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עמוד בית Thu, 20.06.19

September 2017


Original Articles
Marianna Rachmiel MD, Larisa Naugolni MD, Kineret Mazor-Aronovitch MD, Nira Koren-Morag PhD and Tzvi Bistritzer MD

Background: Bone maturation is currently assessed by subjective and automated radiography. 

Objectives: To evaluate the concordance and reproducibility of a quantitative ultrasound (QUS) based device versus X-ray based methods.

Methods: The study population comprised 150 children, 76 males, 4–17 years of age. X-ray scans were evaluated according to wrist, carpal and phalanx areas for bone age. QUS was performed by the the BAUS™ device (SonicBone, Rishon Lezion, Israel), using speed-of-sound (SOS) and distance attenuation factor (ATN) in similar areas. Data from 100 subjects were used to establish the device conversion equation, and 50 measurements were assigned to assess inter-modality agreement. 

Results: BAUS showed high repeatability performance, 0.73% relative standard deviation for SOS and 3.5% for ATN. R2 for the conversion equation, including gender, SOS, and ATN, was 0.80 for all methods (P < 0.001). There was no significant bias in bone age assessments.

Conclusions: Bone age assessment by SonicBone is comparable to the assessment by X-ray based methods. 

 

Aref Elnasasra MD, Hilmi Alnsasra MD, Rozalia Smolyakov MD, Klaris Riesenberg MD and Lior Nesher MD

Background: Little is known about the incidence of urinary tract infections (UTI) in the dispersed Bedouin population. UTIs are routinely treated empirically according to local resistance patterns, which is important when evaluating the risk factors and antibiotic resistance patterns in the Bedouin population.

Objectives: To analyze risk factors, pathogens, and antibiotic resistance patterns of UTIs in the Bedouin population compared to the general population in southern Israel. To compare data from this study to that from a previous study conducted at our center.

Methods: We prospectively followed all patients hospitalized with community acquired UTIs during a 4 month period at Soroka Medical Center. We also compared results from this study to those from a study conducted in 2000.

Results: The study comprised 223 patients: 44 Bedouin (19.7%), 179 (80.3) non-Bedouin; 158 female (70.9%), 65 male (29.1). The Bedouin were younger (51.7 vs. 71.1 years of age, P < 0.001) and had a lower Charlson Comorbidity Index (2.25 vs. 4.87, P < 0.001). Enterobacteriaceae were the most common pathogens identified, and Escherichia coli (E. coli) was the most common with 156 (70%) strains identified, followed by Klebsiella spp. with 29 (13%), Proteus spp. with 18 (8%), pseudomonas with 9 (4%), and other bacteria including enterococci with 11 (5%). The prevalence of E. coli increased significantly from 56% in 2000 to 70% in this study. We also noted an increase in community acquired extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) pathogens from 4.5% in 2000 to 25.5% in the present study. No statistically significant difference was observed between the Bedouin and general populations in the causal pathogens, resistance to antibiotics, length of therapy, and readmission rate within 60 days. 

Conclusions: The Bedouin population hospitalized for UTIs is younger and presents with fewer co-morbidities. Isolated pathogens were similar to those found in the general population as was the presence of drug resistant infections. Overall, a substantial percentage of pathogens were resistant to standard first-line antibiotics, driving the need to change from empiric therapy to aminoglycoside therapy. 

 

Susana Mustafa-Mikhail MD, Sharon Assaraf MD, Philippe Abecassis MD, Hanin Dabaja MD, Samer Jarrous MA, Salim Hadad PhD, Lior Lowenstein MD MS MHA

Background: Management of postoperative pain has become a growing concern, even for minor gynecological procedures. Proper postoperative pain management has been shown to lead to earlier mobilization, shortened hospital stay, and increased patient satisfaction. The optimal means of reducing the pain of pregnancy termination has not yet been determined.

Objectives: To compare the efficiency in pain management of two drugs, lornoxicam and paracetamol, given intravenously postoperatively to women who underwent abortion with dilation and curettage. 

Methods: The cohort comprised 80 women scheduled for dilation and curettage for pregnancy termination at 6–12 gestational weeks. The anesthesiologist gave 1000 mg paracetamol or 20 mg lornoxicam soon after starting the procedure, according to a randomization table. The medical staff and the patients were blinded to the drug that was administered. Pain levels were evaluated by a 10 cm visual analogue scale (VAS) at 15, 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes following arrival at the postoperative care unit. 

