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        תוצאת חיפוש

        אוגוסט 1998
        שלמה וינקר, ששון נקר, עמנואל ניר, איתן חי-עם ומיכאל וינגרטן

        Abnormal Liver Function Tests in the Primary Care Setting

         

        Shlomo Vinker, Sasson Nakar, Emanuel Nir, Eitan Hyam, Michael A. Weingarten

         

        Dept. of Family Medicine, Rabin Medical Center, Sackler Faculty of Medicine; Tel Aviv University; and General Sick Fund, Central District

         

        Results of laboratory tests ordered during a primary care encounter may reveal findings of abnormal liver function tests, including elevated liver enzymes, hyperbilirubinemia, hypoalbuminemia or abnormal coagulation tests. The object of this study was to describe the spectrum of these liver function test (LFT) abnormalities in primary care.

         

        Results of all laboratory tests ordered during 10 months in an urban primary care clinic were retrospectively reviewed and the medical charts of patients with abnormal LFTs were studied. In 217/1088 (20%) of the tests at least 1 LFT abnormality was found in 156 patients. New diagnoses were made in 104 patients. The main diagnostic groups were: non-alcoholic fatty liver changes, Gilbert's disease, acute infectious hepatitis, alcoholic liver disease and cirrhosis and hepatotoxic drug injury. In 60 patients the physician classified the abnormality as negligible and not associated with significant disease. However, an abnormal test that had been ordered for evaluation of a specific complaint, was indeed likely to represent significant disease (X²=29.5, p<0.001). We conclude that finding abnormalities in liver function tests is common in the primary care clinic but does not often indicate significant liver disease.

        שלמה וינקר, ששון נקר, זהבה אלון, חאמד אבו-עמר, גד סדובסקי ואיתן חי-עם

        Urgent, Unscheduled Self-Referrals by Ambulatory Patients

         

        S. Vinker, S. Nakar, Z. Alon, H. Abu-Amar, G. Sadovsky, E. Hyam

         

        General Sick Fund, Central District and Dept. of Family Medicine, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University

         

        Direct self-referral to a consultant is common in the Israeli health system. Yet patients' reasons for their urgent, unscheduled self-referrals for ambulatory consultations (UUSR) have not been explored. We studied such consultations in an urban multi-disciplinary consultation center serving a population of approximately 100,000. Over a 3-month period such consultations in ophthalmology, ear-nose-and-throat and dermatology clinics were treated by a duty family physician (FP). The FP was instructed to focus on the urgent complaint and either to give definitive treatment and schedule a consultation when needed, or refer the patient for immediate specialist consultation. Patients treated by the FP were asked to fill an anonymous questionnaire, which 347/645 (55.4%) did.

         

        Among the reasons for UUSR were that the patient thought that his/her complaints should be treated by a consultant (29%), the patient was sent by the FP without a consultation note (13.9%), the FP was not available (10.4%), or the patient wished to see the consultant for a second opinion (8.2%). In only 7.8% had the patient noted that his complaint needed urgent consultation. Duration of complaints, but not prior efforts to schedule a consultation, were associated with different reasons for asking for an UUSR. For various reasons patients preferred an UUSR rather than seeing their own FP. Patients' opinions regarding self-referrals are important in planning primary care facilities and FP training.

        ס' זלבסקי, ש' וינקר, ע' פיאדה, ד' ליבון וא' קיטאי

        Background Music in the Family Physician's Surgery: Patient Reactions

         

        S. Zalewsky, S. Vinker, I. Fiada, D. Livon, E. Kitai

         

        Family Medicine Clinics and Dept. of Family Medicine, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University

         

        Music is a universal language, and its effects on pain relief and stress reduction are well known. We evaluated patients' opinions of the effects of background music in their family doctors' surgery. Low volume, background, classical music was played in the doctors' surgery on 5 consecutive clinic days. All patients were asked to fill a short anonymous questionnaire on leaving. Among the 135 consecutive patients offered the questionnaire, there was 87.4% compliance. Among the 118 who completed the questionnaire, 95% said that the background music did not disturb them, 89% thought it made them feel better and 80% thought that it aided the doctor's performance. We conclude that low volume, background music in the doctors's surgery may contribute to better doctor-patient interaction, although larger studies are needed to confirm our findings.

