Iris Eshed MD and Merav Lidar MD
Background: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the most sensitive imaging modality for the detection of sacroiliitis. Diagnosing sacroiliitis on MRI is not always straightforward and can be challenging in some cases.
Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence of alternative diagnoses suggested by MRI and characterize the MR appearance of the most common ones.
Methods: Consecutive MRI examinations of the sacroiliac joints (SIJ) performed between 2005 and 2012 were retrospectively evaluated for the presence of structural and active sacroiliitis findings according to the Assessment of SpondyloArthritis International Society guidelines. Alternative diagnoses, including degenerative changes, diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH), Osteitis condensans ilii (OCI), septic sacroiliitis/discitis, stress reaction as well as anatomic variants, were registered
Results: We evaluated 281 MRI examinations, 116 males, 165 females, average age 44 ± 15 years. Sacroiliitis was found in 71 examinations (25%) and alternative diagnoses were suggested in 87 (31%) (OCI 8.9%, anatomic variants 5.3%, septic sacroiliitis 5.3%, degenerative findings 4.3%, diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis [DISH] 1.5%, stress reaction 0.7%, tumor 0.3%). A normal examination was found in the remaining 123 examinations. Patients with alternative diagnoses were older than those with sacroiliitis (62 vs. 47 years of age, respectively, P > 0.05). Alternative pathologies in the SIJ were significantly more common in females (66) than males (21), P < 0.05.
Conclusions: A substantial proportion of patients with suspected sacroiliitis had normal SIJ while the rest were more commonly diagnosed with other pathologies. A referral by an experienced rheumatologist may improve the sensitivity and specificity of this important examination.
Talia Levy, Salim Bader, Kay-Geert Hermann MD, Gal Yaniv MD, Gahl Grinberg MD, Oshry Mozes MD, Merav Lidar MD and Iris Eshed MD
Background: Enthesopathy may lead to calcification of the stylohyoid ligament and can cause elongation of the styloid process (SP).
Objectives: To evaluate whether SP elongation is associated with two common enthesitis-related diseases: ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH).
Methods: Cervical spine computed tomography (CT) examinations of patients with DISH (n=64, Resnick criteria), AS (n=24, New York criteria) and a controls (no radiological signs of DISH or AS, n=54) were retrospectively evaluated. The DISH group was further divided into patients with and without cervical DISH. The length of right and left SP was measured independently by two readers on coronal and sagittal curved reformats. The average right and left styloid length and average length per person were compared among the groups.
Results: Demographic characteristics were similar between the DISH and control groups (average age 68.2 ± 15.7, 69.2 ± 12.7 years, male:female ratio 48:16 and 35:19, respectively, P > 0.05), whereas age was significantly lower (average age: 53 ± 15 years, P < 0.0001) in the AS group, which was also composed mainly of men. The AS and DISH groups had significantly longer SP compared to controls (AS 37.9 ± 9.6 mm, DISH 34.4 ± 9 mm, control 30.3 ± 10.1 mm, P < 0.05). There was no correlation between age and SP length. Inter-reader reliability of SP measurements was excellent in all groups (ICC = 0.998, P < 0.0001).
Conclusions: SP elongation is associated with both AS and DISH substantiating the enthesopathy-related pathophysiology of this finding.
Einat Slonimsky MD, Tammar Kushnir PhD, Assaf Kadar MD, Aharon Menahem MD, Alon Grundshtein MD, Steven Velekes MD, Merav Lidar MD, Shmuel Dekel MD and Iris Eshed MD
Background: Metal-on-metal total hip prostheses (MoM-THR) have been shown to produce hypersensitivity reactions and fluid collection (pseudotumor) by the hip as well as high blood metal ions levels (BMILs).
Objectives: To evaluate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) in selected body tissues around the hip of patients who underwent MoM hip replacement and to correlate to BMILs.
Methods: Sixty-one MRI hip examinations in 54 post-MoM-THR patients (18 males, 36 females, mean age 65 years) were retrospectively evaluated independently by two readers. The mean S/N ratio in a region of interest was calculated for periprosthetic pseudotumor collection (PPC), the bladder, fat, and muscle on axial T1w, FSE-T2w, and short tau inversion recovery (STIR) sequences on the same location. BMILs were retrieved from patient files.
Results: PPC was detected in 32 patients (52%) with an average volume of 82.48 mm3. BMIL did not correlate with the presence of PPCs but positively correlated with the PPC's volume. A trend for positive correlation was found between BMILs and S/N levels of STIR images for muscle and bladder as well as for PPC and cobalt levels. A trend for correlation was also seen between BMIL with PPC's T1 w S/N.
Conclusions: Alteration of MRI S/N for different hip tissues showed a tendency for correlation with BMILs, possibly suggesting that metal deposition occurs in the PPC as well as in the surrounding tissues and bladder.
Tima Davidson MD, Amit Druyan MD, Elinor Goshen MD and Merav Lidar MD
Background: Facial rejuvenation using different dermal and sub-dermal injectable compounds is a popular cosmetic procedure which may pose a diagnostic dilemma to the radiologist.
Objectives: To describe the appearance of cosmetic facial fillers on PET-CT.
Methods: All PET-CT exams performed between January 2015 and May 2017 in which findings suggestive of prior facial filler procedures was evident and where anamnestic confirmation with the patient was possible were reviewed.
Results: We describe five females who had undergone facial filler procedures leading to calcifications around the mouth and nasolabial triangle.
