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עמוד בית
Mon, 15.07.24

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June 2023
Reudor Grinberg MD, Sivan Perl MD, Itzhack Shpirer MD, Noam Natif MD, Benjamin D. Fox BM BS

Background: The DES-obstructive sleep apnea (DES-OSA) score uses morphological characteristics to predict the presence and severity of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS).

Objectives: To validate DES-OSA scores on the Israeli population. To identify patients requiring treatment for OSAS. To evaluate whether additional parameters could improve the diagnostic value of DES-OSA scores.

Methods: We performed a prospective cohort study on patients attending a sleep clinic. Polysomnography results were examined independently by two physicians. DES-OSA scores were calculated. STOP and Epworth questionnaires were administered, and data on cardiovascular risk was extracted.

Results: We recruited 106 patients, median age 64 years, 58% male. DES-OSA scores were positively correlated with apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) (P < 0.001) and were significantly different between the OSAS severity groups. Interobserver agreement for calculating DES-OSA was very high between the two physicians (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.86). DES-OSA scores ≤ 5 were associated with high sensitivity and low specificity (0.90 and 0.27, respectively) for moderate to severe OSAS. In univariate analysis, only age was significantly correlated with the presence of OSAS (OR 1.26, P = 0.01). Age older than 66 years as a single point in the DES-OSA score slightly improved the sensitivity of the test.

Conclusions: DES-OSA is a valid score based solely on physical examination, which may be useful for excluding OSAS requiring therapy. DES-OSA score ≤ 5 effectively ruled out moderate to severe OSAS. Age older than 66 years as an extra point improved the sensitivity of the test.

July 2018
Yaron Haviv DMD PhD, Lilach Kamer MD, Roee Sheinfeld MD, Galit Almoznino DMD MSc MHA and Gideon Bachar MD

Background: A dental appliance for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is recommended for patients who cannot adjust to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatments.



Objectives: To describe patients with extremely severe OSA who were successfully treated with a dental appliance and to compare their characteristics with the relevant literature to identify clinical features associated with a good outcome.



Methods: The clinical, management, and outcome data of three patients with an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) of > 80 who showed clinical improvement following treatment with a dental appliance were collected retrospectively from sleep laboratory reports in Israel over a period of 3 years. 



Results: The patients included one man and two women, aged 33, 56, and 61 years, respectively. The diagnosis of OSA was based on clinical examination and polysomnography. AHI values at presentation were 83, 81, and 84, respectively. Treatment with a dental appliance (Herbst® or MDSA®) was proposed due to patient noncompliance with CPAP. Follow-up polysomnography with the dental appliance revealed a reduction in the AHI to 1.7, 10.7, and 11, respectively. All patients had supine OSA and a retrognathic mandible, both of which have been found to be associated with a good prognosis for treatment with a dental appliance.



Conclusions: Dental appliances may be considered an appropriate second-choice option to treat severe OSA in patients who are noncompliant with CPAP. This study helps physicians identify patients with extremely severe OSA who are suitable for dental appliance treatment. Well-designed large-scale studies are needed to reach definitive conclusions. 

August 2015
Rafael S. Carel MD DrPH, Inna Brodsky MPH and Giora Pillar MD MPH

Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common health problem with an estimated prevalence of 4% among men, many of whom are undiagnosed and untreated. 

Objectives: To compare demographic characteristics, health profiles, risk factors, and disease severity in Arab and Jewish men with OSA syndrome.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study we retrospectively analyzed clinical data from the medical files of men ≥ 22 years old who were referred to the Rambam Medical Center sleep clinic during the period 2001–2009 with a suspected diagnosis of OSA. OSA severity was measured using the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). Categorical variables were compared using the chi-square test. Relations between OSA severity and a set of independent risk factors were assessed by linear regression analysis.

Results: A total of 207 men were included (39 Arabs, 19%; 168 Jews, 81%). Arab participants were younger than their Jewish counterparts (45.5 ± 8.9 years vs. 49.8 ± 11.8, P = 0.04) and their body mass index (BMI) was higher (33.1 ± 5.1 vs. 30.0 ± 4.4, P = 0.001). OSA severity (AHI score) was higher among Arab men, with low, medium and high severity scores seen in 10%, 33% and 56% of Arab men vs 35%, 29% and 37% of Jewish men, respectively [T(198)=2.39, P = 0.02]. Mean blood oxygen saturation was comparable.

Conclusions: Arab men presenting for evaluation of sleep apnea harbored more severe OSA symptoms, were younger, and had higher BMI compared to Jewish men. Since OSA syndrome evolves for several years until it becomes severe, these findings suggest that Arab men seek medical assistance later than Jewish men with OSA.

 

September 2013
A. Elizur, A. Maliar, I. Shpirer, A. E. Buchs, E. Shiloah and M. J. Rapoport
 Background: Obstructive sleep apnea has been shown to be associated with impaired glucose metabolism and overt diabetes mellitus. However, the effect of hypoxic episodes on nocturnal glucose regulation in non-diabetic patients is unknown.

Objectives: To investigate the effect of hypoxemia and nocturnal glucose homeosatsis in non-diabetic patients with sleep apnea.

Methods: Seven non-diabetic patients with moderate to severe sleep apnea were connected to a continuous glucose-monitoring sensor while undergoing overnight polysomnography. Mean SpO2 and percentage of time spent at SpO2 < 90% were recorded. The correlation between mean glucose levels, the difference between consecutive mean glucose measurements (glucose variability) and the corresponding oxygen saturation variables were determined in each patient during REM[1] and non-REM sleep.

