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עמוד בית Wed, 26.06.19

September 2016


Israel-Greece Meeting
Lazaros I. Sakkas MD DM PhD (London) FRCP (London) and Dimitrios P Bogdanos MD PhD (London)

Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is characterized by extensive collagen deposition, microvasculopathy and autoantibodies. All three features can be promoted by activation of T cells and B cells. T cells are of Th2 type producing profibrotic cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 and inducing dendritic cell maturation that promotes Th2 response. B cells are overactivated and promote fibrosis by autoantibodies that activate fibroblasts or inhibit the degradation of extracellular matrix. They also promote fibrosis by cell-cell contact with fibroblasts or dendritic cells. B cells, through autoantibodies, may promote vasoconstriction and obliterative vasculopathy. They may also sustain activation of T cells by functioning as antigen-presenting cells. An immunoregulatory subset of B cells, namely IL-10-producing Bregs, is decreased in SSc. Finally, B cells have a critical role in animal models of SSc. All this evidence suggests an important role for B cells in the pathogenesis of SSc and makes B cells a potential target for therapeutic intervention in this disease. 

 

Efstathia K. Kapsogeorgou PhD and Athanasios G. Tzioufas MD

Autoimmune diseases constitute a diverse group of disorders characterized by cellular and humoral responses against self. The humoral autoimmune responses are directed against various cellular and extracellular components. These responses are highly specific for each autoimmune disease and result in the production of autoantibodies that characterize certain disease entities, representing a valuable tool for the diagnosis of autoimmune diseases. Furthermore, certain autoantibodies are helpful in the prognosis of disease development, progression and severity, as well as in the classification of patients with distinct disease subtypes. Today, the value of autoantibodies in the follow-up of patients is limited, but preliminary data suggest that they may be useful in predicting response to treatment. 

Emmanouil Papadakis, Anastasia Banti and Anna Kioumi

Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune systemic disease characterized by vascular thrombosis (arterial or venous) and/or pregnancy complications associated with the occurrence of autoantibodies, specifically lupus anticoagulant, anticardiolipin antibodies, and/or anti-β2 glycoprotein-I antibodies confirmed at least twice over a 12 week period according to the 2006 Sydney criteria. Antiphospholipid antibodies are encountered  in the general population with a reported prevalence of 1% to 5%  However, APS is far more infrequent with a prevalence of 40–50/100,000 persons and an incidence of about 5 new patients/100,000 persons. APS can be diagnosed in patients with no apparent clinical or laboratory pathology (primary APS) or it may be related to numerous other conditions, autoimmune diseases (usually systemic lupus erythematosus), malignancies, infections and drugs (secondary APS). Women are at risk for APS since the disease is encountered in both the primary and the secondary state in females more often than in men. In addition, women in their reproductive years can develop APS (either classical or obstetric), and special attention is warranted in pregnant women with a diagnosis of APS. The benefits of hormonal therapy in the form of contraception or hormone replacement treatment should be carefully weighed against the increased risk for vascular complications in women with APS.

Doron Rimar MD, Itzhak Rosner MD, Gleb Slobodin MD, Michael Rozenbaum MD, Lisa Kaly MD, Nina Boulman MD and Zahava Vadasz MD
Carolina Aulestia MD, Alberto De Zubiría MD, Carlos Granados MD, Johanna Suárez MD and Ricard Cervera MD

Background: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease with multiorgan involvement and wide variability in presentation and course. Although it can appear at any age, women of childbearing age are primarily affected. This has led to the proposal of a hormonal role in the development of SLE. Among the main hormones shown to have immunomodulatory effects are estradiol, progesterone and prolactin.

Objectives: To report the levels of estradiol and prolactin in SLE patients and establish the relationship between these levels and disease activity, and to determine whether the phases of the menstrual cycle influence the activity of SLE and its relationship to hormone levels.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we examined 60 women with SLE. We measured disease activity using SLEDAI and BILAG. We obtained peripheral blood samples to determine the levels of estradiol, progesterone, and prolactin. 

