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עמוד בית Mon, 26.08.19

January 2016


Focus
Zaher Atamna MD, Bibiana Chazan MD, Orna Nitzan MD, Raul Colodner PhD, Hila Kfir MD, Merav Strauss PhD, Naama Schwartz PhD and Arie Markel MD

Background: Recent studies show that vaccination of health care workers (HCW) might reduce influenza transmission and mortality among hospitalized patients. No studies have compared the incidence of laboratory-proven influenza in vaccinated versus unvaccinated hospital HCW. 

Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of influenza vaccination among hospital HCW and to examine the attitudes of this population towards influenza vaccination.

Methods: We performed a prospective cohort study between 1 January and 30 April 2014 of 1641 HCW at our medical center; 733 were vaccinated and 908 not vaccinated. A random sample of 199 subjects was obtained: 97 vaccinated and 102 non-vaccinated. Participating individuals were contacted on a weekly basis during the flu season and were asked to report any respiratory or flu symptoms and, if positive, to undergo a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test for influenza. 

Results: In the general HCW population, vaccination was more frequent among physicians 298/498 (58%) than among nurses (324/862 (38%) and among males than females. Flu symptoms were reported by 20 of 199 participants, 13 in the non-vaccinated group (12.7%) and 7 in the vaccinated group (7.2%). A positive PCR test for influenza A virus was present in 4 of 20 people tested (20%). All positive cases were from the non-vaccinated group (P = 0.0953). 

Conclusions: Non-vaccinated HCW showed a higher, although not statistically significant, tendency for contracting laboratory-proven influenza than the vaccinated population. The main reasons for vaccination and non-vaccination were personal beliefs and habits. Education efforts are needed to improve compliance. Larger studies could further clarify this issue.

 

Original Articles
Yehuda Hershkovitz MD, Hasan Kais MD, Ariel Halevy MD and Ron Lavy MD

Background: The timing of interval laparoscopic cholecystectomy continues to be a matter of debate. 

Objectives: To evaluate the best timing for performing this procedure after an episode of acute cholecystitis. 

Methods: In this retrospective analysis, we divided 213 patients into three groups based on the time that elapsed since an episode of acute cholecystitis to surgery: Group I: 1–6 weeks, Group II: 6–12 weeks, Group III: > 12 weeks. 

Results: The mean operative time ranged from 50 to 62 minutes, complication rate from 2.6% to 5.9%, conversion rate from 2.6% to 10.8%, length of hospitalization from 1.55 to 2.2 days, and the 30 day readmission rate from 2.7% to 7.9%. There were no statistically significant differences between the study groups in the primary outcome parameters.

Conclusions: Due to the lack of statistically significant differences between the groups, interval laparoscopic cholecystectomy can be performed safely and without increasing the complication rate within 6 weeks following the acute episode as well as 12 weeks after. However, a trend towards higher conversion and complication rates was observed in Group II (6–12 weeks).

 

Eyal R. Nachum MD, Ehud Raanani MD, Amit Segev MD, Victor Guetta MD, Ilan Hai MD, Amihai Shinfeld MD, Paul Fefer MD, Hamdan Ashraf MD, Israel Barabash MD, Amjad Shalabi MD and Dan Spiegelstein MD

Background: The rate of mitral bioprosthesis implantation in clinical practice is increasing. Transcatheter valve-in-valve implantation has been described for high risk patients requiring redo valve surgery. 

Objectives: To report our experience with transapical valve-in-valve implantation for failed mitral bioprosthesis.

Methods: Since 2010, 10 patients have undergone transapical valve-in-valve implantation for failed bioprosthesis in our center. Aortic valve-in-valve implantation was performed in one of them and mitral valve-in-valve implantation in nine. Mean age was 82 ± 4 years and 6 were female (67%). Mean time from original mitral valve (MV) replacement to valve-in-valve procedure was 10.5 ± 3.7 years. Follow-up was completed by all patients with a mean duration of 13 ± 12 months. 

Results: Preoperatively, all patients presented with significant mitral regurgitation; two with mitral stenosis due to structural valve failure. All nine patients underwent successful transapical valve-in-valve implantation with an Edwards Sapien™ balloon expandable valve. There was no in-hospital mortality. Mean and median hospital duration was 15 ± 18 and 7 days respectively. Valve implantation was successful in all patients and there were no major complications, except for major femoral access bleeding in one patient. At last follow-up, all patients were alive and in NYHA functional class I or II. Echocardiography follow-up demonstrated that mitral regurgitation was absent or trivial in seven patients and mild in two. At follow-up, peak and mean gradients changed from 26 ± 4 and 8 ± 2 at baseline to 16.7 ± 3 and 7.3 ± 1.5, respectively.

