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עמוד בית
Fri, 14.06.24

October 2022


CORONAVIRUS (COVID-19)
Shaden Nashashibi, MD, Ofir Priesler, MD, Uriel Levinger, MD, George Habib, MD MPH

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in more than four million deaths globally. In addition to the lower respiratory system, a wide range of major organ injuries have been reported among patients infected with COVID-19. These injuries include cardiac involvement. The spectrum of cardiac manifestations includes cardiac injury, heart failure, cardiogenic shock, acute coronary syndrome, myocarditis, tachyarrhythmias, and bradyarrhythmia [1]. Different degrees of atrioventricular blocks have been reported [2].

The pathogenesis of these complications is not fully understood. Differentmechanisms are proposed, including direct myocyte injury, interstitial inflammation and fibrosis, cytokine storm, plaque destabilization, and and/or hypoxia [3]. Many countries have worked toward mass vaccination using the Pfizer BioNTech (BNT162b2) COVID-19 vaccine, including Israel. We report a case of high degree atrioventricular block (AVB) following vaccination with the COVID-19 BNT162b2 vaccine.

ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Osnat Zmora MD, Atara Indursky MD, Baruch Klin MD, Sonia Mendlovic MD

Background: Rare incidence cases are part of the routine work of pediatric surgeons. Cecal anomalies in children are an example of such cases.

Objectives: To describe the presentation, workup, management and outcome of rare cecal anomalies in children and to analyze the skills needed for their successful treatment.

Methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted of all cases of cecal anomalies managed by the pediatric surgical service at a tertiary hospital from June 2017 to January 2020. Data regarding demographics, clinical presentation, radiological studies, surgical treatment, pathology, complications, and outcome were collected.

Results: Five cases of cecal anomalies were encountered over a period of 32 months, including a cecal volvulus, cecal duplication, cecal intussusception, and two cecal masses (one ulcerated lipoma and one polyp). All patients, except the patient with cecal duplication, presented acutely and were managed surgically. Long-term follow-up of 17–24 months was unremarkable in all cases.

Conclusions: A wide knowledge base, careful judgment, and creativity enable pediatric surgeons to successfully treat rare conditions such as rare cecal anomalies. These skills should be part of the education of pediatric surgery trainees.

Sari Tal MD

Background: Hospitalization is an inherently serious event in the oldest-old, as the risk of complications associated with it increases exponentially with age and can lead to death. Despite the size of the problem, few studies have been dedicated to determining mortality predictors among hospitalized older patients, particularly among the oldest-old.

Objectives: To examine in-hospital mortality predictors in the oldest-old adults hospitalized in an acute geriatric ward.

Methods: We retrospectively surveyed electronic hospital health records of 977 elderly patients, aged ³ 90 years, admitted between January 2007 and December 2010 from the emergency department to the acute geriatrics department. We compared the characteristics of the patients who survived to those who died during the hospital stay.

Results: The patients mean age was 93.4 years. In-hospital mortality rate was about 11.6%. Mortality predictors were female sex, on-admission pneumonia, co-morbid congestive heart failure and cerebrovascular accident, high troponin I levels, lower levels of albumin, and higher level of urea (P = 0.032, P < 0.0001, P = 0.0015, P = 0.0049, P = 0.0503, P < 0.0001 and P < 0.0001, respectively). Consumption of ³ 5 drugs and the number of hospitalizations in the last year were inversely associated with death (P = 0.0145 and P < 0.0001, respectively).

Conclusions: Careful evaluation of mortality predictors might be useful for therapeutic planning and identification of potential inpatients for specific interventions. Awareness of in-hospital mortality predictors might contribute to reducing in-hospital death.

Ron Skorochod B.MED.SC, David Raveh MD, Yonit Wiener-Well MD, Bashar Fteiha MD, Shimon Shteingart PhD, Yitzhak Skorochod MD

Background: The hepatobiliary system is a sterile micro-environment. Bacterial infection in this system is most commonly associated with anaerobes as well as gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Biliary infections with Staphylococcus aureus are poorly characterized.