Results: Patients’ age ranged between 16 and 65 years and the mean disease duration was 5.5 years (0–20). SLE was active (SLEDAI > 6) in 13 patients and inactive in 47. Thirty patients were in a pre-ovulatory menstrual cycle phase, 13 in a post-ovulatory cycle, and 17 were menopausal. We found a significant association between C4 levels and disease activity (P = 0.01) and between estradiol levels and disease activity in the kidney (P = 0.04). We did not find hyperprolactinemia in any patient. 

Conclusions: In this population, we found an association between estradiol levels and organ-specific activity in the kidney. One may speculate as to whether our population might benefit from the implementation of anti-estrogen therapy for control of disease activity, particularly in the kidney.

 

Abdulla Watad MD, Howard Amital MD MHA, Gali Aljadeff BA, Gisele Zandman-Goddard MD, Hedi Orbach MD and Yehuda Shoenfeld MD FRCP MaCR
Dimosthenis Chochlakis MD, Elpis Mantadakis MD, Stavros Thomaidis MD, Yannis Tselenti MD, Athanassios Chatzimichael MD and Anna Psaroulaki MD
Hussein Mahagna MD, Shana G. Neumann MD, Ginette Schiby MD, Victor Belsky MD and Howard Amital MD MHA
Focus
Rinat Yerushalmi MD, Shulamith Rizel MD, Dalia Zoref MD, Eran Sharon MD, Ram Eitan MD, Gad Sabah MD, Ahuva Grubstein MD, Yael Rafson MD, Maya Cohen MD, Ada Magen MD, Iehudit Birenboim MD, David Margel MD, Rachel Ozlavo BSc MBA, Aaron Sulkes MD, Baruch Brenner MD and Shlomit Perry PhD

Women who carry the BRCA gene mutation have an up to 80% chance of developing cancer, primarily of breast and ovarian origin. Confirmation of carrier status is described by many women as an overwhelming, life-changing event. Healthy individuals harboring a BRCA mutation constitute a high risk population with unique needs, often overlooked by health authorities. As such, we felt the need to create a specialized service dedicated specifically to this high risk population. The clinic staff comprises an experienced multidisciplinary team of health professionals who can support the medical and emotional needs of this population. Since its inception in 2001 the clinic has served 318 women. The mean age of patients is 46 years. With a median follow-up of 46 months, 21 women have developed malignancies, including 17 breast cancers, 1 ovarian cancer and 3 additional cancers. All but one of the patients above the age of 40 underwent bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO). The median and mean ages at BSO were 46.5 and 48 years, respectively (range 33–68). However, only 28.3% underwent bilateral preventive mastectomy. A multidisciplinary clinic for BRCA mutation carriers provides a “home” for this unique population with unmet needs. The high rate of BSO in women before natural menopause indicates that both the medical community and this population are aware of international guidelines supporting this procedure. We believe that a dedicated clinic, with a multidisciplinary team, is likely to contribute to the health, quality of life and survival of BRCA carriers.

Original Articles
Yoav Hammer MD, Eytan Cohen MD, Amos Levi MD and Ilan Krause MD

Background: Both cigarette smoking and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are linked to cardiovascular morbidity and development of atherosclerosis. However, the relationship between cigarette smoking and renal function is not clearly understood. 

Objectives: To investigate the relationship between cigarette smoking and renal function, and determine whether the intensity of cigarette smoking influences renal function.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of subjects attending the screening center at the Rabin Medical Center. Subjects were classified as smokers, non-smokers and past smokers. Renal function was evaluated by means of the CKD-EPI equation for estimating glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Multivariate and gender-based analyses were performed.

Results: The study population comprised 24,081 participants, of whom 3958 (17%) were classified current smokers, and 20,123 non-smokers of whom 4523 were classified as past smokers. Current smokers presented a higher eGFR compared to the non-smoking group (100.8 vs. 98.7, P < 0.001) as well as higher rates of proteinuria (15.3% vs. 9.3%, P < 0.001). The difference in eGFR between smokers and non-smokers was more significant in males than in females. Past smokers had the lowest eGFR of all groups, this difference remained significant after age adjustments (P = 0.005). 

