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November 2022
Lior Fisher MD, Howard Amital MD MHA, Orly Goitein MD

Mesenteric venous thrombosis (MVT) refers to acute, subacute, or chronic thrombosis and occlusion of the mesenteric veins. MVT is an uncommon disorder, with an estimated incidence of is 2.7 per 100,000 patient-years. It accounts for 1 in 5000 to 15,000 inpatient admissions [1,2].

February 2016
Yigal Helviz MD, Ilia Dzigivker MD, David Raveh-Brawer MD, Moshe Hersch MD, Shoshana Zevin MD and Sharon Einav MD

Background: Enoxaparin is frequently used as prophylaxis for deep venous thrombosis in critically ill patients. 

Objectives: To evaluate three enoxaparin prophylactic regimens in critical care patients with and without administration of a vasopressor.

Methods: Patients admitted to intensive care units (general and post-cardiothoracic surgery) without renal failure received, once daily, a subcutaneous fixed dose of 40 mg enoxaparin, a subcutaneous dose of 0.5 mg/kg enoxaparin, or an intravenous dose of 0.5 mg/kg enoxaparin. Over 5 days anti-activated factor X levels were collected before the daily administration and 4 hours after the injection.

Results: Overall, 16 patients received the subcutaneous fixed dose, 15 received the subcutaneous weight-based dosage, and 8 received the dose intravenously. Around two-fifths (38%) of the patients received vasopressors. There was no difference between anti-activated factor X levels regarding vasopressor administration. However, in all three groups the levels were outside the recommended range of 0.1 IU/ml and 0.3 IU/ml.

Conclusions: Although not influenced by vasopressor administration, the enoxaparin regimens resulted in blood activity levels outside the recommended range.

 

September 2013
S. Shiber and Y. Molad
 Background: Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune disease with clinical manifestations of arterial and venous thrombosis, obstetric manifestations, and the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies or lupus anticoagulant. Catastrophic APS is a rare variant of APS defined as acute failure of at least three tissues, organs or systems caused predominantly by small vessel thrombosis confirmed by histopathologic evidence. Catastrophic APS develops rapidly and leads to death in 30% of cases.

Methods: We evaluated 11 patients with catastrophic APS – 8 of them with a probable diagnosis of catastrophic APS and 3 with a definite diagnosis – admitted to Beilinson hospital during the period 2003–2011.

Results: Overall venous events numbered 18 and overall arterial events 10. The event duration per patient was 2.6 ± 1.2 weeks (mean ± SD). Deep vein thrombosis of the legs was quite common (7 events), as was venous intraabdominal thrombosis (10 events). Eight patients had microangiopathic anemia with schizocytes seen in the blood smear. The mean ± SD hemoglobin level was 10.3 ± 3.6 g/dl and the mean ± SD creatinine level 0.98 ± 0.78 mg/dl. All our patients had high acute-phase reactant and all had lupus anticoagulant positivity, The most common positive antibodies were immunoglobulin G anticardiolipin (8 patients) and IgG[1] β2-glycoprotein (7 patients). During the events warfarin was stopped and the patients were given intravenous heparin. All the patients received steroids in variable doses. Five patients underwent plasma exchange, two patients received rituximab and two patients intravenous immunoglobulin.

Conclusions: Catastrophic APS, a rare syndrome, is important because of its major morbidity and mortality among young patients.


 





[1] IgG = immunoglobulin G


September 2008
H. Maayan, G. Izbicki, J. Heyd, R. Cyter, S. Silberman and M. Deeb
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