Conclusions: Transcatheter transapical mitral valve-in-valve implantation for failed bioprosthesis is feasible in selected high risk patients. Our early experience with this strategy is encouraging. Larger randomized trials with long-term clinical and echocardiographic follow-up are recommended.

 

Amir Givon MD, Natalia Vedernikova MD, David Luria MD, Ori Vatury MD, Rafael Kuperstein MD, Micha S. Feinberg MD, Michael Eldar MD, Michael Glikson MD and Eyal Nof MD

Background: Transvenous lead extraction can lead to tricuspid valve damage. 

Objectives: To assess the incidence, risk factors and clinical outcome of tricuspid regurgitation (TR) following lead extraction.

Methods: We prospectively collected data on patients who underwent lead extraction at the Sheba Medical Center prior to laser use (i.e., before 2012). Echocardiography results before and following the procedure were used to confirm TR worsening, defined as an echocardiographic increase of at least one TR grade. Various clinical and echocardiographic parameters were analyzed as risk factors for TR. Clinical and echocardiographic follow-up was conducted to assess the clinical significance outcome of extraction-induced TR.

Results: Of 152 patients who underwent lead extraction without laser before 2012, 86 (56%) (192 electrodes) had echocardiography results before and within one week following the procedure. New or worsening TR was discovered in 13 patients (15%). Use of mechanical tools and younger age at extraction were found on multivariate analysis to be factors for TR development (P = 0.04 and P = 0.03 respectively). Average follow-up was 22.25 ± 21.34 months (range 8–93). There were no significant differences in the incidence of right-sided heart failure (50% vs. 23%, P = 0.192) or hospitalizations due to heart failure exacerbations (37.5% vs. 11%, P = 0.110). No patient required tricuspid valve repair or replacement. Death rates were similar in the TR and non-TR groups (20% vs. 33%).

Conclusions: TR following lead extraction is not uncommon but does not seem to affect survival or outcomes such as need for valve surgery. Its long-term effects remain to be determined. 

 

Yariv Goldstein MD, Oleg Dolkart PhD, Ehud Kaufman MD, Eyal Amar MD, Zachary T. Sharfman MSc, Ehud Rath MD, Gavriel Mozes MD and Eran Maman MD

Background: The popularity of bicycle riding for recreation, exercise and transportation has grown enormously in recent years, which has led to an increased incidence of bicycle-related injuries. While these injuries involve mainly the musculoskeletal system, data on shoulder-specific injuries incurred while bike riding are lacking. Classifying these shoulder injuries may provide insight and assistance in the creation and implementation of effective protective gear and measures. 

Objectives: To investigate the types and mechanisms of shoulder injuries among cyclists.

Methods: This study retrospectively examined all cyclists who incurred shoulder injuries while riding and were admitted to the emergency department and shoulder clinic between January 2008 and November 2013. The study included 157 subjects with various bicycle-related shoulder injuries treated with either conservative or surgical measures. 

Results: Eighty-four percent of injuries were caused by a direct blow to the shoulder, 7% by falling on an outstretched hand, 6% were traction injuries, and 3% were due to hyper-abduction. Nine different clinical types of injury were observed; the most common injuries were clavicle fractures (32%), followed by acromioclavicular joint dislocations (22%), rotator cuff tears (22%), and humeral fractures (8%). Fifty-one percent of subjects were managed with conservative care and the remaining patients required surgical interventions. 

Conclusions: The shoulder injuries incurred while riding a bicycle span the entire spectrum of shoulder injuries and often result in debilitating conditions. Although the use of helmets is increasing, there is currently no effective protective gear or measures to prevent riders from suffering shoulder injuries. 

 

Arie Y. Nemet MD, Leena Asalee MD, Yaron Lang MD, Daniel Briscoe MD and Ehud I. Assia MD

Background: One of the most alarming ocular injury trends in recent years has been the proliferation of paintball guns and the proportional increase in the number of ocular eye injuries caused by paintballs.

Objectives: To describe five cases of paintball eye injuries that resulted in loss of functional vision in four of them.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective interventional case series of the clinical course of five patients with paintball eye injuries treated in the ophthalmology departments of two medical centers. 

Results: Five young males were evaluated for paintball injuries caused by blunt trauma. There was one case of full-thickness laceration (globe rupture). Four patients required one to five surgical interventions: three of these involved the removal of traumatic cataract including two eyes with significant zonular dehiscence treated by lens capsule conservation using anchoring devices, one retinal surgery and two glaucoma filtration surgeries. However, final visual outcome was not favorable due to irreversible retinal damage.

