I. Berger and G. Goldzweig
Background: Most aspects of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnosis rely on subjective judgment. Computerized continuous performance tests are designed to improve the validity of the process but are controversial due to low odds ratios. There is a need to find more definitive measures of assessment.
Objectives: To test the validity and reliability of a new tool, a computerized continuous performance functions test, which includes a multi-task approach designed to achieve a higher odds ratio of assessment.
Methods: We applied this test to 58 children aged 6–12 years: 45 were diagnosed as ADHD and 13 non-ADHD children served as a control group.
Results: The CPF test was able to differentiate between non-ADHD and ADHD children. CPF test results were more accurate than other continuous performance tests. The results were statistically significant in all test parameters, confirming the test's validity and reliability.
Conclusions: The CPF test includes a combination of tasks based on an algorithm designed to test several domains of attention. In this pilot study the CPF test was found to be a valid and reliable tool for the diagnosis of ADHD in children. This test might increase the diagnostic utility of computerized tests. The research points to the need for developing a more definitive process for ADHD diagnosis.
B. Finkel, C. Goodman, Y. Melamed, R. Kurs and A. Bleich
Background: In compliance with public health measures initiated by the Israel Ministry of Health following an outbreak of influenza, amantadine was administered to all patients in the psychogeriatric department of Lev Hasharon Mental Health Center to reduce transmission and illness severity in this susceptible population.
Objectives: To evaluate the potential beneficial effects of amantadine on elderly hospitalized patients with persistent schizophrenia.
Methods: We conducted a retrospective case review of the treatment effects of amantadine on the mental, cognitive and clinical states of elderly chronic schizophrenic patients who received concomitant amantadine treatment and were routinely evaluated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, the Mini Mental State Examination, and Sandoz Clinical Assessment Geriatric Scale.
Results: No significant differences before and after amantadine treatment were noted. Conclusion: Amantadine did not influence the mental, cognitive and clinical states of elderly schizophrenia patients and thus can be considered as an anti-influenza preventive measure for this population, when indicated.
survey. A tailor-made CME program may have contributed to the improvement in skills and quality of care.
J. Zlotogora, Z. Haklai, N. Rotem, M. Georgi and L. Rubin
Background: Ultrasound examination of the fetus enables diagnosis of many major malformations during pregnancy, providing the possibility to consider interruption of the pregnancy. As a result, in many cases the incidence of malformations at birth does not represent their true incidence.
Objectives: To determine the impact of prenatal diagnosis and termination of pregnancy on the relative incidence of malformations at birth among Jews and Muslim Arabs in Israel.
Methods: Data on selected major malformations in 2000–2003 were collected from the two large central databases of the Ministry of Health and the Central Bureau of Statistics which contain information regarding births, stillbirths and terminations of pregnancies.
Results: For many malformations the total incidence was much higher than the incidence at birth. For almost all of the malformations studied, the total incidence was higher in Muslims than in Jews and the differences were further accentuated among the liveborn because of the differences in the rate of pregnancy terminations.
Conclusions: In order to detect possible influences of environmental or genetic factors on major malformations in Israel, it is critical to look at data including pregnancy terminations, stillbirths and live births.
A. Soroksky, J. Lorber, E. Klinowski, E. Ilgayev, A. Mizrachi, A. Miller, T.M. Ben Yehuda and Y. Leonov
Background: Enteral nutrition in the critically ill patient is often complicated by gastrointestinal intolerance, manifested by a large gastric residual volume. The frequency of GRV assessment and the intolerant level above which feeding is stopped is controversial.
Objectives: To evaluate a novel approach to EN by allowing high GRV and once-daily assessment that was correlated with the paracetamol absorption test.
Methods: We conducted a pilot prospective study in an 18 bed general intensive care unit. The study group comprised 52 consecutive critically ill mechanically ventilated patients. Enteral nutrition was started at full delivery rate. Once-daily assessment of GRV with three consecutively repeated threshold volumes of 500 ml was performed before stopping EN. The paracetamol absorption test was performed and correlated to GRV. Patients were divided into two groups: low GRV (< 500 ml), and high GRV (at least one measurement of GRV > 500 ml). Clinical outcome included maximal calories delivered, incidence of pneumonia, ICU length of stay, and ICU and hospital mortality.
Results: There were 4 patients (9.5%) with ventilator-associated pneumonia in the low GRV group and 3 (30%) in the high GRV group (P = 0.12). GRV was inversely correlated to paracetamol absorption; however, neither GRV nor paracetamol absorption was associated with the development of pneumonia. Both groups had similar ICU length of stay (11.0 ± 8.2 vs. 13.8 ± 14.4 days, P = 0.41), and similar ICU (21% vs. 40%, P = 0.24) and hospital mortality (35% vs. 40%, P = 1.0).
