Richard H.C. Zegers MD PhD
Background: In an effort to alter eye color during World War II, devout Nazi researcher Karin Magnussen had adrenaline eye drops administered to inmates at the concentration camp Auschwitz-Birkenau. A Sinti family, with a high prevalence of heterochromia iridis, was forced to participate in this study. Members of this family, as well as other victims, were later killed and had their eyes enucleated and sent to Magnussen for examination. Magnussen articulated the findings of these events in a manuscript that has never been published. The author is the first ophthalmologist to review this manuscript. The generation who experienced the atrocities of World War II will soon be gone and awareness of what happened during this tragic chapter of world history is fading.
Objectives: To describe these events to raise awareness among future generations.
Methods: A literature review and archival search was conducted.
Results: Magnussen’s research was based on an animal study published in 1937. For Magnussen’s study, adrenaline drops were administered to inmates, including a 12-year-old girl from the Sinti family. As there was a reported case of deaf-mutism within the family, Waardenburg syndrome seems to be the most plausible explanation for this family’s heritable heterochromia.
Conclusions: The effort to change eye color was doomed to fail from the beginning because there was a probable diagnosis of Waardenburg syndrome. Extinction of humans for ophthalmological research is an insane act beyond imagination. For the sake of these victims, and for the generations who still feel their pain, it is imperative to tell their stories.
Osama Tanous MD, Tal Dujovny MD, Gabriel Hertzel MD, Ariel Koren MD and Carina Levin MD PhD
Background: Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an autoimmune disorder of variable origin that results in bleeding and decreased platelet count. Autoimmune abnormalities have been described in patients with malignancies including non-Hodgkin's lymphoma but are rarely described in patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma.
Objectives: To describe an unusual presentation of Hodgkin's lymphoma in an unusual age and alarm pediatricians of the challenging diagnosis.
Methods: We present two cases that highlight an unusual clinical presentation of childhood Hodgkin's lymphoma occurring at an atypical age.
Results: Over a 4-year period, two children aged 5 and 6 years were admitted for suspected ITP, both had cervical lymphadenopathy. Bone marrow examination showed no evidence of tumor or fibrosis. Biopsy of the lymph node was possible only after administration of intravenous immunoglobulins and normalization of the platelet count. Platelet counts increased after initiation of chemotherapy.
Conclusions: The identification of the clinical presentation of ITP as a possible presentation of Hodgkin's lymphoma is important to facilitate timely diagnosis and management.
Shir Azrielant MD, Israel Khanimov MD, Eli Sprecher MD PhD and Eran Ellenbogen MD
Background: Solar urticaria (SU) is a rare and disabling photodermatosis. SU typically manifests as urticarial wheals and erythema appearing shortly after sun exposure. SU is often initially diagnosed clinically with subsequent confirmation through photoprovocation tests. Early diagnosis is important for correct management of patients.
Objective: To present the clinical features of three cases of atypical presentation of SU and to discuss possible underlying mechanisms.
Methods: We report a series of three patients who presented with transient pruritic erythema without wheals after sun exposure. All patients had photoprovocation tests conducted to confirm SU diagnosis and to determine their action spectra. Treatment outcomes were recorded.
Results: All three patients developed classical manifestations of SU during photoprovocation tests within the UVA1 spectrum. Two patients required high-dose irradiation to provoke urticaria.
Conclusions: Erythema without urticaria can be the primary manifestation of SU, especially in countries with sunny climates where natural skin hardening is common. Such cases require a high index of suspicion for SU and highlight the importance of photoprovocation testing to confirm the diagnosis.
Amir Jarjou'i MD and Gabriel Izbicki MD
Background: With the increased use of cannabis in the medicinal and recreational domains, it is becoming more important for physicians to better understand its harmful and beneficial effects. Although medical cannabis comes in several forms, the preferred route of administration is smoking or inhalation. After caring for three asthmatic patients who were treated with medical cannabis and who reported improvement in their symptoms, we decided to review the available data on the effects of medical cannabis on asthmatic patients.
Objectives: To review the known effects of medical cannabis on asthmatic patients.
Methods: A thorough search was conducted of the MEDLINE and PubMed databases as well as the internet for publications about the effects of medical cannabis on asthmatic patients.
Results: Cannabis has a bronchodilator effect on the airways and might have an anti-inflammatory effect on asthmatic patients. However, harmful effects on the lungs are mainly attributed to smoking and include airway irritation and the development of chronic bronchitis symptoms.
Conclusions: Cannabis has some benefit, yet there are many harmful effects on the lungs. Additional research is needed to determine the harmful effects of vaporizers as well as inhalers.
