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עמוד בית
Tue, 04.10.22

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February 2022
Yaron Rudnicki MD, Hagai Soback MD, and Mahajna Ahmad MD

Background: Achieving laparoscopic competency is challenging. Common laparoscopic simulators usually fall short in achieving true simulation.

Objective: To present a live porcine model laparoscopic skills laboratory for training general surgery residents.

Methods: An in vivo porcine laparoscopic model course was developed to simulate seven different laparoscopic procedures and seven laparoscopic skills for trainees under the tutelage of laparoscopic specialists.

Results: A total of 98 surgical trainees from 19 training programs underwent a full-day course from September 2017 to July 2020. Each program consisted of four trainees and two faculty members. In total, 175 laparoscopic procedures were performed. Trainees reported that the course improved their ability to perform in the operating room.

Conclusions: Using a laparoscopic porcine model in a guided didactic course performing complete common laparoscopic procedures in simulated operating room surroundings was beneficial for surgical trainees. The porcine model mimics human abdominal anatomy and allows trainees to increase their comfort level in performing such procedures.

June 2018
Robert Klempfner MD, Boaz Tzur MD, Avi Sabbag MD, Amira Nahshon MA, Nelly Gang MD, Ilan Hay MD, Tamir Kamerman MA, Hanoch Hod MD, Ilan Goldenberg MD and David Rott MD

Background: About half of all patients with heart failure are diagnosed with heart failure preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Until now, studies have failed to show that medical treatment improves the prognosis of patients with HFpEF.

Objectives: To evaluate changes in exercise capacity of patients with HFpEF compared to those with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) following an exercise training program.

Methods: Patient data was retrieved from a multi-center registry of patients with heart failure who participated in a cardiac rehabilitation program. Patients underwent exercise testing and an echocardiogram prior to entering the program and were retested6  months later.

Results: Of 216 heart failure patients enrolled in the program, 170 were diagnosed with HFrEF and 46 (21%) with HFpEF. Patients with HFpEF had lower baseline exercise capacity compared to those with HFrEF. Participating in a 6 month exercise program resulted in significant and similar improvement in exercise performance of both HFpEF and HFrEF patients: an absolute metabolic equivalent (MET) change (1.45 METs in HFrEF patients vs. 1.1 in the HFpEF group, P = 0.3).

Conclusions: An exercise training program resulted in similar improvement of exercise capacity in both HFpEF and HFrEF patients. An individualized, yet similarly structured, cardiac rehabilitation program may serve both heart failure groups, providing safety and efficacy.

January 2018
Oshrat E. Tayer-Shifman MD, Yigal Bar-On MSc, David Pereg MD and Alon Y. Hershko MD PhD

Background: Physical inactivity is a pivotal factor in the development and progression of various chronic diseases. However, most fitness facilities exclude unhealthy individuals. Therefore, an exercise program that admits such patients is imperative.

Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of a fitness facility that admits adult subjects with multiple chronic diseases.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective screening of patient records from the Medical Fitness Facility at Meir Medical Center, Israel. Intake of subjects was done by a multidisciplinary team. For each individual, personalized diet and exercise plans were developed and patients attended the facility twice a week. Each participant was evaluated at enrolment and after 4 months for well-being, metabolic parameters, exercise capacity, and laboratory blood tests.

Results: A total of 838 individuals were enrolled, mean age 57 years. Their medical conditions included dyslipidemia (48.8%), hypertension (37.6%), and diabetes mellitus (24.9%), followed by musculoskeletal problems (arthropathy 19%, lower back pain 16.1%) and ischemic heart disease (13.4%). Less common diagnoses were vascular diseases, pulmonary diseases, and malignancy. Only 40.5% of participants adhered to the regimen with advanced age being the best predictor for adherence. At the follow-up visit, body mass index was lower (31.2 vs. 30.2 kg/m2, P <0.0001), exercise capacity increased (measured as maximal MET; 7.1 vs. 8.1, P < 0.0001), and well-being improved (measured by Short Form Survey [SF-36]; 69.3 vs. 76.0, P <0.0001).

Conclusions: We show that a fitness program for patients with multiple chronic diseases is feasible and effective in improving prognostic parameters, albeit significantly challenged by adherence limitations.