Conclusions: Paintball trauma often results in significant ocular injury and loss of functional vision despite successful surgical interventions. Most injuries are easily preventable and occur in under-supervised settings. Improved safety measures, strict regulation enforcement and appropriate public education could prevent such serious damage.

 

Avinoam Nevler MD, Esther Shabtai MD, Danny Rosin MD, Aviad Hoffman MD, Mordechai Gutman MD and Moshe Shabtai MD

Background: High density breast mammography has been associated with a greater risk for breast cancer and an increased likelihood of false negative results. 

Objectives: To assess whether the degree of mammographic breast density correlates with an increased risk for the presence of radiographic findings requiring further histological investigation. 

Methods: Included in the study were 2760 consecutive screening mammograms performed in a large volume, early detection mammography unit. All mammograms were complemented by high resolution ultrasound and interpreted by a single expert radiologist. Breast density (BD) was evaluated using a semi-quantitative 5 grade scale and grouped into low breast density (LBD) and high breast density (HBD) mammograms. Demographic and all relevant obstetric, personal and family history of breast cancer data were recorded. 

Results: Of the 2760 mammograms 2096 (76%) were LBD and 664 (24%) were HBD. Mean age of the LBD and HBD groups was 59 ± 10.5 and 50.9 ± 9.3 years respectively (P = 0.001). Breast density significantly correlated with presence of mammographic findings requiring further histological assessment (8.7% and 12.3% for LBD and HBD respectively, P < 0.01). In women younger than 60 years in whom histological assessment was required due to these findings, malignant pathology was significantly more prevalent in the HBD group (2.3% and 4.1% respectively, P = 0.03). Age, parity, patient history and HBD were identified as independent risk factors for any pathological mammographic finding. 

Conclusions: Highly dense mammography, aside from being an indicator of higher risk for breast cancer, appears to be associated with a significantly higher incidence of findings that will prompt further investigation to achieve a definite diagnosis. 

 

Ruth Shaylor BMBS BMedSci, Fayez Saifi MD, Elyad Davidson MD and Carolyn F. Weiniger MB ChB

Background: Successful neuraxial block performance relies on assessment and palpation of surface landmarks, potentially challenging in patients with high body mass index (BMI). 

Objectives: To evaluate the use of ultrasound-assisted neuraxial bock in a non-obstetric population with BMI above versus below 30 kg/m2.

Methods: Healthy adult patients undergoing extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) under neuraxial block were observed in this quality assurance study. Prior to the neuraxial block, an ultrasound examination was performed to identify the puncture site. Neuraxial anesthesia block was performed under aseptic surgical conditions with the patient in the sitting position. Following block placement, external landmarks were palpated. Our primary study outcome was the number of attempts (skin insertions with the needle) after pre-puncture ultrasound identification of the insertion point, comparing patients with BMI above versus below 30 kg/m2. Our secondary outcome was assessment by palpation of external anatomical landmarks.

Results: Our study group included 63 consecutive patients undergoing neuraxial block for ESWL. Data were assessed according to BMI (above versus below 30 kg/m2). An overall success rate at the first attempt of 90.5% (CI 0.8–0.95) was achieved using ultrasound-guided neuraxial block. This block placement success rate was similar for all patients, regardless of BMI above versus below 30 kg/m2. In contrast, the ease of palpation of anatomic landmarks, P = 0.001, and the ease of palpation of iliac crest, P < 0.001, differed significantly between the patients above versus below 30 kg/m2. The reported verbal pain scores (VPS) due to block insertion was similar among all patients regardless of BMI category (above versus below 30 kg/m2).

Conclusions: We observed high success rates when ultrasound-assisted neuraxial block is performed, regardless of BMI above versus below 30 kg/m2, despite expected differences in surface landmark palpation. 

 

Etty Daniel-Spiegel MD, Micha Mandel PhD, Daniel Nevo MA, Avraham Ben-Chetrit MD, Ori Shen MD, Eliezer Shalev MD and Simcha Yagel MD

Background: Selection of appropriate reference charts for fetal biometry is mandatory to ensure an accurate diagnosis. Most hospitals and clinics in Israel use growth curves from the United States. Charts developed in different populations do not perform well in the Israeli population.

Objectives: To construct new reference charts for fetal biparietal diameter (BPD), head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC) and femur length (FL), using a large sample of fetuses examined at 14–42 weeks gestational age in a medical center and a community ultrasound unit located in two different regions of Israel. 

Methods: Data from the medical center and the community clinic were pooled. The mean and standard error of each measure for each week was calculated. Based on these, reference charts were calculated using quantiles of the normal distribution. The performance of the reference charts was assessed by comparing the new values to empirical quantiles.

Results: Biometric measurements were obtained for 79,328 fetuses. Growth charts were established based on these measurements. The overall performance of the curves was very good, with only a few exceptions among the higher quantiles in the third trimester in the medical center subsample.

