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עמוד בית
Sat, 02.03.24

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January 2018
Merav Strauss PhD, Raul Colodner PhD, Dana Sagas MSc, Azmi Adawi MSc, Hanna Edelstein and Bibiana Chazan MD

Background: Ureaplasma species (Usp) are the most prevalent genital Mycoplasma isolated from the urogenital tract of both men and women. Usp may be commensals in the genital tract but may also be contributors to a number of pathological conditions of the genital tract. Because they can also just colonize the genital tract of healthy people, their pathogenic role can be difficult to prove.

Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method for the discrimination between infection and colonization by measuring prevalence of Usp in asymptomatic versus symptomatic patients.

Methods: Urine samples were tested for U. parvum and U. urealyticum using a semi-quantitative multiplex PCR technique for sexually transmitted diseases (Anyplex™ STI-7 Detection Kit, Seegene, South Korea). A total of 250 symptomatic and 250 asymptomatic controls were included.

Results: A strong positive result for U. parvum was significantly more prevalent in symptomatic compared to asymptomatic patients. This finding was observed especially in women and in the young group (15–35 years of age). No significant differences were observed between the prevalence in symptomatic and asymptomatic patients of U. parvum with low strength of positivity and for U. urealyticum in all groups by age, gender, and strength of positivity.

Conclusions: The significant difference between the symptomatic and asymptomatic group in the highest positivity group for U. parvum using the Anyplex™ STI-7 detection kit in urine may indicate a high probability of infection rather than colonization, especially in women and young patients.

July 2010
L. Barski, R. Nevzorov, J. Horowitz and S. Horowitz

Background: Clinical and epidemiologic features of coronary heart disease may not be explained solely by established risk factors. The role of infectious pathogens in the development and rupture of atherosclerotic plaques remains elusive but an association between Chlamydia pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae and CHD[1] has been previously reported

Objectives: To determine whether there is an association between mycoplasmal infections and CHD.

Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort analysis of 150 consecutive hospitalized patients with CHD (85 with acute coronary syndrome and 65 admitted for unrelated reasons) and 98 healthy blood donors. Antibody titers for Mycoplasma pneumoniae, M. fermentans, M. hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum were measured with the agglutination test or specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in all three groups of patients.

Results: Analysis of the antibody titers did not reveal any significant difference in the presence of mycoplasmal antibodies between the patients with ACS[2], patients with known stable CHD hospitalized for non-CHD reasons, and healthy blood donors.

Conclusions: Determination of specific antibodies did not reveal a significant association among different types of mycoplasmal infection and CHD.





[1] CHD = coronary heart disease

[2] ACS = acute coronary syndrome

April 2005
E. Bamberger, R. Madeb, J. Steinberg, A. Paz, I. Satinger, Z. Kra-0z, O. Natif and I. Srugo
Background: Although the current literature attributes most cases of hematospermia to an infectious agent, identification of the specific pathogens involved has been limited.

Objectives: To determine the prevalence of different pathogens in patients presenting to our sexually transmitted disease clinic with hematospermia.

Methods: Between January 1999 and January 2000, 16 patients presented to our STD[1] clinic with hematospermia after other non-infectious pathologies had been excluded by a referring physician. After obtaining informed consent, subjects completed a questionnaire addressing symptoms and sexual behavior. First void urine samples, as well as genitourinary and serum specimens were tested for Chlamydia trachomatis, Ureaplasma urealyticum and Herpes simplex virus. Standard bacterial cultures were also performed.

Results: Laboratory testing detected a pathogen in 12 of the 16 males presenting with hematospermia. The sexually transmitted pathogens detected were Herpes simplex virus in 5 patients (42%), Chlamydia trachomatis in 4 (33%), Enterococcus fecalis in 2 (17%), and Ureaplasma urealyticum in 1 (8%). In all cases in which a pathogen was identified, the appropriate antimicrobial agent was administered. Symptoms resolved for each patient following antimicrobial therapy. During a 1 year follow-up, all 12 patients remained free of disease.

Conclusions: Recent advances in microbiologic diagnostic techniques have facilitated the detection of pathogens in patients with hematospermia, thereby enhancing the efficacy of treatment.

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[1] STD = sexually transmitted disease

January 2003
I. Srugo, J. Steinberg, R. Madeb, R. Gershtein, I. Elias, J. Tal, O. Nativ

Background: Non-gonococcal urethritis is the most common clinical diagnosis for men seeking care at sexually transmitted disease clinics.