August 2016
Daniel Hardoff MD, Assaf Gefen MA, Doron Sagi MA and Amitai Ziv MD

Background: Human dignity has a pivotal role within the health care system. There is little experience using simulation-based medical education (SBME) programs that focus on human dignity issues in doctor-patient relationships.

Objectives: To describe and assess a SBME program aimed at improving physicians’ competence in a dignifying approach when encountering adolescents and their parents.

Methods: A total of 97 physicians participated in 8 one-day SMBE workshops that included 7 scenarios of typical adolescent health care dilemmas. These issues could be resolved if the physician used an appropriate dignifying approach toward the patient and the parents. Debriefing discussions were based on video recordings of the scenarios. The effect of the workshops on participants’ approach to adolescent health care was assessed by a feedback questionnaire and on 5-point Likert score questionnaires administered before the workshop and 3 months after. 

Results: All participants completed both the pre-workshop and the feedback questionnaires and 41 (42%) completed the post-workshop questionnaire 3 months later. Practice and competence topics received significantly higher scores in post-workshop questionnaires (P < 0.001). A score of high to very high was given by 90% of physicians to the contribution of the workshop to participants understanding the dignifying approach, and by 70% to its influence on their communicative skills.

Conclusions: A one-day simulation-based workshop may improve physicians’ communication skills and sense of competence in addressing adolescents’ health care issues which require a dignifying approach toward both the adolescent patients and their parents. This dignity-focused methodology may be expanded to improve communication skills of physicians from various disciplines. 


June 2015
Jochanan Benbassat MD

This paper summarizes the difficulties that may emerge when the same care-provider attends to private and public patients within the same or different clinical settings. First, I argue that blurring the boundaries between public and private care may start a slippery slope leading to “black” under-the-table payments for preferential patient care. Second, I question whether public hospitals that allow their doctors to attend to private patients provide an appropriate learning environment for medical students and residents. Finally, I propose a way to both maintain the advantages of private care and avoid its negative consequences: complete separation between the public and the private health care systems.


November 2014
Ran Stein MD, David Neufeld MD, Ivan Shwartz MD, Ilan Erez MD, Ilana Haas MD, Ada Magen MD, Elon Glassberg MD, Pavel Shmulevsky MD and Haim Paran MD FACS

Background: Discharge summaries after hospitalization provide the most reliable description and implications of the hospitalization. A concise discharge summary is crucial for maintaining continuity of care through the transition from inpatient to ambulatory care. Discharge summaries often lack information and are imprecise. Errors and insufficient recommendations regarding changes in the medical regimen may harm the patient’s health and may result in readmission.

Objectives: To evaluate a quality improvement model and training program for writing postoperative discharge summaries for three surgical procedures.

Methods: Medical records and surgical discharge summaries were reviewed and scored. Essential points for communication between surgeons and family physicians were included in automated forms. Staff was briefed twice regarding required summary contents with an interim evaluation. Changes in quality were evaluated.

Results: Summaries from 61 cholecystectomies, 42 hernioplasties and 45 colectomies were reviewed. The average quality score of all discharge summaries increased from 72.1 to 78.3 after the first intervention (P < 0.0005) to 81.0 following the second intervention. As the discharge summary’s quality improved, its length decreased significantly.

Conclusions: Discharge summaries lack important information and are too long. Developing a model for discharge summaries and instructing surgical staff regarding their contents resulted in measurable improvement. Frequent interventions and supervision are needed to maintain the quality of the surgical discharge summary.  

March 2014
Avraham Unterman, Anat Achiron, Itai Gat, Oren Tavor and Amitai Ziv
 Background: Physicians are often insufficiently trained in bedside teaching and mentoring skills. Objectives: To develop, implement and assess a simulation-based training program designed to improve clinical teaching among physicians.

Methods: We developed a one-day tutor training program based on six simulated scenarios with video-based debriefing. The program's efficacy was assessed using questionnaires completed by the participating physicians and their students. Main outcome measures were self-perceived teaching skills at baseline, after participation in the program, and following completion of the tutor role. Secondary outcome measures were the students' perceptions regarding their tutor skills.

