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עמוד בית Mon, 26.08.19

September 2005


Perspective
G.M. Gurman, B. Levinson, N. Weksler and M Lottan
Original Articles
S. Schwartz, A.I. Eidelman, A. Zeidan, D. Applebaum and D. Raveh
Background: Large family size may be a risk factor for childhood accidents. A possible association with quality of child supervision and rapidity of seeking medical care has not been fully evaluated.

Objectives: To determine whether children with multiple siblings are at increased risk for accidents, to assess whether quality of child supervision varies with family size, and to evaluate the relationship of family size with the rapidity of seeking medical care after an accident.

Methods: We prospectively studied 333 childhood accidents treated at TEREM (emergency care station) or Shaare Zedek Medical Center. Details on family composition and the accident were obtained through parental interview. Family size of the study population was compared with that of the Jerusalem population. Families with one to three children (Group 1) and four or more children (Group 2) were compared with regard to type of supervision and different "Gap times" – the time interval from when the accident occurred until medical assistance was sought ("Gap 1"), the time from that medical contact until arrival at Shaare Zedek ("Gap 2"), and the time from the accident until arrival at Shaare Zedek for those children for whom interim medical assistance either was ("Gap 3A") or was not ("Gap 3B") sought.

Results: Children from families with 1, 2, 3, 4 and ≥5 children comprised 7.2%, 18.3%, 14.4%, 18.6% and 41.4% of our sample compared to 20.4%, 21.8%, 18.4%, 14.7% and 24.7% in the general population respectively. Children from Group 2 were less often attended to by an adult (44.5% vs. 62.0%) and more often were in the presence only of other children at the time of the accident (27.0% vs. 10.5%). Gaps 1, 2 and 3A in Group 2 (6.3 hours, 16.5 hours, 27.8 hours respectively) were longer than for Group 1 (2.7, 10.7, 13.3 hours respectively).

Conclusions: The risk for accidents is increased among children from families with four or more children. The adequacy of child supervision in large families is impaired. There is a relative delay from the time of the accident until these children are brought for treatment. 

D. Kravarusic, E. Dlugy, R. Steinberg, B. Paloi, A. Baazov, E. Feigin and E. Freud
 Background: The minimal access surgery revolution has only just begun to impact on pediatric surgery, thanks mainly to technologic advances and evidence of the benefits of minimally invasive procedures in this population.

Objectives: To review the current status of MAS[1] in a pediatric tertiary care center in Israel, in terms of feasibility, safety, and effect on standard practices.

Methods: We reviewed the files of all children who underwent a MAS procedure in our department during the period April 2002 to July 2004, and compared the findings with those of children treated by standard practices.

Results: A total of 301 procedures were performed in 271 patients: 107 thoracoscopic and 194 laparoscopic. There were no major intraoperative complications. The total conversion rate was 3.65%: 0 for thoracoscopy and 5.6% for laparoscopy (11/194). Twenty-four types of procedures were performed during the study period. The thoracoscopies accounted for 92.24% of all thoracic procedures in the department (107/116), and routine abdominal laparoscopic procedures replaced open surgery in 30–100% of cases (total 44.8%, 194/433).

Conclusions: MAS procedures appear to be safe for a wide range of indications in children. In our center they currently account for a significant percentage of pediatric surgeries. We suggest that the integration of MAS training in the residency programs of pediatric surgeons be made a major long-term goal. The creation of a pediatric MAS study group, which would allow for multi-institutional studies, is especially important in Israel where a relatively large number of pediatric surgery departments handle a small annual number of patients.

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[1] MAS = minimal access surgery

I. Greenberg-Wolff, E. Konen, I. Ben Dov, D. Simansky, M. Perelman and J. Rozenman
Background: Cryptogenic organizing pneumonia is increasingly being recognized as a major cause of diffuse infiltrative lung disease. The differential diagnosis of non-infectious diseases that resemble pneumonia should include this entity. Understanding the radiologic features of this entity will help in defining the correct diagnosis, although lung biopsy is needed to provide histopathologic confirmation. Treatment with steroids achieves an excellent response.

Objectives: To present a variety of radiologic findings on high resolution computerized tomography in eight sequential patients with COP[1], together with clinical and pathologic correlation.

Methods: Sequential HRCT[2] examinations of eight patients (four males) aged 53–80 years (mean 65.5 years) with pathologically proven COP were retrospectively analyzed by a consensus of two experienced chest radiologists for the existence and distribution of airspace consolidation, ground-glass opacities, nodular thickening along bronchovascular bundles, small (<1 cm) and large (>1 cm) nodules. The distribution of radiologic findings was classified as unilateral or bilateral, located in the upper, lower or middle lobe, and central or peripheral. Also recorded was the presence or absence of mediastinal lymphadenopathy and pleural effusion. Correlation with clinical symptoms was analyzed.

Results: All eight patients had bilateral airspace consolidations: in two cases consolidations were limited to central fields, in four they were peripheral, and in the remaining two cases they were both central and peripheral. Small nodules were noted in six cases and large nodules in three. Ground-glass opacities were found in four cases. All patients had enlarged lymph nodes (1–1.5 cm) in the mediastinum. Radiologic abnormalities resolved or improved after steroid treatment in all patients.

Conclusions: HRCT findings of bilateral multiple heterogenic lung infiltrates and nodules associated with mild mediastinal lymphadenopathy in a patient with non-specific clinical symptoms are suggestive of COP; in such cases, lung biopsy is indicated. Radiologic resolution of abnormalities correlates well with clinical improvement under adequate steroid treatment.