        י' שפירא, ילנה צוקרמן, תאופיק זועבי ועודד זורים

        Pheochromocytoma Multi-Organ Crisis: Nonseptic Hyperthermia and Shock

         

        Michael Y. Shapira, Elena Zuckerman, Taufic Zuebi, Oded Jurim

         

        Divisions of Medicine and Surgery, Hadassah-University Hospital; Geriatrics Dept.; Herzog Hospital, Jerusalem; and Dept. of Medicine, Yoseftal Hospital, Eilat

         

        Pheochromocytoma usually presents with nonspecific symptoms such as headache, palpitation, chest pain and hypertension. We present a 48-year-old woman hospitalized due to a pheochromocytoma multi-organ crisis (PMC). It consists of a tetrad of symptoms: multi-organ failure, hyperthermia, encephalopathy and unstable blood pressure. Distinguishing PMC from septic shock may be difficult, and requires needs a high clinical index of suspicion.

        יולי 1998
        יהודית אסולין-דיין, יאיר לוי ויהודה שינפלד

        Viagra, the First Oral Treatment for Impotence

         

        Y. Assouline-Dayan, Y. Levi, Y. Shoenfeld

         

        Medical Dept B, Chaim Sheba Medical Center and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University

         

        Impotence, a common problem especially among older men, can now be treated with Viagra, This oral pill, unlike previous approved treatments mostly involving local injections, does not directly cause penile erection, but increases response to sexual stimulation. It acts by enhancing the relaxant effects of nitric acid on smooth muscle, and thus increases blood flow to certain areas of the penis, leading to erection. It has been evaluated in many randomized trials and in all was more successful in inducing erection than placebos. The most common side-effects include headache, flushing and indigestion, but there have also been reports of fatalities.

         

        We describe a 75-year-old man who had an acute myocardial infraction in the past and who had maturity-onset diabetes and hypertension. In the week prior to admission he had a cardiac scan following a few weeks of exacerbation of anginal pain for which he had been taking nitrites. He took a Viagra pill without prescription or medical advice and 2 hours later, during intercourse with his wife, developed audible respiratory distress and lost consciousness. His wife started cardiac massage but not mouth-to-mouth breathing. The emergency team found ventricular fibrillation and gave 5 electrical shocks and amines and atropine. He remained unconscious, but his pulse returned and he was hospitalized. He then had several generalized convulsions treated with IV valium. 20 minutes after admission there was asystole and all attempts at resuscitation failed.

        Cardiovascular status must be considered prior to prescribing Viagra, and the associated risk evaluated.

        רינת חכמון, ג'ורי בר-דוד, אשר בשירי ומשה מזור

        Brucellosis in Pregnancy

         

        Rinat Hackmon, Juri Bar-David, Asher Bashiri, Moshe Mazor

         

        Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Soroka Medical Center, Beer Sheba

         

        Brucellosis is rare in pregnancy. Recently, an increase in the incidence of this disease has been observed in our area. We present 7 cases of brucellosis in pregnancy and review the literature on the effects of brucellosis on the outcome of pregnancy. Brucellosis is rare in the Middle East and Africa and the most common source of infection is unpasteurized milk products. Brucella is a coccobacillus, gram-negative bacterium, whose hosts are mostly animals.

         

        There is controversy about the relationship between brucellosis and the outcome of pregnancy. There is some evidence that there is a higher rate of complications such as abortion, premature rupture of membranes and preterm delivery in infected animals. Reasons for this difference in the impact of brucella in animals and man include the absence of the carbohydrate erythritol in the human placenta, which appears to be a preferential medium and growth factor for brucella in the placentas of animals.

         

        There is uncertainty regarding effects of brucella in early pregnancy and no evidence of its transplacental passage in later pregnancy, causing adverse obstetrical outcome, although recently there has been a single report of Brucella abortus (biotype 2). 
        We present 7 cases of brucellosis in pregnant women found between 1977-1988. Its incidence among the women who delivered here is 0.007% (7/92,768 deliveries). Our first case was complicated by preterm premature rupture of membranes and preterm delivery in the 20th week of gestation. In 2 other cases there was preterm delivery with 1 developing clinical chorioamnionitis. The 4 remaining women delivered at term, although 1 had preterm premature rupture of membranes and intra-uterine growth retardation, and 2 had postpartum endometritis.