Results: Thirty-two physicians (mean age 35.5, 56% females) participated in the program. Self-assessment questionnaires indicated statistically significant improvement following the program in 13 of 20 measures of teaching skills. Additional improvement was observed upon completion of the tutor role, leading to significant improvement in 19 of the 20 measures. Questionnaires completed by their students indicated higher scores in all parameters as compared to a matched control group of tutors who did not participate in the program, though not statistically significant. Most participants stated that the program enhanced their teaching skills (88%), they implement program-acquired skills when teaching students (79%), and they would recommend it to their peers (100%). Satisfaction was similar among participants with and without previous teaching experience.

Conclusions: A novel one-day simulation-based tutor training program was developed and implemented with encouraging results regarding its potential to improve clinical teaching and mentoring skills. 

September 2013
S. Harnof, M. Hadani, A. Ziv and H. Berkenstadt
 Background: Communication skills are an important component of the neurosurgery residency training program. We developed a simulation-based training module for neurosurgery residents in which medical, communication and ethical dilemmas are presented by role-playing actors.

Objectives: To assess the first national simulation-based communication skills training for neurosurgical residents.

Methods: Eight scenarios covering different aspects of neurosurgery were developed by our team: 1) obtaining informed consent for an elective surgery, 2) discharge of a patient following elective surgery, 3) dealing with an unsatisfied patient, 4) delivering news of intraoperative complications, 5) delivering news of a brain tumor to parents of a 5 year old boy, 6) delivering news of brain death to a family member, 7) obtaining informed consent for urgent surgery from the grandfather of a 7 year old boy with an epidural hematoma, and 8) dealing with a case of child abuse. Fifteen neurosurgery residents from all major medical centers in Israel participated in the training. The session was recorded on video and was followed by videotaped debriefing by a senior neurosurgeon and communication expert and by feedback questionnaires.

Results: All trainees participated in two scenarios and observed another two. Participants largely agreed that the actors simulating patients represented real patients and family members and that the videotaped debriefing contributed to the teaching of professional skills.

Conclusions: Simulation-based communication skill training is effective, and together with thorough debriefing is an excellent learning and practical method for imparting communication skills to neurosurgery residents. Such simulation-based training will ultimately be part of the national residency program.

April 2013
October 2010
Y. Ben Yehuda, S. Attar-Schwartz, A. Ziv, M. Jedwab and R. Benbenishty

Background: For health professionals who interact professionally with children, adequate awareness and training regarding the clinical indicators of child abuse and neglect, as well as subsequent reporting and procedures, are essential.

Objectives: To study Israeli health professionals’ experiences with identification and reporting of suspected cases of child abuse and neglect, and their perceived training needs in this area.

Methods: The study group was a convenience sample comprising 95 Israeli health professionals (physicians, nurses, social workers, psychologists, etc.) attending workshops on medical aspects at a national conference on child abuse and neglect. The study was a cross-sectional survey. The health professionals were asked to complete an anonymous structured questionnaire on their experience with child abuse and neglect and on their training needs.

Results: The participants in the survey had relatively high levels of involvement with child protection. Nevertheless, they strongly expressed their need for training, especially in mastering practice skills. The need for training was greater for professionals with less experience in child protection, and there were different needs according to profession.

Conclusions: Despite their prior extensive experience in dealing with child abuse and neglect, most of the health professionals participating in the conference reported the need for training in various areas.

August 2010
A. Leiba, N. Dreiman, G. Weiss, B. Adini and Y. Bar-Dayan

Background: The growing numbers of H1N1 "swine influenza" cases should prompt national health systems to achieve dual preparedness: preparedness of clinicians to recognize and treat cases of human H1N1 flu, and national preparedness for an influenza pandemic. This is similar to recent contingency planning for an avian flu pandemic.

Objectives: To evaluate hospital personnel's knowledge on avian flu (zoonotic, sporadic, pandemic), comparing among nurses, residents and faculty, and between those who attended lectures or other educational modalities targeted at avian flu and those who did not.

Methods: A 14 item multiple choice questionnaire was designed to test crucial points regarding preparedness for human avian flu. The directors of 26 general hospitals were instructed by the Ministry of Health to improve knowledge of and preparedness for different avian flu scenarios, and to expect an official inspection. As part of this inspection, we distributed the questionnaires to nurses, residents and senior physicians.

Results: Altogether, 589 questionnaires were collected from the 26 hospitals. Examinees who participated in training modules (course, lecture or any training provided by the hospital) did somewhat better (scoring 78 points out of 100) than those who did not attend the training (70 points) (P < 0.05). Differences in nurses’ knowledge were even more striking: 66 points for the non-attendants compared to 79 for nurses who attended the lecture (P < 0.05).  Residents had significantly lower scores compared to nurses or senior physicians: 70 compared to 77 and 78 respectively (P < 0.05).

