים באוטם חד בשריר הלב

        Characteristics, Management and Prognosis of Acute Myocardial Infarction (Israel 1990-1996)


        Israeli Survey Group On Acute Myocardial Infarction


        From 1990 to 1996 we conducted consecutive 2-month surveys in all CCUs (n=26) in Israel. The aim was to compare the characteristics, management, and prognosis of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) between the 4 surveys.


        Patient characteristics were similar in all surveys. About 75% of patients were males and had a first MI. Mechanical and arrhythmic complications decreased slightly between 1990 and 1996. In contrast, frequency of treatment with thrombolysis, aspirin, beta-blockers and ACE-I, as well as coronary interventional procedures, increased tremendously.

        In parallel, 30-day and 1-year mortality decreased significantly, from 16.5% and 22.5%, respectively, to 9.0% and 13.9%. After multiple adjustment for factors associated with mortality, the 30-day relative risk of death for patients hospitalized in 1992, 1994 and 1996 was 0.79 (95% CI 0.59-1.08), 0.75 (95% CI 0.56-1.01) and 0.54 (95% CI 0.39-9.74), respectively, as compared with 1990.


        Although there is no direct proof that changes in management of AMI are related to the reduction in mortality seen during the course of the surveys, the association seems likely.

        ה' פרוינד, י' שיפמן, נ' בגלייבטר וי' השכל

        Thoracoscopic Surgery for Spon-Taneous Pneumothorax


        H.R. Freund, O. Zamir, Y. Shifman, N. Beglaibter, Y. Haskel


        Hadassah University Hospital, Mount Scopus and Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem


        We report our initial experience with thoracoscopic surgery in the treatment of spontaneous pneumothorax in 14 patients, mean age 30.7 years. 7 were operated following 2 episodes of spontaneous pneumothorax, 6 after their first episode, and 1 after multiple episodes.


        All underwent bleb resection, pleurodesis and tube thoracostomy; in 1 we converted to a limited thoracotomy (93% success rate). Only oral analgesia was required for postoperative pain control and patients were discharged 2.6 days after surgery, on average.


        The apparent superiority of thoracoscopic over conventional, even limited, thoracotomy seems to justify such therapy even during the first episode.

        שמואל כץ, אילן ארז, איטה ליטמנוביץ, לודוויג לזר, אריה רז וציפורה דולפין

        Bowel-Lengthening in a Newborn with Short Bowel Syndrome


        Schmuel Katz, Ilan Erez, Ita Litmanovitz, Ludwig Lazar, Arie Raz, Zipora Dolfin


        Depts. of Pediatric Surgery, Neonatology and Pediatrics; Meir Hospital, Kfar Saba


        Advances in parenteral nutrition and supportive therapy have led to improvement in survival of babies with short-bowel syndrome. Those whose intestinal mass is very unlikely to be adequate should have surgical therapy as soon as possible, before they develop the complications of long-term parenteral nutrition or significant enteritis.


        We present a newborn with short-bowel syndrome due to prenatal midgut volvulus. At operation the remaining viable jejunum, 15 cm long, was anastomosed to the cecum. All feeding attempts failed, and the infant suffered from malabsorption. Calories and proteins had to be supplied by intravenous total parenteral nutrition.


        At 3 months of age there was significant widening of the remaining bowel and Bianchi's bowel-lengthening procedure was performed. The postoperative course was uneventful and there was gradual improvement in intestinal absorptive capacity. The patient was weaned from parenteral nutrition at 3 years of age. Now, 2 years later, she eats a normal diet.

        אליעזר אלקלעי, דניאל יפה וצבי שפינדל

        Radiologic Appearance of "Falling Gallstones" during Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy


        E. Alkalay, D. Yaffe, Z. Spindel


        Eyn Vered Clinic and Depts. of Radiology and Surgery, Sapir Medical Center, Kfar Saba and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University


        Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the "gold standard" in treating cholelithiasis. Stones are frequently lost in the peritoneal cavity during the procedure, but "missing stones" have been regarded as insignificant. However, there is accumulating evidence that untreated "lost" stones may cause complications even years after operation.