Objectives: To depict the clinical characteristics and outcome of patients with S. aureus infection of the hepatobiliary system.

Methods: Medical records of patients with bile cultures positive for S. aureus from January 2006 to November 2020 were extracted from the computerized database of a hospital in Israel.

Results: We analyzed the results of 28 cases that were found in the database. The mean age of study patients was 62.2 ± 19 years. Hypertension, dyslipidemia, chronic kidney disease, diabetes, and benign prostatic hypertrophy were the most common co-morbidities (57.1%, 32.1%, 25%, 25%, and 25%, respectively). Fourteen of the methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) bile cultures (82.3%) were a result of primary S. aureus biliary infections (no other source for S. aureus infection) and the remainder were of a secondary infection. Eight of the MRSA cultures (47.1%) were from hospital acquired infections. Increased hospital mortality in patients with S. aureus hepatobiliary infection was associated with hypertension (P = 0.04), bedridden status (P = 0.01), and nursing home residence (P = 0.003).

Conclusions: Hepatobiliary infection with S. aureus can manifest in a variety of ways. S. aureus should be especially considered in patients who are bedridden, present with hypertension, or live in nursing homes because of their association with in-hospital mortality resulting from this entity.

Adrian Duek MD, Emmanuel Lellouche PhD, Sharon Ben Baruch MD, Reut Mashiach BSc, Yafit Segman MD, Gabriel Bryk PhD, Merav Leiba MD

Background: Multiple myeloma (MM) accounts for approximately 10% of hematological malignancies. The monoclonal immunoglobulin G kappa (IgG-κ) daratumumab can bind to CD38 on MM cells and be detected in serum immunofixation (IF), causing pitfalls in M-protein quantification.

Objectives: To determine the efficacy of mitigating the interference of IgG MM treated with daratumumab.

Methods: Levels of Ig, free light chains (FLC) kappa (κ) and lambda (λ), serum protein electrophoresis (SPE)/IF, and Hydrashift 2/4 assays were assessed following manufacturer's instructions in three patients.

Results: Patient 1 was a 70-year-old male diagnosed with IgG-λ MM. The IF distinguished two monoclonal bands (IgG-κ and IgG-λ). With the Hydrashift assay, the daratumumab–anti-daratumumab immune complex shifted the IgG-κ to the α zone, suggesting that the monoclonal IgG-κ band corresponded to daratumumab. Patient 2 was a 63-year-old male with IgG-κ MM who was receiving daratumumab once every other week. SPE/IF assay revealed a faint monoclonal IgG-κ band in the g zone. A stronger monoclonal band was observed after administration. The IgG-κ band disappeared on the Hydrashift assay, while the daratumumab–anti-daratumumab complex appeared as a broad smear in the α-region. Patient 3, a 63-year-old male diagnosed with IgG-λMM, was receiving daratumumab once every other month. The IF assay showed two distinct bands (IgG-κ and IgG-λ) post-daratumumab administration. The shift to the α zone of the IgG-κ bands on the Hydrashift assay confirmed that the additional band observed post-infusion was due to the daratumumab.

Conclusions: The Hydrashift assay can help distinguish daratumumab from endogenous M-spike.

Dr. Shira Rosenberg-Bezalel, Dr. Daniel Elbirt, Dr Keren Mahlab-Guri

Background: Contact dermatitis is an inflammatory skin disorder characterized by an erythematous pruritic rash. The disorder can be either irritant or allergic. Allergic contact dermatitis is diagnosed by patch testing along with patient history.

Objectives: To review the results of patch tests conducted thought 2 years and to present real-life data characterizing clinical features and comparing prevalent local allergens to the ones common worldwide.

Methods: The retrospective cohort included 517 participants (384 females and 133 males) who underwent patch testing during a 2-year period. For each patient, clinical and demographic data were collected, and statistical analysis was conducted.