Conclusions: In critically ill mechanically ventilated patients, allowing larger gastric residual volumes, measured once daily, enables enteral feeding with fewer interruptions which results in high calorie intake without significant complications or side effects.
G. Rosner, P. Rozen, D. Bercovich, C. Shochat, I. Solar, H. Strul, R. Kariv and Z. Halpern
Background: Patients with multiple (< 100) colorectal adenomatous polyps are at increased risk for colorectal cancer. Genetic evaluation of those patients who test negative for APC gene mutation is both a clinical and economic burden but is critical for counseling and surveillance. In Israel, this is confounded by the fact that national health insurance does not fully cover genetic evaluation of APC gene exon 16.
Objectives: To perform a comprehensive genetic evaluation of APC gene mutation-negative polyposis patients with the aim of developing a future evaluation protocol.
Methods: Genetic analyses were performed in 29 APC gene mutation-negative Jewish individuals with 5 to ≥ 40 colonic adenomas who did not fulfill Amsterdam (clinical) criteria for Lynch syndrome. Analyses included completion of APC gene exon 16 sequencing, analysis for APC gene copy number variations (deletions or duplications), MUTYH gene sequencing, and microsatellite instability in CRC patients fulfilling “Bethesda” (laboratory investigation) criteria for Lynch syndrome.
Results: Completion of APC gene exon 16 sequencing revealed one patient with the E1317Q polymorphism. All were normal by APC multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis. Pathogenic MUTYH mutations were found in three patients, all of North African origin; two additional patients had variants of unknown significance. One of six patients with Bethesda-positive criteria was MSI2-High with immunohistology consistent with MLH1 mutation.
Conclusions: Based on this small but well-characterized cohort with multiple colorectal adenomas, Lynch syndrome needs to be excluded if there are compatible criteria; otherwise MUTYH sequencing is probably the first step in evaluating APC-negative patients, especially for Jews of North African descent. Completing APC exon 16 sequencing and copy number variations analysis should probably be the last evaluations.
Y. Bentur, N. Desiatnic Obchinikov, A. Cahana, N. Kovler, A. Bloom-Krasik, O. Lavon, B. Gurevych and Y. Lurie
Background: Poisonings are a significant cause of pediatric morbidity and mortality. The Israel Poison Information Center provides clinical consultations on poisonings and drug information 24 hours a day.
Objective: To evaluate epidemiologic characteristics of pediatric poison exposures in Israel.
Methods: We reviewed computerized queries and performed a descriptive analysis of the Poison Center database pertaining to patients less than 18 years old during 2007.
Results: A total of 15,005 pediatric poison exposures were recorded, 80.3% of them occurring in children under 6 years old. Of the calls to the Poison Center, 78.6% were made by the public, 20.7% by physicians, and in 74.4% the call was within 2 hours of exposure. Most exposures occurred at home (89.3%) and were unintentional (89.5%). Among adolescents, most exposures were intentional (49.3%, 38.2% suicides), the time lapse until consultation was longer (37% > 2 hours), and more physicians (54.8%) consulted the Poison Center. Most cases were asymptomatic or mildly affected (92.3%), 54.4% in adolescents. The commonest substances involved in single poison exposure were detergents, antimicrobials, topical preparations, acetaminophen and scale removers; in adolescents the most common substances were acetaminophen, methylphenidate, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, atropine and ethanol. Moderate to severe toxicity was commonly associated with organophosphates, alkali, ethanol, Vipera palaestinae and neuroleptics. Most patients could be observed at home (66.6%), while more adolescents were referred to emergency departments (42.2% vs. 9.9%) or hospitalized (14.5% vs. 1.9%).
Conclusions: Pediatric poisonings are a significant health problem. The magnitude of the problem is greater in the young age group but more severe in adolescence, probably due to deliberate self-poisoning. Greater national efforts should be directed towards improved poison prevention, rational management of pediatric poisoning, and creating a national poisoning registry.
I. Jeroukhimov, N. Poluksht, N. Siegelmann-Danieli, R. Lavy, I. Wassermann, Z. Halpern, R. Gold-Deutch and A. Halevy
Background: One of the ominous complications following proximal gastrectomy or total gastrectomy is a leak from the esophagogastric or esophagojejunal anastomosis. An upper gastrointestinal swallow study is traditionally performed to confirm the anastomotic patency and lack of any leak before oral feeding can be initiated.