        We present a 65-year-old woman who presented with vague complaints, anemia and an elevated ESR. CT scan showed an infiltrating process in extra-abdominal muscles compatible with sarcoma. At operation, 2.5 years after previous laparoscopic cholecystectomy, an abscess was found which contained biliary stones. Because of their small size they were not visible on CT scan. We discuss the possible ways of handling "falling stones."

        לאונרדו רייזין, חיים יוספי, שרון קליר, אמיל חי, רונית פלד ושמעון שרף

        Investigating Chest Pain: is there a Gender Bias?


        Leonardo Reisin, Chaim Yosefy, Sharon Kleir, Emil Hay, Ronit Peled, Shimon Scharf


        Cardiology and Emergency Depts. and Epidemiology Unit, Barzilai Medical Center, Ashkelon (Affiliated with Ben-Gurion University, Beer Sheba)


        Ischemic heart disease (IHD) in women is characterized by a higher morbidity and mortality in the peri-infarction and coronary bypass peri-operative periods. These epidemiological data strengthen our impression that the health system unintentionally "ignores" the high proportion of females with IHD.


        The process of investigating chest pain, diagnosing IHD, and the subsequent treatment and rehabilitation, seem to differ between the genders. Time elapsed from beginning of chest pain to diagnosis of IHD seems to be longer in women than in men. Personal, educational and social factors are contributory.


        Although time elapsed between diagnosis and rehabilitation is usually similar in the genders, peri-operative morbidity and mortality are higher in women. It may be that the higher rates in women are caused by delay in diagnosis and treatment, which allows worsening of the disease in women before treatment. This delay can occur during the time needed for evaluation of chest pain, from the door of the physician to diagnosis and treatment.


        In our retrospective study we determined the difference in referral of men and women with chest pain to the emergency department (ED) and the attitude of physicians in the ED and medical department to chest pain in men and in women, including final diagnosis on discharge. 615 patients over 18 years referred to the ED for chest pain during 3 randomly chosen, consecutive months were studied. We found that women constituted only 39.5% of the referred patients, but the proportion hospitalized was similar to that in men. Hospitalized women were older (57.7±18.4 versus 49.7±17.8 years in men), and had more risk factors (4 versus 2 in men). Proportions of specific diagnoses on discharge from hospital were equal in the genders.

        To bridge the differences and to implement education in prevention, investigation and treatment of IHD in women, we established the "Female Heart" clinic. The objective of this clinic is to reduce differences in the first step, in the process of evaluating chest pain in women, by educating and encouraging them to present early to their physicians, and by changing physicians' attituin the investigation of chest pain in women. We plan to determine in a prospective study if these goals are.

        רינת אלימלך, אילון איזנברג ומיכאל דויטש

        Postoperative Pain Relief


        Rinat Elimelech, Elon Eisenberg, Michael Doitch


        Pain Relief Clinic, Rambam Medical Center, The Technion, Haifa


        The traditional approach to postoperative pain relief (POPR) is still in effect in many surgical departments in Israel: morphine or meperidine given IM "on demand." In spite of the availability of modern and more effective approaches for POPR, their utilization in hospitals in Israel is lagging. The aim of this project was to study how POPR is being performed in a randomly chosen academic gynecological department, with the assumption that increased awareness will facilitate the necessary changes needed to improve POPR.


        Four aspects of POPR were studied in 60 female subjects who underwent elective hysterectomy: patients' attitudes to postoperative pain and its relief ascertained prior to surgery; analgesics, prescribed and delivered; assessment of postoperative pain; and patients' satisfaction with POPR.