February 2008
D. Tanne, R. Tsabari, O. Chechk, A. Toledano, D. Orion, Y. Schwammenthal, T. Philips, E. Schammenthal and Y. Adler

Background: Regular physical activity is known to have a beneficial impact on multiple cardiovascular risk factors, but there is no routine provision of exercise training programs to patients after ischemic stroke.

Objectives: To assess the tolerability, safety and effect of an outpatient supervised exercise training program in patients after a non-disabling ischemic stroke.

Methods: Patients discharged home following a minor ischemic stroke (modified Rankin scale; mRS ≤ 2) were referred to a 3 month outpatient supervised exercise training program, performed twice weekly as prescribed by a physiologist and supervised by physical therapy. Exercise capacity was evaluated by the 6 minute walk test, and by the modified Bruce exercise test.

Results: Of the 52 patients who met the selection criteria, 43 underwent supervised exercise training within 2 months of stroke onset and 9 did not (control group). The baseline characteristics were comparable between the two groups. Following the exercise training program, an improvement in exercise capacity was observed manifested by improvement in the 6 minute walk test (444 ± 90 to 557 ± 99 meters in the exercise group vs. 438 ± 101 to 418 ± 126 in the control group; P = 0.002 for the score changes) and in the exercise duration achieved in the modified Bruce test and the metabolic equivalents achieved [9.6 ± 3.7 to 12.4 ± 3.2 minutes and 6.2 ± 2.8 to 8.5 ± 3.4 respectively in the exercise group (n=41) vs. 9.2 ± 3.5 to 8.0 ± 3.4 min and 5.8 ± 1.8 to 5.8 ± 2.8 in the control group (n=7); P = 0.0009 and 0.01 for score changes, respectively].

Conclusions: An outpatient supervised exercise training program after a minor ischemic stroke is feasible, well tolerated and is associated with improvement in exercise capacity. We strongly recommend that an aerobic exercise program be offered to suitable patients after an ischemic stroke.

March 2005
R. Reuveny, I. Ben-Dov, M. Gaides and N. Reichert
Background: One mechanism that may limit training effect in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is the ventilatory limitation and associated dyspnea. 

Objectives: To minimize ventilatory limitation during training of patients with severe COPD[1] by applying bi-level positive pressure ventilation during training in order to augment training intensity (and effect).

Methods: The study group comprised 19 patients (18 males, 1 female) with a mean age of 64 ± 9 years. Mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second was 32 ± 4% of predicted, and all were ventilatory-limited (exercise breathing reserve 3 ± 9 L/min, normal >15 L/min). The patients were randomized: 9 were assigned to training with BiPAP[2] and 10 to standard training. All were trained on a treadmill for 2 months, twice a week, 45 minutes each time, at maximal tolerated load. Incremental maximal unsupported exercise test was performed before and at the end of the training period.

Results: BiPAP resulted in an increment of 94 ± 53% in training speed during these 2 months, as compared to 41 ± 19% increment in the control group (P < 0.005). Training with BiPAP yielded an average increase in maximal oxygen uptake of 23 ± 16% (P < 0.005), anaerobic threshold of 11 ± 12% (P < 0.05) and peak O2 pulse of 20 ± 19% (P < 0.05), while peak exercise lactate concentration was not higher after training. Interestingly, in the BiPAP group, peak exercise ventilation was also 17 ± 20% higher after training (P < 0.05). Furthermore, contrary to our expectation, at any given work rate, ventilation (and tidal volume) in the BiPAP group was higher in the post-training test as compared to the pre-training test, and the end tidal partial pressure of CO2 at 55 watts was lower, 40 ± 4 and 38 ± 4 mmHg respectively (P < 0.05). No improvement in exercise capacity was observed after this short training period in the control group.

Conclusion: Pressure-supported ventilation during training is feasible in patients with severe COPD and it augments the training effect. The improved exercise tolerance was associated with higher ventilatory response and therefore lower PETCO2[3] at equal work rates after training.


[1] COPD = chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

[2] BiPAP = bi-level positive pressure ventilation

[3] PETCO2 = end tidal partial pressure of CO2

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