Objectives: To challenge the routine use of UGISs following proximal or total gastrectomy in order to check the integrity of the gastroesophageal or jejunoesophageal anastomosis.
Methods: The charts of 99 patients who underwent PG or TG for malignant pathology were retrospectively reviewed. UGISs were performed on day 6 following surgery using a water-soluble material.
Results: The UGISs were normal in 95 patients, with none displaying any complication related to the gastroesophageal or jejunoesophageal anastomosis. All four patients who experienced a leak from the anastomosis had an early stormy postoperative course.
Conclusions: Routine use of an UGIS to detect a leak following PG or TG is not justified. UGIS should be performed whenever signs of abdominal sepsis develop following this type or surgery.
D. Mutlak, D. Aronson, J. Lessick, S.A. Reisner, S. Dabbah and Y. Agmon
Background: Trans-aortic pressure gradient in patients with aortic stenosis and left ventricular systolic dysfunction is typically low but occasionally high.
Objectives: To examine the distribution of trans-aortic PG in patients with severe AS and severe LV dysfunction and compare the clinical and echocardiographic characteristics and outcome of patients with high versus low PG.
Methods: Using the echocardiographic laboratory database at our institution, 72 patients with severe AS (aortic valve area ≤ 1.0 cm2) and severe LV dysfunction (LV ejection fraction ≤ 30%) were identified. The characteristics and outcome of these patients were compared.
Results: PG was high (mean PG ≥ 35 mmHg) in 32 patients (44.4%) and low (< 35 mmHg) in 40 (55.6%). Aortic valve area was slightly smaller in patients with high PG (0.63 ± 0.15 vs. 0.75 ± 0.16 cm2 in patients with low PG, P = 0.003), and LV ejection fraction was slightly higher in patients with high PG (26 ± 5 vs. 22 ± 5% in patients with low PG, P = 0.005). During a median follow-up period of 9 months 14 patients (19%) underwent aortic valve replacement and 46 patients (64%) died. Aortic valve replacement was associated with lower mortality (age and gender-adjusted hazard ratio 0.19, 95% confidence interval 0.05–0.82), whereas trans-aortic PG was not (P = 0.41).
Conclusions: A large proportion of patients with severe AS have relatively high trans-aortic PG despite severe LV dysfunction, a finding partially related to more severe AS and better LV function. Trans-aortic PG is not related to outcome in these patients.
H. Newman, S. Kurtz and R. David
Background: The existence of "ophthalmoltonic consensual reaction," a contralateral change in intraocular pressure in the fellow eye induced by treatment of the first eye only, was suggested in 1924. Since then, the validity of this mechanism has been controversial.
Objectives: To assess intraocular pressure changes in the contralateral fellow eyes of patients treated with IOP-lowering medication in one eye, and investigate the existence of an ophthalmotonic consensual reaction.
Methods: The study population included 38 patients with newly diagnosed bilateral ocular hypertension or early open angle glaucoma. One eye of each patient was randomly treated with one of five compounds: prostaglandin analogues, beta-blockers, alpha-2 agonists, carbonic anhidrase inhibitors and a combination therapy: dorzolamide hydrochloride–timolol maleate (Cosopt®, Sharpe & Dohme). The eye with the higher baseline IOP was selected to be the treated eye. After 3 weeks a masked examiner measured the IOP in both the treated and untreated eye.
Results: Mean IOP of the treated eyes at baseline was 26.1 ± 4.2 mmHg and at follow-up 20.2 ±2.9 mmHg, a reduction of IOP from baseline of -6 ± 3.8 mmHg, a mean percent reduction of -22 ± 10.1%. In the contralateral eyes, the mean IOP at baseline was 24.2 ± 3 mmHg and 23.1 ± 3.1 mmHg at follow-up; IOP reduction from baseline was -1.2 ± 1.8 mmHg, or mean percent reduction -4.7 ± 7.1%. A major contralateral IOP decrease was seen only in the beta-blockers and the combination (Cosopt®) treatment groups (-6.1 ± 8.3% and -12.3 ± 8.3% mean percent reduction, respectively, P < 0.05). The contralateral eyes in the prostaglandin analogues, CAI or α2-agonist groups showed only a small change in IOP (-2.6 ± 4.6%, -3.2 ± 2.6%, +0.7 ± 3.3%, mean percent reduction, respectively, P < 0.05).
Conclusions: The existence of an ophthalmoltonic consensual reaction was not supported.