        Results show that patients' fear of postoperative pain is the largest component of their overall fear of the surgical procedure. Although they anticipate intense pain, and expect significant POPR, most women prefer not to receive opioid analgesics. Most patients received an average of 10-20 mg of morphine during the first 2 postoperative days. They reported at least moderate to severe pain on 5 of 6 measurements during that period. Nevertheless, most patients were satisfied with their POPR. It is likely that patients expressed a high level of satisfaction primarily due to their low-level of expectations. Assuming that these results represent the POPR situation nationwide, practical steps should be undertaken for its improvement.

        יהודה לימוני ופסח שוורצמן

        Influence of Warning Labels on Medicines and Physicians' Orders on Patient Behavior


        Yehuda Limony, Pesah Shwarzman


        Child Health Center of Kupat Holim Klalit, Kiryat Gat and Dept. of Family Medicine, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheba


        Compliance of 40 mothers with a warning label, "for external use," on a medicine package was checked in a survey in a primary care clinic for children. We also checked parents' attitudes to giving a medicine to their child when instructions given by the physician or by a friend contradicted the printed warning on the label. All mothers who were told that the medicine was recommended by their physicians accepted the recommendation without hesitation. Another group included 20 mothers who were told that the medicine was recommended by a friend. 9 of 20 mothers in this group refused to use the medicine. Talking with the nurse about the potential risk of medicine in general, some mothers, after second thought, refused to give the medicine to their child. At the end, 65% of recommendations made by a friend were rejected by mothers as compared to only 15% of the physicians' recommendations.


        35 of 40 mothers (87%) understood the meaning of the warning label, but only 13 (32%) had noticed it at all. We conclude that patients may accept their physicians' recommendation to use a medicine despite a contradictory warning label much more readily than when it was recommended by a friend. Therefore, any intervention program intended to promote a more cautious use of medicines should include not only the explanations of the various warning labels but should also promote a change in the patient's behavior to a more active search for warning labels.

        אשר שיבר, חיים ראובני, אשר אלחיאני ויצחק (צחי) בן-ציון

        Comparison between Every-Day and Every-3-Days Fluoxetine in Young, Moderately Depressed Out-Patients


        A. Shiber, H. Reuveni, A. Elhayany, I.Z. Ben-Zion


        Psychiatric Dept., Psychiatric Division, Soroka Medical Center and Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheba; and Medical Division for Drug Utilization, Kupat Holim Klalit (Sick Fund)


        Fluoxetine is now a well-known and often-used specific serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) and antidepressant. It has a very long active half- life, from 2-16 days. Our hypothesis was that sufficient therapeutic effectiveness would be achieved by prescribing the drug less frequently than once a day.


        To establish whether there is a difference between fluoxetine given daily or every 3 days, we assigned 25 outpatients with mild to moderate, acute major depressions (DSM-IV) to receive fluoxetine (20 mg), either each day or every 3 days. The study was open-labelled, using for assessment the HAM-D, GHQ-28 side-effect checklist and clinical judgment questionnaires. Follow-up lasted 6 months.


        Results indicated no differences in the clinical outcomes, except for slightly fewer side-effects in the study group. Although the open label design limits drawing definitive conclusions, our preliminary results provide more information, and support our hypothesis that low-dosage fluoxetine is beneficial. However, more comprehensive, double-blind studies are necessary to confirm our preliminary results.

        הבהרה משפטית: כל נושא המופיע באתר זה נועד להשכלה בלבד ואין לראות בו ייעוץ רפואי או משפטי. אין הר"י אחראית לתוכן המתפרסם באתר זה ולכל נזק שעלול להיגרם. כל הזכויות על המידע באתר שייכות להסתדרות הרפואית בישראל. מדיניות פרטיות
        כתובתנו: ז'בוטינסקי 35 רמת גן, בניין התאומים 2 קומות 10-11, ת.ד. 3566, מיקוד 5213604. טלפון: 03-6100444, פקס: 03-5753303