Conclusions: Familiarity with the appearance of such cosmetic procedures on PET-CT is of paramount importance in order to avoid misinterpretation of the findings leading to unnecessary apprehension and work-up.
Cheri Korb MD, Abid Awisat MD, Doron Rimar MD, Itzhak Rosner MD, Arsen Schpigelman MD, Daniela Militianu MD and Gleb Slobodin MD
Background: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which has recently become the leading imaging modality in the study of ankylosing spondylitis (AS), has not been evaluated in the assessment of disease-specific changes at the craniocervical junction (CCJ) in patients with AS.
Objectives: To describe the spectrum of active inflammatory lesions at the CCJ using MRI in a cohort of patients with AS and neck pain.
Methods: The study included 18 patients with AS presenting with neck pain and a control group of 9 fibromyalgia patients matched for age and levels of neck pain. All patients underwent a focused rheumatologic examination, X-ray of the cervical spine, and a 3T MRI study, which included STIR, CUBE T2, FSE and FSE FAT SAT sequences before and after administration of gadolinium.
Results: The median age of AS patients was 43 years with a median disease duration of 7 years. Fifteen of 18 patients were under biologic treatment. Seven of 18 AS patients had evidence of cervical syndesmophytes on X-ray films. Active inflammatory lesions of atlanto-occipital joints and apical and alar ligaments were detected in MRIs in 2 out of the 18 patients with AS and in none of the patients with fibromyalgia. Both AS patients with active inflammation of CCJ detected on MRI received treatment with biological agents prior to and during the study.
Conclusions: Active inflammation of both entheses and joints of the CCJ can be demonstrated by MRI in patients with AS.
Amy L. Shapira MA, Ruth Handzel PhD and Amos D. Korczyn MD
Background: Blogs have become a major venue of information sharing and emotional release for people worldwide. Illness blogs are a specific type of blog in which patients describe their experience with illness and coping with disease. Illness blog research has been conducted on several disorders; however, blogs by Parkinson's disease (PD) patients have been neglected.
Objectives: To categorize the characteristics of PD patients from blogs and explore whether we can learn about the medical issues with which they are most concerned, as conveyed through their blog posts.
Methods: Using located PD patients' blogs, we analyzed the contents of 78 blogs, and employed thematic analysis of eight arbitrarily selected blogs.
Results: The majority of blog authors in our sample (N=78) were from the United States (42%). The number of blogs written by male and female authors was fairly similar: 49% and 44%, respectively, while gender was unknown for 7%. Blogs were written by both early- and late-onset PD patients. The thematic analysis revealed five major themes: diagnosis, symptoms, treatment, coping mechanisms, and information.
Conclusions: Thematic analysis of blogs by PD patients provided considerable information and insight regarding the experience of these patients, which is significant to other patients and their families, as well as to medical professionals. Further qualitative studies of larger blog samples utilizing data mining techniques are needed to further explore the subjective experiences of patients.
Ayelet Ben Barak MD, Hana Golan MD, Dalia Waldman MD and Marc S. Arkovitz MD
Background: Neuroblastoma is the most common non-central nervous system (CNS) solid malignant tumor in children. The surgical treatment of high-risk neuroblastoma presents a challenge, and the benefits of aggressive surgical resection have been called into question.
Objectives: To examine our experience with surgical resection of neuroblastoma.
Methods: We report on a retrospective chart review of our preliminary surgical experience in 25 patients with neuroblastoma who underwent surgery performed by a single surgeon at two institutions over a 3 year period. Demographic data, including stage of tumor and risk stratification, were recorded. Primary outcome was total gross resection. Patients were followed for 3 years after surgery.
Results: We found that 80% of the patients, including those with high-risk neuroblastoma tumors, had total gross resection of their tumor with minimal operative morbidity and no mortality; 88% had greater than 90% resection of their tumor. Overall, 3 year survival was 84% (21/25).
Conclusions: Resection of neuroblastoma, even large, high-risk, bilateral tumors, was possible when performed by surgical teams with considerable experience.
Ron Lavy MD, Yehuda Hershkovitz MD, Ayyad Muhamad MD, Judith Sandbank MD and Ariel Halevy MD
Background: In colon cancer, data regarding proximal and distal metastasis to lymph nodes remains scarce.
Objectives: To evaluate lymph node distribution along the longitudinal axis of the colon as related to a tumor to re-examine the common practice of 5 cm proximal and 2 cm distal resection margins.
Methods: We studied 106 patients (53 males and 53 females, mean age 67.9 ± 10 years) who had undergone left hemicolectomy or sigmoidectomy. Colonic cancer specimens were divided into five zones proximally and distally to the tumor. For each zone, overall lymph node evaluation and ratio was performed.
Results: The mean number of retrieved lymph nodes per patient was 24.3 ± 12, with 54.9% of the nodes concentrated in zone I, 22.1% in zone II, 9.5% in zone III, 10.3% in zone IV, and 3% in zone V. While most positive nodes were found in zone I, significant numbers were also detected in both directions proximally and distally to the tumor.
Conclusions: It seems that longer colonic segments proximally, and especially distally, should be considered for resection to significantly reduce the chances of finding involved lymph node.
Szilvia Szamosi MD, Nóra Bodnár MD, Boglárka Brugós MD, Tibor Hortobágyi MD, Gábor Méhes MD, Zoltán Szabó MD, Edit Végh MD, Ágnes Horváth MD, Zoltán Szekanecz MD, Attila Szűcs MD and Gabriella Szűcs MD