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        תוצאת חיפוש

        פברואר 1998
        רון בן אברהם, נח ליברמן, צבי רם, סילביה קלמפנר ועזריאל פרל

        Propofol Anesthesia for Craniotomy in Patients who are Awake

         

        Ron Ben Abraham, Noah Lieberman, Zvi Ram, Sylvia Klempner, Azriel Perel

         

        Depts. of Anesthesia and Intensive Care and of Neurosurgery, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer and Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University

         

        During craniotomy, the patient's cooperation is needed during procedures in which continuous neurological examination and mapping of crucial regions close to the area to be resected area are required. We report our experience in 9 patients who underwent such procedures under intravenous propofol as the main sedating agent. This short-acting hypnotic was administered prior to and during the painful stages of the procedure. Patients were fully asleep when the skull was opened and the dural flap raised or excised. During the rest of the operation patients were lightly sedated but remained responsive and cooperative. This enabled precise intra-operative mapping of the brain and surgery-related neurological deficits were avoided. Respiratory depression or hemodynamic compromise were not encountered. All patients were comfortable during the operation and there were no additional neurological deficits after operation. We believe that propofol should be the main sedating agent used for these procedures.

        ינואר 1998
        לביא אוד, שלי קרימרמן ויצחק סרוגו

        Incidence, Antimicrobial Resistance and Mortality in Bloodstream Infections in the Critically Ill

         

        Lavi Oud, Shelly Krimerman, Isaac Srugo

         

        General Intensive Care Unit and Clinical Microbiology Dept., Bnai-Zion Medical Center, Haifa

         

        Bloodstream infections (BSI) are 7-fold more common in patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) rather than to other hospital wards. The epidemiology of BSI in critically ill patients in Israel has not been systematically addressed. We examined the annual trends in BSI in patients in a general ICU of evolving patterns of antimicrobial resistance and associated mortality rates for the years 1994-1996. The presence of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) when the first positive blood cultures are taken was a prerequisite for its definition as clinically significant. The unit site, staff, practice guidelines, and type of patient were unchanged during the study period. Blood cultures were positive in 220.7-332.0 patients per 1000 ICU admissions, 18-22-fold more common than in regular ward patients. SIRS was a universal finding in these ICU patients. There was multi-drug resistance for the majority of species cultured, reaching 100% in some cases. Crude hospital mortality of ICU patients, with and without positive blood cultures, was 31-54% and 5-14%, respectively. The introduction of a new blood culture system (Bactec 9240) in 1996 was associated with a 61% increase in the rate of patients with positive blood cultures, accounted for mostly by increased isolation of coagulase-negative staphylococci. However the mortality rate for the latter decreased by 59%, suggesting the possibility of a selective increase in detection of contaminated cultures. Although highly prevalent in the study population and generally defining a patient group with high mortality risk, the specificity of SIRS-associated positive blood cultures may be species and culture-system dependent. These findings re-emphasize the need for both improved control measures for the epidemic proportions of BSI and multi-drug antimicresistance, as well as more specific indicators of the clinicaof positive blood cultures in critically ill patients.

        ח' זליגמן, ס' ניקולא וש' קרימרמן

        Gentamycin Distribution Volume in a Mechanically Ventilated Patient

         

        H. Seligmann, S. Nicola, S.H. Krimerman

         

        Clinical Pharmacology and Intensive Care Units, Bnai-Zion Medical Center and Bruce Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, The Technion, Haifa

         

        Mechanical ventilation (MV) of more than 32 hours may alter the gentamycin pharmacokinetic profile by increasing its volume of distribution (VD). As a result, the standard garamycin dosage regime has to be adjusted in order to obtain an adequate peak serum concentration, which is well correlated with the efficacy of garamycin therapy. Garamycin is a water- soluble drug with negligible binding to plasma albumin, so its VD approximates the volume of extra-cellular fluid, which may be expanded by MV. MV-related fluid retention is mediated via various homeostatic compensatory systems. They are activated to combat the decrease in cardiac output and central blood volume caused by MV, due to the increase in airway and intrathoracic pressure. These phenomena are more prominent during prolonged ventilation, PEEP or C-PAP ventilation, and in previously hypovolemic patients. Patients requiring MV for more than 32 hours had an average garamycin VD of 0.36 L/Kg compared with the mean VD of 0.25 L/Kg in normal adults. In the patient presented, a similar change in garamycin VD was seen, while conventional doses given during MV failed to reach suitable clinical peak levels.

        הבהרה משפטית: כל נושא המופיע באתר זה נועד להשכלה בלבד ואין לראות בו ייעוץ רפואי או משפטי. אין הר"י אחראית לתוכן המתפרסם באתר זה ולכל נזק שעלול להיגרם. כל הזכויות על המידע באתר שייכות להסתדרות הרפואית בישראל. מדיניות פרטיות
        כתובתנו: ז'בוטינסקי 35 רמת גן, בניין התאומים 2 קומות 10-11, ת.ד. 3566, מיקוד 5213604. טלפון: 03-6100444, פקס: 03-5753303