        מרק וייזר, רעיה לפידוס, יהודה אברמוביץ ומיכאל דוידזון

        The Electroencephalogram in Psychiatric Patients

         

        Mark Weiser, Raya Lapidus, Yehuda Abramowitch, Michael Davidson

         

        Psychiatric Division, Sheba Medical Center and Beer Yaakov Mental Health Center

         

        270 consecutive electroencephalograms (EEGs) performed in a psychiatric hospital were reviewed. 194 (75%) were within normal limits but 66 (25%) showed diffuse generalized slowing. The contribution of the abnormal EEGs to diagnosis and treatment was evaluated by retrospective file review. In none of the cases with abnormal EEGs was there a relationship to diagnosis or treatment.

        יעקב שבירו, אילן קורן ורפאל פיינמסר

        Nerve Preservation during Superficial Parotidectomy

         

        J. Shvero, I. Koren, R. Feinmesser

         

        Depts. of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Rabin Medical Center (Beilinson Campus), Petah Tikva and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University

         

        Sensory loss in the operative area after superficial parotidectomy is one of the complications which disturbs the patient. The greater auricular nerve, which stems from the cervical plexus, supplies sensation to the area. Sacrifice of the nerve during superficial parotidectomy causes sensory loss in the area. We investigated the degree of sensory loss in the operative area after superficial parotidectomy in 10 patients in whom the posterior branch of the greater auricular nerve was preserved and compared the results with those in whom it was not, a year after operation. There was more sensory loss when the greater auricular nerve was sacrificed. We therefore suggest preserving the posterior branch of the greater auricular nerve during superficial parotidectomy if at all possible.

        הלדנברג ור' סבי

        Diskitis in Brucellosis not Responsive to Anti-Brucella Treatment

         

        D. Heldenberg, R. Sevi

         

        Dept. of Pediatrics and Orthopedics A, Hillel Yaffe Medical Center, Hadera

         

        A 14-year-old girl with fever and low back pain was diagnosed as having brucellosis and diskitis. Treatment with doxycycline and gentamicin had no effect nor was there any improvement when the treatment was changed to doxycycline and rifampicin. With cessation of this treatment and administration of cloxacillin fever was reduced and the back pain disappeared. After 12 days of IV cloxacillin, she was released from hospital with instructions to continue cloxacillin orally for another 4 weeks. We conclude that when a patient is suffering from brucellosis and diskitis and does not respond to the usual anti-brucellosis treatment, an anti-staphylococcal preparation should be added.

        יוני 1998
        לודויג קורנל וארתור פראנקן

        Mechanism of Primary Hypertension

         

        Ludwig Kornel,* Arthur V. Prancan

         

        Steroid Research Laboratory, Depts. of Internal Medicine and Biochemistry, and Dept. of Pharmacology, Rush Medical Center, Chicago and *Endocrinology-Diabetes Outpatient Clinic, Kupat Holim Klalit, Jerusalem

         

        We review various theories of the pathogenetic mechanisms of steroid-induced and essential hypertension. We investigated the possibility that a pathogenetic mechanism leading to glucocorticoid (GC)-induced hypertension or to mineralocorticoid (MC)-induced hypertension, or both, may be of critical importance in primary hypertension. We studied plasma levels of corticosterone (BK) and aldosterone (Aldo), and their concentrations in arterial and renal tissues of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), a model of primary hypertension, and in the antecedent strain WKY rats as a normotensive control. Plasma levels of BK and Aldo were found to be normal and identical in SHRs and WKYs. Tissue (intracellular) levels of BK were more than double in SHRs than in WKYs. Subsequently we examined the activity of 11b-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase (11-HSD) in both aortic and renal tissues of SHRs and WKYs. 11-HSD converts BK to the corresponding 11-keto compound, 11-dehydro-corticosterone (cpd.AK), which is inactive, in view of its inability to bind to the MC receptors (and also to the GC receptors). BK, the main glucocorticoid in the rat, as well as cortisol, have high affinity for the MC-receptor (MR). Normally BK or cortisol are present in 10²-10³ times greater concentrations than Aldo in tissues possessing MR. The enzyme 11-HSD deactivates BK (or cortisol), thus protecting MC-receptors in the MC target tissues from being activated by GC. When we examined arterial and renal tissue activities of 11-HSD in SHRs, the activity of 11-HSD was only one-third that found in the WKY rats. This explained higher levels of BK in the tissues of SHR, and suggested that decreased activity of 11-HSD is a pathogenetic factor for hypertension in SHRs.