Results: Mean levels of pain decreased from 60 minutes postoperative until the end of recording, reaching minimum levels at 120 minutes: 0.8 ± 0.19 and 1.5 ± 0.28, for lornoxicam and paracetamol, respectively. The differences between the groups were statistically significant (P < 0.05 from 60 minutes after the procedure until the time of discharge. 

Conclusions: Compared to women who received paracetamol, women who received lornoxicam after dilation and curettage for termination of pregnancy reported lower levels of pain, from 30 minutes postoperative until the time of discharge following the procedure. 

Basheer Karkabi MD, Ronen Jaffe MD, David A. Halon MD, Amnon Merdler MD, Nader Khader MD, Ronen Rubinshtein MD, Jacob Goldstein MD, Barak Zafrir MD, Keren Zissman MD, Nissan Ben-Dov MD, Michael Gabrielly MD, Alex Fuks MD, Avinoam Shiran MD, Salim Adawi MD, Yaron Hellman MD, Johny Shahla, Salim Halabi MD, Shai Cohen MD, Irina Bergman MD, Sameer Kassem MD PhD MPH, Chen Shapira MD and Moshe Y. Flugelman MD

Background: Outcomes of patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) are strongly correlated to the time interval from hospital entry to primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI). Current guidelines recommend a door to balloon time of < 90 minutes. 

Objectives: To reduce the time from hospital admission to PPCI and to increase the proportion of patients treated within 90 minutes. 

Methods: In March 2013 the authors launched a seven-component intervention program: 


  1. Direct patient evacuation by out-of-hospital emergency medical services to the coronary intensive care unit or catheterization laboratory

  2. Education program for the emergency department staff

  3. Dissemination of information regarding the urgency of the PPCI decision

  4. Activation of the catheterization team by a single phone call

  5. Reimbursement for transportation costs to on-call staff who use their own cars

  6. Improvement in the quality of medical records

  7. Investigation of failed cases and feedback 



Results: During the 14 months prior to the intervention, initiation of catheterization occurred within 90 minutes of hospital arrival in 88/133 patients(65%); during the 18 months following the start of the intervention, the rate was 181/200 (90%) (P < 0.01). The respective mean/median times to treatment were 126/67 minutes and 52/47 minutes (P < 0.01). Intervention also resulted in shortening of the time interval from hospital entry to PPCI on nights and weekends. 

Conclusions: Following implementation of a comprehensive intervention, the time from hospital admission to PPCI of STEMI patients shortened significantly, as did the proportion of patients treated within 90 minutes of hospital arrival. 

 

Shahar Shelly MD, Nicola Maggio MD PhD, Marina Boxer MD, Ilan Blatt MD, David Tanne MD and David Orion MD

Background: Computed tomography (CT) brain perfusion is a relatively new imaging method that can be used to differentiate patients following epileptic seizures in the setting of acute neurological deficits (e.g., hemiparesis, hemiplegia, hemianopsia, aphasia) who arrive at the emergency room with a suspected stroke.

Objectives: To evaluate brain perfusion changes in patients who had an epileptic seizure.

Methods: We retrospectively identified 721 patients who presented at our stroke center between 2012 and 2015 with a suspected acute stroke and underwent examination thorough a stroke protocol, including cerebral CT perfusion (CTP) and CT angiography (CTA) within 8 hours from the onset of symptoms. 

Results: Out of 721 patients, 25 presented with ictal electroencephalography (EEG) findings within 24–72 hours from symptom onset without evidence of vascular occlusion on CTA. While 15 patients had to be excluded from the study due to concomitant brain pathology, we found a specific reduction in cerebral blood volume and cerebral blood flow occurring at the ictal zone, which was identified by a post hoc EEG investigation. 

Conclusions: Our study shows that CTP is an easily accessible tool in emergency department setting for the detection of changes in blood flow dynamics among postictal patients. Thus, we propose the use of CTP in emergency settings to discriminate between postictal changes and acute vascular events. 

 

Yifat Nir-David MD, Gur Mainzer MD, Roie Tal MD and Avraham Lorber

Background: The closure of an atrial septal defect is procedure that is frequently performed in both adults and children. Currently, the most commonly used devices are the Amplatzer® and Occlutech® Figulla® atrial septal occluders. Studies conducted in adults have shown that these devices all have similar performance efficiency for the closure of secundum atrial septal defects. No study to date has examined their performance in the pediatric population.

Objectives: To evaluate and compare the performance of Amplatzer® and Occlutech® Figulla® atrial septal occluders in the pediatric population.