Conclusions: Cigarette smoking is associated with higher eGFR compared to non-smoking. This difference was more pronounced in males than females, implying a gender-based difference. The higher prevalence of proteinuria in smokers suggests a mechanism of hyperfiltration, which might result in future progressive renal damage.

 

Keren Cohen-Hagai MD, Ilan Rozenberg MD, Ze'ev Korzets MBBS, Tali Zitman-Gal PhD, Yael Einbinder MD and Sydney Benchetrit MD

Background: Upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) occurs frequently in the general population and is considered a benign self-limited disease. Dialysis patients constitute a high risk population whose morbidity and mortality rate as a result of URTI is unknown. 

Objectives: To assess the local incidence, morbidity and mortality of URTI in dialysis patients compared to the general population. 

Methods: In this retrospective cohort study we reviewed the charts of all chronic dialysis patients diagnosed with URTI at Meir Medical Center, Kfar Saba, Israel during the 2014–2015 winter season. 

Results: Among 185 dialysis patients, 40 were found to be eligible for the study. The average age was 66.1 ± 15.7 years, and the co-morbidity index was high. Influenza A was the most common pathogen found, followed by rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus and para-influenza. Of the 40 patients 21 (52.5%) developed complications: pneumonia in 20%, hospitalization in 47.5%, and respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation in 12.5%. Overall mortality was 10%. General population data during the same seasonal period showed a peak pneumonia incidence of 4.4% compared to 20% in the study population (P < 0.0001). 

Conclusions: The study findings show that compared to the general population, URTI in dialysis patients is a much more severe disease and has a higher complication rate. Influenza A, the most common pathogen, is associated with a worse prognosis. 

 

Reviews
Rotem Sivan-Hoffmann MD, Benjamin Gory MD MSc, Muriel Rabilloud MD PhD, Dorin N. Gherasim MD, Xavier Armoiry PharmD PhD, Roberto Riva MD, Paul-Emile Labeyrie MD MSc, Udi Gonike-Sadeh MD, Islam Eldesouky MD and Francis Turjman MD PhD

Mechanical thrombectomy with stent retrievers is now the reference therapy for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) in the anterior circulation in association with thrombolysis. We conducted an extensive systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the clinical and angiographic outcomes of stent-retriever thrombectomy in patients with acute anterior circulation stroke. Available literature published to date on observational studies and three randomized trials (MR CLEAN, ESCAPE, and EXTEND-IA) involving the stent-retriever device were reviewed. Successful recanalization and favorable clinical outcome were defined by a TICI ≥ 2b and modified Rankin Scale score of ≤ 2 at 90 days following AIS, respectively. A total of 2067 patients harboring an anterior circulation stroke were treated with a stent retriever: 433 patients from 3 randomized trials involving the device and 1634 patients from observational studies. Mean NIH Stroke Scale score on admission was 16.6, and mean time from onset to recanalization was 300 minutes. Successful recanalization was achieved in 82% (95%CI 77–86, 31 studies). The 90 day favorable outcome was achieved in 47% (95%CI 42–5.2, 34 studies) with an overall mortality rate of 17% (95%CI 13–20, 31 studies). Symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage was identified in 6% (95%CI 4–8, 32 studies). In patients with AIS caused by a proximal intracranial occlusion of the anterior circulation, stent-retriever thrombectomy is safe and restores brain reperfusion in four of five treated patients, allowing favorable clinical outcome in one of two AIS patients with large vessel occlusion. 

הבהרה משפטית: כל נושא המופיע באתר זה נועד להשכלה בלבד ואין לראות בו ייעוץ רפואי או משפטי. אין הר"י אחראית לתוכן המתפרסם באתר זה ולכל נזק שעלול להיגרם. כל הזכויות על המידע באתר שייכות להסתדרות הרפואית בישראל. מדיניות פרטיות
ז'בוטינסקי 35 רמת גן, בניין התאומים 2 קומות 10-11, ת.ד. 3566, מיקוד 5213604. טלפון: 03-6100444, פקס: 03-5753303