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[1] COP = cryptogenic organizing pneumonia

[2] HRCT = high resolution computerized tomography

M. Vaiman, S. Sarfaty, N. Shlamkovich, S. Segal and E. Eviatar
 Objectives: Endonasal operations such as septoplasty, rhinoplasty, nasal septal reconstruction and conchotomy, as well as endoscopic sinus surgery, especially when combined with turbinectomy and/or submucous resection of the septum, may produce bleeding and postoperative hematoma requiring postoperative hemostatic measures. Since nasal packing may cause pain, rhinorrhea and inconvenience, a more effective and less uncomfortable hemostatic technique is needed.

Objectives: To compare the hemostatic efficacy of the second-generation surgical sealant (Quixil™ in Europe and Israel, Crosseal™ in the USA) to that of nasal packing in endonasal surgery.

Methods: We conducted a prospective randomized trial that included 494 patients (selected from 529 using exclusion and inclusion criteria and completed follow-up) undergoing the above-mentioned endonasal procedures. Patients were assigned to one of three surgical groups: septoplasty + conchotomy + nasal packing or fibrin sealant (Group 1); ESS[1] + nasal packing or fibrin sealant (Group 2); and ESS + septoplasty + conchotomy + nasal packing or fibrin sealant (Group 3). The hemostatic effects were evaluated objectively in the clinic by anterior rhinoscopy and endoscopy and assessed subjectively by the patients at follow-up visits.

Results: Postoperative hemorrhage occurred in 22.9–25% of patients with nasal packing vs. 3.12–4.65% in the fibrin sealant groups (late hemorrhage only). Drainage and ventilation of the paranasal sinuses, which are impaired in all cases of packing, remained normal in the fibrin sealant group. There were no allergic reactions to the sealant.

Conclusions: Our results show that fibrin sealant by aerosol spray in endonasal surgery is more effective and convenient than nasal packing. It requires no special treatment, i.e., antibiotics, which are usually used if nasal packing is involved.

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[1] ESS = endoscopic sinus surgery

N. Tweezer-Zaks, I. Marai, A. Livneh, I. Bank and P. Langevitz
 Background: Benign prostatic hypertrophy is the most common benign tumor in males, resulting in prostatectomy in 20–30% of men who live to the age of 80. There are no data on the association of prostatectomy with autoimmune phenomena in the English-language medical literature.

Objectives: To report our experience with three patients who developed autoimmune disease following prostatectomy.

Patients: Three patients presented with autoimmune phenomenon soon after a prostectomy for BPH[1] or prostatic carcinoma: one had clinically diagnosed temporal arteritis, one had leukocytoclastic vasculitis, and the third patient developed sensory Guillian-Barré syndrome following prostatectomy.

Conclusions: In view of the temporal association between the removal of the prostate gland and the autoimmune process, combined with previously known immunohistologic features of BPH, a cause-effect relationship probably exists.

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[1] BPH = benign prostatic hypertrophy

D. Golan, M. Zagetzki and S. Vinker
Background: Acute respiratory viral infections are minor self-limited diseases. Studies have shown that patients with ARVI[1] can be treated as effectively by non-physician practitioners as by physicians.

Objectives: To examine whether a military medic, using a structured questionnaire and an algorithm, can appropriately triage patients to receive over-the-counter medications and refer more complicated cases to a physician.

Methods: The study group comprised 190 consecutive soldiers who presented to a military primary care clinic with symptoms of ARVI. Using a questionnaire, a medic recorded the patient's history and measured oral temperature, pulse rate and blood pressure. All patients were referred to a doctor. Physicians were “blind” to the medic’s anamnesis and to the algorithm diagnosis. We compared the medic’s anamnesis and therapeutic decisions to those of the doctors.

Results: Patients were young (21.1 ± 3.7 years) and generally healthy (93% without background illness). They usually had a minor disease (64% without fever), which was mostly diagnosed as viral ARVI (83% of cases). Ninety-nine percent were also examined by a physician. According to the patients' data, the medics showed high overall agreement with the doctors (83–97.9%). The proposed algorithm could have saved 37% of referrals to physicians, with a sensitivity of 95.2%. Had the medics been allowed to examine the pharynx for an exudate, the sensitivity might have been 97.6%.

Conclusions: Medics, equipped with a questionnaire and algorithm but without special training and without performing a physical examination, can appropriately triage patients and thereby reduce the number of referrals to physicians.

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[1] ARVI = acute respiratory viral infection

Reviews
M. Attia, J. Menhel, D. Alezra, R. Pffefer and R. Spiegelmann
E. Kaluski, N. Uriel, O. Milo and G. Cotter
 Although 40 years have passed since the advent of advanced cardiac life support, out-of-hospital cardiac arrest still carries an ultimate failure rate of 95%. This review reinforces the importance of public education, optimization of the local chain of survival, early bystander access and bystander basic life support, and early defibrillation. It emphasizes the role of simplified basic life support algorithms and demonstrates the low incremental benefit of complex skillful protocols employed in ACLS[1]. The impact of automatic external defibrillators and new medications incorporated into ACLS algorithms is evaluated in the light of contemporary research. The persistent, discouraging, low functional survival rate (less than 5% of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest victims) mandates reassessment of current strategies and guidelines.

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[1] ACLS = advanced cardiac life support

 
Case Communications
G. Twig, E. Zimlichman, M. Szyper-Kravitz and G. Zandman-Goddard
הבהרה משפטית: כל נושא המופיע באתר זה נועד להשכלה בלבד ואין לראות בו ייעוץ רפואי או משפטי. אין הר"י אחראית לתוכן המתפרסם באתר זה ולכל נזק שעלול להיגרם. כל הזכויות על המידע באתר שייכות להסתדרות הרפואית בישראל. מדיניות פרטיות
ז'בוטינסקי 35 רמת גן, בניין התאומים 2 קומות 10-11, ת.ד. 3566, מיקוד 5213604. טלפון: 03-6100444, פקס: 03-5753303