Methods: A consecutive retrospective study of exclusively pediatric patients who underwent percutaneous closure of atrial septal defect with these devices was conducted at our institute. 

Results: The study comprised 110 children, 50 in the Amplatzer® device group and 60 in the Occlutech® Figulla® device group. The groups had similar demographic and defect characteristics, except for defect size per transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), which was 2.1 mm larger in the Amplatzer® device group (P = 0.02). No adverse events were recorded in either of the study groups. Complete defect closure at 12 months follow-up (procedural success) was achieved in all but one of the patients in the Amplatzer® group and all but two in the Figulla® group (P = 1). The residual shunt rates of fenestrated defects were similar in the two groups. 

Conclusions: For children with an isolated secundum atrial septal defect, percutaneous closure is equally safe and effective with either Amplatzer® or Occlutech® Figulla® devices.

Ido-David Dechtman MD, Chagai Grossman MD, Yael Shinar MD, Rinat Cohen MD, Eyal Nachum MD, Ehud Raanani MD, Avi Livneh MD and Ilan Ben-Zvi MD

Background: Postpericardiotomy syndrome (PPS) is characterized by pleuro-pericardial inflammation, which occurs in patients undergoing surgical procedures involving the pleura, pericardium, or both. The syndrome is considered to be immune mediated. However, its pathogenesis is not fully understood. It has previously been demonstrated that the Mediterranean Fever (MEFV) gene, which is associated with familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), has a role in the activation and expression of several inflammatory diseases.

Objectives: To investigate whether carriage of the MEFV mutation may precipitate PPS or affect its phenotype.

Methods: The study population included 45 patients who underwent cardiac surgery and developed PPS. The control group was comprised of 41 patients who did not develop PPS. Clinical and demographic data was collected. The severity of PPS was evaluated. Genetic analysis to determine the carriage of one the three most common MEFV gene mutations (M694V, V726A, E148Q) was performed. The carriage rate of MEFV mutations in patients with and without PPS was compared. Association between MEFV mutation carriage and severity of PPS was evaluated. 

Results: The rate of mutation carriage in the MEFV gene was similar in patients with and without PPS (15.6% in the study groups vs. 29.3% in the control group, P = 0.1937). The rate of mutation carriage in the MEFV gene was significantly lower among patients with severe PPS as compared to patients with mild-moderate PPS (4.8% vs. 25%, P < 0.05).

Conclusions: Carriage of mutations in the MEFV gene is not associated with development of PPS; however, it may affect PPS severity.

 

Jonathan Cohen MD, Ruth Rahamimov MD, Aaron Hoffman MD, Eyal Katvan PhD, Kyril Grozovski RN and Tamar Ashkenazi PhD

Background: Strategies aimed at expanding the organ donor pool have been sought, which has resulted in renewed interest in donation after cardio-circulatory death (DCCD), also known as non-heart beating donors (NHBDs).

Objectives: To describe the derivation and implementation of a protocol for DCCD in Israel and report on the results with the first six cases. 

Methods: After receiving approval from an extraordinary ethics committee, Ministry of Health, the steering committee of the National Transplant Center defined and reached consensus on the unique challenges presented by a DCCD program. These protocol included medical aspects (construction of a clinical pathway), social and ethical aspects (presentation of the protocol at a public gathering(, legal/ethical aspects (consent for organ preservation procedures being either implied if the donor had signed an organ donor card or received directly from a surrogate decision maker), and logistical aspects (pilot study confined to kidney retrieval and to four medical centers). Data regarding organ donors and recipients were recorded.

Results: The protocol was implemented at four medical centers. Consent for organ donation was received from four of the six potential donors meeting criteria for inclusion, in all cases, from a surrogate decision maker. Of the eight kidneys retrieved, only four were suitable for transplantation, which was carried out successfully for four recipients. Graft function remained normal in all cases in 6–12 months follow-up. 

Conclusions: The DCCD program was successfully implemented and initial results are encouraging, suggesting that expansion of the program might further aid in decreasing the gap between needs and availability of organs.

 

Jeremy Ben-Shoshan MD PhD, Ayman Jubran MD, Ran Levy PhD, Gad Keren MD and Michal Entin-Meer PhD

Background: Systemic CD11b+ cells have been associated with several cardiac diseases, such as chronic heart failure.

Objectives: To assess the levels of circulating CD11b+ cells and pro-inflammatory cytokines in cardiomyopathy induced by chronic adrenergic stimulation.