Objective: To identify the pathogens involved in NGU[1] among males attending an Israeli STD clinic.

Methods: During 19 months spanning September 1996 to July 1998 we investigated a cohort of 238 male patients attending the Bnai Zion Medical Center STD[2] clinic with a clinical presentation of urethritis. Intraurethral swab specimens were tested for Neisseria gonorrhea, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Mycoplasma hominis, and Trichomonas vaginalis by culture and for herpes simplex virus by antigen detection. First voiding urine for Chlamydia trachomatis was done by polymerase chain reaction. The specific seropositivities of HSV[3] types 1 and 2 were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

Results: From among 238 males with dysuria or urethral discharge an etiology for urethritis was found for 71 (29.8%). N. gonorrhea was recovered in only three men (4.2%). In the remaining 68 NGU patients C. trachomatis (35/68, 51.5%) and U. urealyticum (31/68, 45.6%) were the most common infecting and co-infecting pathogens (P < 0.0001). M. hominis and T. vaginalis were found in 9/68 (13.2%), and 1 patient, respectively. HSV was recovered from the urethra in 7/68 males (10.3%) – 3 with HSV-1, 2 with HSV-2, and 2 were seronegative for HSV. None of these males had genital lesions. Although a single etiologic agent was identified in 45/68 infected men (66.2%), co-infection was common: 2 organisms in 15 (22%) and 3 organisms in 8 (11.8%).

Conclusion: C. trachomatis and U. urealyticum were the most common infecting and co-infecting pathogens in this cohort of men with NGU. Unrecognized genital HSV infections are common in males attending our STD clinic and symptomatic shedding of HSV occurs without genital lesions. Still, the microbial etiology in this group remains unclear in many patients despite careful microbiologic evaluation.






[1] NGU = non-gonococcal urethritis



[2] STD = sexually transmitted disease



[3] HSV = herpes simplex virus


August 2000
Alex Zvulunov MD, Evgeny Medvedovsky MD, Amnon Biton MD, Shulamit Horowitz PhD and Daniel Vardy MD, MSc

Background: The frequent coexistence of two or more sexually transmitted diseases in one patient has been reported in non-dermatological literature, mostly in languages other than English. Identification of Ureaplasma urealyticum, Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma hominis in men with other STDs is important, since these bacteria have been implicated in a variety of diseases such as non-gonococcal urethritis, premature rupture of fetal membranes, and infertility in female sexual partners of these patients.

Objective: To assess the frequency of concomitant STD, particularly urethral colonization of U. urealyticum, C. trachomatis and M. hominis, in men consulting for suspected STD-related symptoms.

Methods: All patients attending our dermatology clinic for STD-related symptoms during a 12 month period in 1996–97 underwent systematic clinical and laboratory screening for syphilis, gonorrhea, NGU, prostatitis, genital herpes simplex infection, Condyloma acuminatum, urethral carriage of U. urealyticum, C. trachomatis and M. hominis, as well as serological screening for HIV, and hepatitis B and C infections.

Results: A total of 169 men with STD-related symptoms were enrolled in the study. The following clinical diagnoses were established: NGU in 109 men, C. acuminatum in 40, genital herpes simplex in 10, prostatitis in 7, latent syphilis in 6, primary syphilis in 1, and Behcet’s disease in 1. No clinical evidence of STD was found in 13 patients. Of the 169 patients, 39 (23%) had two or more concomitant STDs, of whom 27 (69%) had C. acuminatum associated with one or more of the urethral pathogens. A positive U. urealyticum culture was found in 67.5% (27/40) of the men with C. acuminatum as compared to 42% (40/96) among the patients with NGU who did not have C. acuminatum (P=0.004, X2 test). Conversely, the prevalence of C. acuminatum among patients positive for U. urealyticum was significantly higher than the prevalence among those who were negative – 27/75 (36%) vs. 13/94 (14%), P<0.0009, X2 test. About half of the U. urealyticum-positive patients with C. acuminatum had no clinical signs or symptoms of urethritis.

Conclusion: Our findings suggest that patients with C. acuminatum should be assessed for U. urealyticum carriage and, when identified, their sexual contacts should be actively sought and treated.

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* Dr. Zvulunov is now with the Department of Pediatrics, Joseftal Hospital, Eilat, Israel.

STDs = sexually transmitted diseases

NGU = non-gonococcal urethritis

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