Results: We found that 261 patients had a positive test for at least one allergen. More females tested positive than males (52.9% vs. 43.6%). Test indications other than dermatitis were associated with a negative result. Hands, head, and neck were the most prevalent body parts affected. Patients with a background of atopic dermatitis had a higher rate of contact sensitization (69 vs. 43). Patients with a specific suspected offending allergen had significantly higher contact sensitizations. The most common allergen was nickel.

Conclusions: Patch testing should be conducted in patients with relevant dermatological findings accompanied by taking a thorough medical history. Clinicians should be updated on emerging allergens and exposure trends.

Miri Zektser MD, Anat Rabinovich MD, Uri Grinbaum MD, Tzvi Porges MD, Aya Gozlan MD, Anna Gourevitch MD, Kayed Al-Athamen MD, Orit Barrett MD, Ido Peles MD, Tehila Kaisman-Elbaz MD, Etai Levi MD

Background: Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. There are limited data on the management of PCNSL outside of clinical trials.

Objectives: To report experience with three main high-dose methotrexate (HDMTX)-based protocols for PCNSL treatment at one medical center.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of the medical records of patients diagnosed with PCNSL who were treated at Soroka Medical Center between 2007 and 2019.

Results: The study included 36 patients, median age 64.9 years; 33 patients received a HDMTX backbone induction therapy, 21 (58.3%) received consolidation treatment in addition. In the entire cohort, 25 patients (75.7%) achieved complete remission (CR, CRu-unconfirmed), with mean progression-free survival (PFS) 32 ± 6.9 months and median overall survival (OS) 59.6 ± 12.4 months. More aggressive regiment such as combination of rituximab, HDMTX, cytarabine and thiotepa had better responses 5 (100%) CR, but also a higher incidence of side effects such as neutropenic fever 5 (100%). In subgroup analysis by age (younger vs. older than 60 years), the PFS was 24.2 vs. 9.3 months, and OS was 64.1 vs. 19.4 months, respectively.

Conclusions: A difference in CR and PFS favored a more aggressive protocol, but the toxicity of the multiagent combinations was significantly higher. The prognosis in younger was better than in older patients, with higher rates of CR, PFS, and OS, although not statistically significant. Overall treatment outcomes are encouraging; however, there is a real need for an adaptive approach for older patients and balancing among the effectiveness and side effects.

Natav Hendin B.Sc., Raanan Meyer, M.D., Ravit Peretz-Machluf, B.Sc., Ettie Maman, M.D., Micha Baum, M.D.

Background: Gestational hypertensive (GH) disorders remain a major obstetric problem.

Objective: To evaluate the incidence of gestational hypertensive disorders among participants undergoing intrauterine insemination (IUI) after exposure to various levels of sperm from sperm donation (SD).

Methods: A retrospective case-control study was conducted at a single tertiary medical center between 2011 and 2019. Participants conceived via IUI using SD from a single sperm bank and had a successful singleton birth. Group 1 conceived during 1–2 cycles of IUI from the same sperm donor; whereas Group 2 after 3+ cycles.

Results: Overall 171 patients (Group 1 = 81, Group 2 = 90) met inclusion criteria. Participants showed no differences in age, chronic medical conditions, or history of pregnancy complications. The groups differed in gravidity and parity. The factors positively associated with Group 1 included either preeclampsia or GH (11 [13.5%] vs. 1 [1.1%], P = 0.001) and GH alone (8 [9.9%] vs. 1 [1.1%], P = 0.014). Newborns from Group 1 had a statistically significant lower birth weight than those from Group 2 (3003 grams ± 564.21 vs. 3173 grams ± 502.59, P = 0.039). GH was more prevalent in Group 1 (P = 0.008) than a control group of 45,278 participants who conceived spontaneously. No significant differences were observed between Group 2 and the control group.

Conclusions: The incidence of GH and preeclampsia in participants was higher among those exposed to 1–2 cycles than those exposed to 3+ cycles of IUI.