        Thus, in a model of primary hypertension such as SHR, decreased activity of 11-HSD in the target tissues of MC appears to lead to glucocorticoid-induced mineralocorticoid hypertension.

        רון בן אברהם, ערן סגל, דב פריימרק, אלינור גושן, חנוך הוד, יעקב לביא, צבי זיסקינד ועזריאל פרל

        Massive Pulmonary Embolism

         

        Ron Ben Abraham, Eran Segal, Dov Freimark, Elinor Goshen, Hanoch Hod, Jacob Lavee, Zvi Ziskind, Azriel Perel

         

        Depts. of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Cardiology, Nuclear Medicine and Cardiac Surgery, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University

         

        Pulmonary embolism is a common event in hospitalized patients. In some cases it presents with hemodynamic collapse, indicating massive obliteration of the pulmonary vasculature and has a very grim prognosis; 2/3 of such patients die within 2 hours of onset of symptoms. We describe our experience in 13 patients with massive pulmonary embolism. An aggressive diagnostic and therapeutic approach, utilizing sophisticated imaging techniques, thrombolytic therapy and surgery, led to the survival of 8 of the patients. Our experience supports an aggressive approach in these seriously ill patients.

        ר' אברהמי, מ' חדד, ס' וטמברג, א' שטלמן, א' קורן, ג' דהן וא' זליקובסקי

        Popliteal Vascular Trauma

         

        R. Avrahami, M. Haddad, B. Watemberg, E. Stelman, A. Koren, J. Dahn, A. Zelikovski

         

        Dept. of Vascular Surgery, Rabin Medical Center (Beilinson Campus), Petah Tikva

         

        6 cases of popliteal vascular trauma are presented, 3 due to posterior dislocation of the knee and 3 due to crush injury. The patients were referred from another hospital and some had undergone unnecessary angiography when ischemia was present, leading to delay in surgery. All patients presented with distal ischemia and underwent reconstructive surgery; 2 subsequently underwent below-knee amputation because of irreversible ischemia and sepsis.

         

        Urgent operation for popliteal vascular trauma is necessary whenever there is ischemia and intraoperative angiography may be necessary. There should be reconstruction of the artery and vein when there is concomitant venous damage, and fasciotomy and debridement are important. The harmful potential of occult popliteal vascular injuries and their ostensible mild presentation present a challengfor the emergency room surgeon.

        אייל שיינר, אילנה שוהם-ורדי, משה מזור, רלי הרשקוביץ ומרים

        Parturient Compliance in Intra-Partum Epidural Analgesia

         

        Eyal Sheiner, Ilana Shoham-Vardi, Moshe Mazor, Reli Hershkowitz, Miriam Katz

         

        Obstetrics and Gynecology Depts., and Epidemiology and Health Services Evaluation Dept., Soroka Medical Center, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheba

         

        The relationship between parturients' sociodemographic characteristics and the tendency of the medical staff to offer and of the parturients to accept intrapartum epidural analgesia, was investigated. 97 Jewish parturients were interviewed during January 1996. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the statistical significance of the results. 10 parturients (10.3%) asked for intrapartum epidural analgesia, and while 46 (47.4%) were offered it, only 22 (22.7%) accepted. Epidural analgesia was mostly offered to, and accepted by: low birth-order parturients (1st-3rd delivery), those belonging to the upper middle class, and to parturients with higher compliance with prenatal diagnostic tests. There was no significant association between the tendency of the medical staff to offer epidural analgesia to secular as compared to traditional parturients.

         

        We conclude that the use of intrapartum epidural analgesia is related to various maternal sociodemographic characteristics. If the low compliance with epidural analgesia is related to prejudice and unfounded fears, we recommend that the benefits of this type of analgesia be explained before birth in the antenatal clinics.