Results: No consistent correlation was found for the individual patient between oxygen saturation variables and glucose levels during sleep. However, a lower mean SpO2 correlated with decreased glucose variability during sleep (r = 0.79, P = 0.034). This effect was primarily evident during REM sleep in patients with significant, compared to those with mild, oxygen desaturations during sleep (> 30% vs. < 10% of sleeping time spent with SpO2 < 90%) (P = 0.03).

Conclusions: Severe nocturnal hypoxemia in non-diabetic patients with moderate to severe sleep apnea might affect glucose regulation primarily during REM sleep.


 





[1] REM = rapid eye movement


July 2011
O. Tzischinsky, S. Shahrabani and R. Peled

Background: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a sleep-related breathing disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, accidents and high medical expenses. The first line of treatment for OSAS is continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP).

Objectives: To examine attitudes and beliefs as well as physiological and sociodemographic factors affecting OSA patients' decision whether or not to purchase a CPAP device.

Methods: The study was divided into two stages; in the first, 83 subjects completed self-administered questionnaires prior to sleep examination (polysomnographic study). The questionnaires related to sleep habits, sleep disorders, questions organized around health belief model (HBM) concepts, sociodemographic information, health status and PSG[1] examination. In the second stage, 3 months later, 50 OSAS patients were interviewed by telephone, which included questions about their reasons for purchasing/not purchasing the CPAP device.

Results: Only 48% of the OSAS patients purchased the CPAP device. The significant factors positively affecting the decision included higher levels of physiological factors such as body mass index (coefficient 0.36, P < 0.05) and respiratory disturbance index (coefficient 0.16, P < 0.05), higher income levels (coefficient 3.26, p < 0.05), and higher levels of knowledge about OSAS (coefficient -2.98, P < 0.1).

Conclusions: Individuals who are more aware of their own health condition, are better informed about OSAS and have higher incomes are more likely to purchase the device. We suggest reducing the level of co-payment and providing patients with more information about the severe effects of OSAS.






[1] PSG = polysomnography


January 2005
Y.S. Brin, H. Reuveni, S. Greenberg Dotan, A. Tal and A. Tarasiuk

Background: Continuous positive airway pressure is the treatment of choice for patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

Objective: To determine the factors influencing treatment initiation with a CPAP[1] device in a healthcare system in which co-payment is required.

Methods: A total of 400 adult patients with OSAS[2] who required CPAP therapy completed questionnaires at three different stages of the diagnostic and therapeutic process: CPAP titration study (stage 1), patient adaptation trial (stage 2), and purchase of a CPAP device (stage 3). Logistic regression was used to analyze the variables influencing CPAP use at the different stages of the diagnostic and therapeutic processes.

Results: Only 32% of the patients who underwent CPAP titration study purchased a CPAP device. The number of subjects who purchased a CPAP device increased gradually as monthly income increased, 28% vs. 62% in the “very low” and “very high” income levels respectively. Reporting for the titration increased in patients with excessive daytime sleepiness and an Epworth Sleepiness Scale score above 9 (odds ratio = 1.9, P = 0.015). Higher socioeconomic status increased reporting to stage 2 (OR[3] = 1.23, P = 0.03) and CPAP purchase (stage 3, OR = 1.35, P = 0.002). Excessive daytime sleepiness increased reporting to stage 2 (OR = 2.28, P = 0.006). Respiratory disturbance index above 35 increased CPAP purchasing (OR = 2.01, P = 0.022). Support from the bed partner, referring physician and sleep laboratory team increased CPAP purchasing.

Conclusions: A supportive environment for a patient with OSAS requiring CPAP is crucial to increase initiation of CPAP treatment. Minimizing cost sharing for the CPAP device will reduce inequality and may increase CPAP treatment initiation.






[1] CPAP = continuous positive airway pressure

[2] OSAS = obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

[3] OR = odds ratio


November 2004
A. Tarasiuk and H. Reuveni

Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is a major public health hazard affecting 2–4% of the adult population; only 10% of these patients are recognized by healthcare providers. In the last decade the number of referrals for polysomnography increased threefold in Israel, compared to 12-fold worldwide, and is expected to increase even more in the coming years. This constant demand for PSG[1] studies is beyond the current capacity of sleep laboratories, thus preventing diagnosis for most patients with suspected OSAS[2]. In the current review, we examine problems facing decision-makers on how to treat the increasing flood of patients presenting with symptoms suggestive of sleep-disordered breathing. We evaluate the cost-effectiveness of current technologies for OSA diagnosis, i.e., laboratory versus at-home technologies. We conclude that no current alternative exists to the use of PSG for OSA diagnosis. When at-home technologies are suggested for OSAS diagnosis, data should be provided on factors influencing its cost-effectiveness, e.g., accuracy rates of diagnosis, relative cost of human resources, and case-mix of patients tested. Since PSG remains the gold standard for diagnosis of OSAS, in Israel resources should be allocated to increasing the volume of beds for PSG studies in order to increase access to diagnosis and treatment, which in turn provides better quality of life, saves scarce resources of the healthcare system, prevents unnecessary accidents and increases workers’ productivity.






[1] PSG = polysomnography

[2] OSAS = obstructive sleep apnea syndrome


December 2002
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