Methods: Male Lewis rats were injected with low doses of isoproterenol (isoprel) for 3 months. Cardiac parameters were tested by echocardiography. The percentage of CD11b+ cells was tested by flow cytometry. The levels of inflammatory cytokines in the sera were determined by an inflammation array, and the expression levels of cardiac interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptors were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reactions. Cardiac fibrosis and inflammation were determined by histological analysis.

Results: Chronic isoprel administration resulted in increased heart rate, cardiac hypertrophy, elevated cardiac peri-vascular fibrosis, reduced fractional shortening, and increased heart weight per body weight ratio compared to control animals. This clinical presentation was associated with accumulation of CD11b+ cells in the spleen with no concomitant cardiac inflammation. Cardiac dysfunction was also associated with elevated sera levels of IL-1 alpha and over expression of cardiac IL-1 receptor type 2.

Conclusions: CD11b+ systemic levels and IL-1 signaling are associated with cardiomyopathy induced by chronic adrenergic stimulation. Further studies are needed to define the role of systemic immunomodulation in this cardiomyopathy.

 

Reviews
Alessia Alunno MD PhD, Francesco Carubbi MD PhD, Onelia Bistoni BSc, Elena Bartoloni MD, Valentina Valentini MD and Roberto Gerli MD

Primary Sjögren’s syndrome (pSS) is a chronic autoimmune disease mainly affecting exocrine glands. However, a subgroup of patients experiences extraglandular manifestations which worsens disease prognosis. To date evidence based guidelines for the management of pSS are lacking, hence the therapeutic approach is mainly based on expert opinion and data from other connective tissue diseases. In recent years, several studies have explored the efficacy and safety of biologic agents in pSS and after the failure of tumor necrosis factor inhibitors, the attention has been focused on compounds directly targeting B or T lymphocytes. The aim of this review article is to provide an overview of available data about B and T cell targeting in pSS and of future directions based on ongoing trials. 

Case Communications
Orel Govrin-Yehudain MD, Nicole Francis MUDr and Eran Bar-Meir MD
Imaging
Joana Filipa Oliveira Baptista MD and Paulo Morais MD
Letters from Kazakhstan
Ardak Suleimenova MD, Ruslan Utebaliyev MD, Damir Jenalayev MD, Ruslan Bilal MD PhD, Altynay Isabekova MD and Sandro Vento MD
Jewish Ethics
Sody A Naimer MD and Edward Fram MA MPhil PhD

Background: Maternal cardiac arrest during gestation constitutes a devastating event. Training and anticipant preparedness for prompt action in such cases may save the lives of both the woman and her fetus. 

Objectives: To address a previous Jewish guideline that a woman in advanced pregnancy should not undergo any medical procedure to save the fetus until her condition is stabilized. 

Methods: Current evidence on perimortal cesarean section shows that immediate section during resuscitation provides restoration of the integrity of the mother’s vascular compartment and increases her probability of survival. We analyzed Jewish scriptures from the Talmud and verdicts of the oral law and revealed that the Jewish ethical approach toward late gestational resuscitation was discouraged since it may jeopardize the mother. 

Results: We discuss the pertinent Jewish principles and their application in light of emerging scientific literature on this topic. An example case that led to an early perimortem cesarean delivery and brought about a gratifying, albeit only partially satisfying outcome, is presented, albeit with only a partially satisfying outcome. The arguments that were raised are relevant to such cases and suggest that previous judgments should be reconsidered.  

Conclusions: The Jewish perspective can guide medical personnel to modify and adapt the concrete rules to diverse clinical scenarios in light of current medical knowledge. With scientific data showing that both mother and fetus can prosper from immediate surgical extrication of the baby during resuscitation of the advanced pregnant woman, these morals should dictate training and practice in urgent perimortal cesarean sections whenever feasible. 

 

Clinical Case Education
Efrat Orenbuch-Harroch MD, Eli Ben-Chetrit MD, Natalia Simanovsky MD, David Katz MD and Eldad Ben-Chetrit MD
הבהרה משפטית: כל נושא המופיע באתר זה נועד להשכלה בלבד ואין לראות בו ייעוץ רפואי או משפטי. אין הר"י אחראית לתוכן המתפרסם באתר זה ולכל נזק שעלול להיגרם. כל הזכויות על המידע באתר שייכות להסתדרות הרפואית בישראל. מדיניות פרטיות
ז'בוטינסקי 35 רמת גן, בניין התאומים 2 קומות 10-11, ת.ד. 3566, מיקוד 5213604. טלפון: 03-6100444, פקס: 03-5753303