Conclusions: We present new local reference charts for fetal biometry, derived from a large and minimally selected Israeli population. We suggest using these new charts in routine daily obstetric practice.

 

Haim Bassan MD, Shimrit Uliel-Sibony MD, Shlomit Katsav BSc, Mira Farber BSc and Riva Tauman MD

Background: It has been suggested that sleep disordered breathing (SDB) during pregnancy may adversely influence maternal as well as fetal well being.

Objectives: To examine the effect of maternal SDB on neonatal neurological examination and perinatal complications.

Methods: Pregnant women of singleton uncomplicated pregnancies were prospectively recruited from a community and hospital low risk obstetric surveillance. All participants completed a sleep questionnaire in the second trimester and underwent ambulatory sleep evaluation (WatchPAT, Itamar Medical, Caesarea, Israel). They were categorized as SDB (apnea hypopnea index > 5) and non-SDB. Maternal and newborn records were reviewed and a neonatal neurologic examination was conducted during the first 48 hours. 

Results: The study group included 44 women and full-term infants; 11 of the women (25%) had SDB. Mean maternal age of the SDB and non-SDB groups was 32.3 ± 2.8 and 32.5 ± 4.7 years, respectively (P = 0.86). Mean body mass index before the pregnancy in the SDB and non-SDB groups was 25.8 ± 4.7 and 22.0 ± 2.5 kg/m2, respectively (P = 0.028). No differences were found between infants born to mothers with SDB and non-SDB in birth weight (3353.8 ± 284.8 vs. 3379.1 ± 492.4 g), gestational age (39.5 ± 0.9 vs. 39.2 ± 1.5 weeks), 5 minute Apgar scores (9.8 ± 0.6 vs. 9.9 ± 0.3), and neurologic examination scores (95.2 ± 3.9 vs. 94.6 ± 4.1). P value for all was not significant. 

Conclusions: Our preliminary results suggest that maternal mild SDB during pregnancy has no adverse effect on neonatal neurologic examination or on perinatal complications. 

 

Tamara Kushnir MA, Ofer N. Gofrit MD, Ruth Elkayam MA, Shani Shimon-Paluch MD, Yaacov R. Lawrence MBBS MRCP, Ilana Weiss MA and Zvi Symon MD

Background: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) added to radiation therapy (RT) in intermediate to high risk prostate cancer negatively impacts quality of life. 

Objectives: To compare health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) in patients receiving combined RT with and without ADT 

Methods: The study population comprised patients treated with definitive RT for prostate cancer who completed the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite-26 form between 3 and 24 months after completing RT. Covariance and a stepwise backward logistic regression model was used. 

Results: Data were available for 143 patients who received RT+ADT and 70 who received RT alone. The sexual function and hormonal vitality scores of patients receiving RT+ADT were significantly lower than those receiving RT alone (P < 0.0001). Patients with only compulsory school education had significantly lower sexual function scores than patients with university level education (P ≤ 0.005). Patients with depression had significantly lower hormonal vitality scores than those without depression (P ≤ 0.0001). 

Conclusions: The addition of ADT to RT is responsible for decrements in quality of life in the sexual and hormonal vitality domains, which is further compounded by lack of education and depression. This underlines the need to improve education, identify and treat depression, and develop strategies to improve the quality of life of patients receiving combination therapy. 

 

Case Communications
Josef Haik MD MPH, Stav Brown, Alon Liran MD, Oren Weissman MD, Batia Yaffe MD, Avraham Rivkind MD, Shai Efrati MD, Eyal Winkler MD and Yoram Epstein PhD
Baruch Yerushalmi MD, Raffi Lev-Tzion MD and Neta Loewenthal MD
Philippe Biderman MD, Ilya Kagan MD, Zaza Jakobishvili MD, Michael Fainblut MD, Ynon Lishetzinsky MD and Jonathan Cohen MD
Imaging
Abdulla Watad MD, Meytal Ben-Yosef , Victor Belsky MD and Howard Amital MD MHA
Yan Press MD and Roni Peleg MD
הבהרה משפטית: כל נושא המופיע באתר זה נועד להשכלה בלבד ואין לראות בו ייעוץ רפואי או משפטי. אין הר"י אחראית לתוכן המתפרסם באתר זה ולכל נזק שעלול להיגרם. כל הזכויות על המידע באתר שייכות להסתדרות הרפואית בישראל. מדיניות פרטיות
ז'בוטינסקי 35 רמת גן, בניין התאומים 2 קומות 10-11, ת.ד. 3566, מיקוד 5213604. טלפון: 03-6100444, פקס: 03-5753303