        דורון חרמוני, מיכאל קאפמן ואליעזר קיטאי

        Alternative Medicine in a Kibbutz Community

         

        D. Hermoni, M. Kafman, E. Kitai

         

        Dept. of Family Medicine, Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, The Technion, Haifa and Family Medicine Dept., Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University

         

        Interest in, and use of alternative medicine has increased in the past few years in Israel. Still, little is known about the extent to which it is utilized, the more common treatments, patterns of use, and its influence on the conventional primary care system. We surveyed a kibbutz community to determine prevalence and patterns of use of alternative medicine and satisfaction with the outcome. The entire kibbutz population was asked to fill out a questionnaire (parents answered for their children). They were questioned as to their use of alternative medicine in the previous 5 years, types and dates of treatment, duration of treatment, and whether it had helped.


        Of 1044 subjects, 830 responded (79.5%). 16.4% had used alternative medicine at least once in the previous 5 years. Of these, more than a 1/4 were treated by 2 or more types of alternative therapy. About 2/3 of those responding were women. Most had muscle-skeletal (36%), upper respiratory and/or atopic problems (19.3%). The most common treatments were homeopathy (31%) and acupuncture (20%). In approximately 2/3, the treatment was considered helpful, and either solved the problems or gave long-lasting improvement. 70% of those who used alternative medicine were treated within the previous 15 months and about 40% within the previous 3 months. The use of alternative medicine is increasing and it is now includein standard medical services. Most of those who used alternative therapy felt is hadhelped.
         

        מאי 1998
        אפרים זגנרייך, סולומון ישראלוב, יוסף שמואלי, דן סימון, ג'ק בנאל ופנחס לבנה

        Combinations of Vasoactive Agents by Penile Injection for Erectile Dysfunction

         

        E. Segenreich, S. Israilov, J. Shmueli, D. Simon, J. Baniel, P. Livne

         

        Andrology Unit, Institute of Urology, Rabin Medical Center (Beilinson Campus), Petah Tikva and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University

         

        In the past 15 years there has been continuous increase in the use of injections into the corpora cavernosa of different vasoactive drugs for treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED). However, some of these drugs are very expensive, are not available everywhere, and have side effects. We therefore compared the success rate of the most widely used compounds, papaverine and regitine, in 452 patients (age range 26-85) with different types of ED. Each patient received in the clinic injections of papaverine, 6-25 mg, and regitine, 0.05-1.5 mg. When maximal rigidity of the penis (MRP) was >80%, we instructed the patient to self-inject the drug at home, 5-30 minutes before coitus. If after 3 injections MRP was not >80%, prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) in an average dose of 10-25 mcg was added. If there was no response, papaverin+regitine+PGE1 were given in higher dosage, and atropine sulfate, 0.02+0.06 mg, was added if necessary.

        Of 452 patients, 305 (67.4%) had MRP >80% after 3 injections of papaverine plus regitine. The other patients received PGE1 in addition. This was helpful in 61 patients (41.5%), while 55 (63.9%) required papaverine + regitine + prostin in higher doses. Of these, only 31 received papaverine + regitine + PGE1 + atropine sulfate. Of these, 20 (64.5%) reached MRP >80%, and 11 (2.4%) MRP <60. For these 11 patients, we recommended a penile prosthesis. Thus in 67.4% of the 452 patients, papaverine + regitine injections were effective; in 41.5%, PGE1; in 63.9%, papaverine + regitine + prostin + atropine sulfate. Only 11 (2.4%) did not react to intracorporeal injection.

        This progressive method of treatment enabled us to select the optimal dosage and combinations of compounds in 441/452 patients (97.5%) according to the severity of their dysfunction. During follow-up of 6 months, spontaneous erections without injection were achieved in 115 (26.0%).

        הבהרה משפטית: כל נושא המופיע באתר זה נועד להשכלה בלבד ואין לראות בו ייעוץ רפואי או משפטי. אין הר"י אחראית לתוכן המתפרסם באתר זה ולכל נזק שעלול להיגרם. כל הזכויות על המידע באתר שייכות להסתדרות הרפואית בישראל. מדיניות פרטיות
        כתובתנו: ז'בוטינסקי 35 רמת גן, בניין התאומים 2 קומות 10-11, ת.ד. 3566, מיקוד 5213604. טלפון: 03-6100444, פקס: 03-5753303