Lee Fuchs MD, Eyal Mercado MD, Paz Kedem MD, Tali Becker MD, Daniel Weigl MD

Background: The growing popularity of trampoline jumping in the past years has led to an increase in trampoline-related injuries. The risk is particularly high in large trampoline parks, which are attended by many individuals of various sizes and ages.

Objective: To describe a tertiary pediatric center experience in Israel.

Methods: The database of a tertiary pediatric medical center was retrospectively reviewed for all trampoline-associated admissions to the emergency department in 2015–2018. Data were collected on patient demographics and injury characteristics with an emphasis on type and venue.

Results: Of the 23,248 admissions for orthopedic trauma during the period, 244 children were admitted for 246 trampoline-related injuries. Injuries involved the lower limb in 130 children (53%), upper limb in 87 (36%), spine in 20 (8%), and other sites in 9 (3%). Almost half of the injuries (113/246, 46%) were fractures, 27% required either closed or open reduction in the operating room. Large trampoline centers were responsible for half of the cases.

Conclusions: Trampoline injuries accounted for 1.05% of all emergency department admissions at a tertiary pediatric hospital in 2015–2018. Nearly half of the trampoline-related injuries were fractures. Large trampoline centers pose a potential risk for more serious injuries. We raise awareness of the risks of trampoline jumping, considering increasing popularity of trampoline parks, and encourage the authorities to implement safety regulations.

Ofira Zloto, M.D., Oded Sagiv, M.D., Ayelet Priel, M.D., Tali Cukierman-Yaffe, M.D., Amir Tirosh, M.D. , Nancy Agmon-Levin, M.D., Shiran Madgar, M.D., Tal Serlin, M.D., Halit Winter, M.D. Ruth Huna-Baron, M.D., Tamara Wygnanski-Jaffe, M.D., Guy Ben Simon, M.D.

Background: Little is known about the success of multidisciplinary thyroid eye disease (TED) clinic.

Objectives: To present the characteristics, treatments, and outcomes of patients treated in a multidisciplinary TED clinic.

Methods: A medical record review of all patients who attended a TED clinic was performed. Data included demographics, medical history, laboratory tests, visual function tests, ocular examinations, clinical activity score (CAS), and assessment of quality-of-life (QOL).

Results: Clinic visits included 132 patients seen during 385 appointments at a TED clinic (mean 12 appointments per patient). Management of TED included medical treatments for 48 patients (36.3%) and surgical treatment for 56 (42.4%). There was a positive significant correlation between the CAS and thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulin (TSI) activity at the first visit and at the last follow-up visit (P < 0.01 and P < 0.02, respectively). However, no correlation was found between the CAS and the thyroid-stimulating hormone levels or between the free triiodothyronine (fT3) and fT4 levels at the first or last visit. There was a significant negative correlation between the CAS and color vision (-0.347, P < 0.01, Pearson correlation) at the first visit, but not between the CAS and visual acuity and visual field at either the first or last visit. Changes in the QOL and the CAS scores were significantly negatively correlated (-0.240, P < 0.01).

Conclusions: Treatment and management decisions for TED should be based on multiple parameters including clinical examinations by ophthalmologists and endocrinologists, laboratory tests, and CAS and QOL scores.

CASE COMMUNICATION
Ahmad Elnassasra, MD; Yehuda Hershkovitz, MD ; Yaniv Zager, MD; Ron Lavy, MD;
Walid Shalata MD, Motaz Abo Abod MD, Sergei Tsaregorodtsev MD, Reem Abu Hamid-Salama MD, Liora Boehm Cohen MD, Michael Kassirer MD, Dana Potashner MD, Yael Raviv MD
Walid Shalata MD, Motaz Abo Abod MD, Liora Boehm Cohen MD, Michael Kassirer MD, Dana Potashner MD, Yael Raviv MD
Amir Shabtay MD, Ziv Rivak MD, Elena Schleffer MD, Leonid Barski MD
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