Ron Eremenko BSc, Shira Barmatz MSc, Nadia Lumelsky MD, Raul Colodner PhD, Merav Strauss PhD and Yoav Alkan MD
Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common bacterial infection in children.
Early treatment may prevent renal damage in pyelonephritis. The choice of empiric antibiotic treatment is based on knowledge of the local susceptibility of urinary bacteria to antibiotics. In Israel the recommended empiric oral antibiotic treatment are First or second generation cephalosporin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or amoxicillin-clavulanic acid.
Objectives: To describe resistance rates of urine bacteria isolated from children with UTI in the community settings. Identify risk factors for resistance.
Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study of UTI in children aged 3 months to 18 years diagnosed with UTI and treated as outpatients in a large community clinic between 7/2015 and 7/2017 with a diagnosis of UTI.
Results: A total of 989 urinary samples were isolated, 232 were included in the study. Resistance rates to cephalexin, cefuroxime, ampicillin/clavulanate and Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole were 9.9%, 9.1%, 20.7%, and 16.5%, respectively. Urinary tract abnormalities and recurrent UTI were associated with an increase in antibiotic resistance rates. Other factors such as age, fever, and previous antibiotic treatment were not associated with resistance differences.
Conclusions: Resistance rates to common oral antibiotics were low compared to previous studies performed in Israel in hospital settings. First generation cephalosporins are the preferred empiric antibiotics for febrile UTI for outpatient children. Amoxicillin/clavulanate is not favorable due to resistance of over 20% and the broad spectrum of this antibiotic. Care should be taken in children with renal abnormalities as there is a worrying degree of resistance rates to the oral first line antibiotic therapy.
Wasiem Abu Nasra MD, Muhammad Abu Ahmed MD, Alexander Visoky MD, Michael Huckim MD, Ibrahim Elias MD and Ran Katz MD
Background: Transurethral prostatectomy is the gold standard surgical treatment of bladder outlet obstruction due to benign enlargement of the prostate, with more than 30,000 procedures performed annually in the United States alone. The success rate of this minimally invasive procedure is high and the results are durable. The development of urethral stricture is a long-term complication of the procedure and is noted in about 2% of patients. The stricture narrows the urethral lumen, leading to re-appearance of obstructive urinary symptoms. Traditionally, the evaluation of the stricture was performed by retrograde urethrography. Advancements in the fields of flexible endoscopy allowed rapid inspection of the urethra and immediate dilatation of the stricture in selected cases.
Objectives: To compare the efficacy of urethrography versus cystoscopy in the evaluation of urethral strictures following transurethral prostatectomy.
Methods: A retrospective review was conducted of a series of 32 consecutive patients treated due to post-transurethral resection of prostate (TURP) urethral stricture.
Results: Twenty patients underwent both tests. In 16 there was concordance between the two tests. Four patients had no pathological findings in urethrography but had strictures in cystoscopy. All strictures were short (up to 10 mm) and were easily treated during cystoscopy, with no complaints or re-surgery needed in 24 months follow-up.
Conclusions: Cystoscopy was superior to urethrography in the evaluation of post-TURP strictures. Strictures where often short and treated during the same procedure. We recommend that cystoscopy be the procedure of choice in evaluating obstructive urinary symptoms after TURP, and retrograde urethrography be preserved for selected cases.
Nir Horesh MD, Yasmin Abu-Ghanem MD, Tomer Erlich MD, Danny Rosin MD, Mordechai Gutman MD FACS, Dorit E. Zilberman MD, Jacob Ramon MD and Zohar A. Dotan MD
Background: Pancreatic injuries during nephrectomy are rare, despite the relatively close anatomic relation between the kidneys and the pancreas. The data regarding the incidence and outcome of pancreatic injuries are scarce.
Objectives: To assess the frequency and the clinical significance of pancreatic injuries during nephrectomy.
Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted of all patients who underwent nephrectomy over a period of 30 years (1987–2016) in a large tertiary medical center. Demographic, clinical, and surgical data were collected and analyzed.
Results: A total of 1674 patients underwent nephrectomy during the study period. Of those, 553 (33%) and 294 patients (17.5%) underwent left nephrectomy and radical left nephrectomy, respectively. Among those, four patients (0.2% of the total group, 0.7% of the left nephrectomy group, and 1.36% of the radical left nephrectomy) experienced iatrogenic injuries to the pancreas. None of the injuries were recognized intraoperatively. All patients were treated with drains in an attempt to control the pancreatic leak and one patient required additional surgical interventions. Average length of stay was 65 days (range 15–190 days). Mean follow-up was 23.3 months (range 7.7–115 months).
Conclusions: Pancreatic injuries during nephrectomy are rare and carry a significant risk for postoperative morbidity.