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עמוד בית
Thu, 02.02.23

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March 2019
Yossi Smorgick MD, Mitri Nassar MD, Eran Tamir MD, Sigal Tal MD, Yigal Mirovsky MD and Yoram Anekstein MD

Background: Gender differences in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) have been documented in curve progression, response to bracing, and outcomes of surgical treatment. However, limited information is available about the relation between gender and scoliosis curve patterns and radiographical characteristics.

Objectives: To evaluate the effect of gender on curve pattern and compare clinical and radiographical characteristics between male and female patients with AIS.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of prospectively collected data that compared clinical and radiographical characteristics between male and female surgical candidates. Demographic and clinical data including age at presentation, gender, family history of scoliosis, brace treatment history, clinical coronal balance, shoulder asymmetry, and hump size were recorded. All patients graded their pain with the use of a visual analogue scale (VAS) on a scale from 0 to 10. Radiographs of the spine were reviewed to determine the type of curve according to the Lenke classification, Cobb angle, thoracic kyphosis angle, and the Risser sign. Radiologic coronal balance was recorded. Curve flexibility was determined by measuring the thoracic and lumbar curves magnitude on side bending radiographs

Results: The study included 163 patients with AIS including 35 males and 128 females patients. Although a trend toward more flexible major thoracic curves in females was noticed, there was no statistically significant difference between the 2 groups.

Conclusions: In this study we were not able to demonstrate any clinical nor radiological statistical differences between male and female patients who are candidate for surgical treatment.

October 2017
Natalia Simanovsky MD, Nurith Hiller MD, Maxim Timofeev, Eli M. Eisenshtein MD, Zeev Perles MD and Sigal Tal MD

Background: Virtual autopsies by computer tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging can be valuable in cases of unexplained infant death. The radiologist must be familiar with the normal appearance of all the segments of the thoracic aorta in normal and deceased children. A thorough review of the literature revealed no prior articles describing CT changes in the ascending aorta or the aortic arch in pediatric virtual autopsies.

Objectives: To compare the CT appearance of the thoracic aorta in deceased children and in those younger than 3 years of age.

Methods: Hospital registries were searched for cases of unexpected deaths in children younger than 3 years old, with a postmortem CT available, as well as for clinically indicated chest CT in children of the same age during a 5 year period. The ascending aorta (AA), aortic arch (arch), and the descending aorta (DA) diameters were measured. Student's t-tests and Mann–Whitney U-tests were used to compare the two groups.

Results: A total of 64 scans were reviewed: 35 postmortem and 29 performed on living patients. The differences in the diameter and the ratios of the diameter between the AA and the arch, as well as between the arch and the DA in the postmortem and living groups were statistically significant (P < 0.05).

Conclusions: On postmortem CT scans, we found focal tapering of the aortic caliber at the level of the arch between the origin of the brachiocephalic artery and left subclavian artery. This finding should not be misinterpreted as a hypoplastic aortic arch.

 

September 2015
Sigal Tal MD, Michael Abrahamy MD, Paul Gottlieb MD, Hillel Maresky MD and Anna Ben Ely MD

Background: The practice of administering intravenous contrast to children varies by institution depending on their routine. 

Objectives: To assess the necessity of routine contrast administration in brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of pediatric outpatients referred for chronic headache workups. 

Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of consecutive pediatric brain MRI examinations performed during January and February 2014 in 30 pediatric outpatients referred for evaluation of chronic headache. Independent review was performed by two board-certified neuroradiologists. The raters reviewed each MRI first as a non-contrast examination (without seeing the post-contrast images) and then with post-contrast images. 

Results: No abnormalities were found in six patients. One patient had an indeterminate finding of a tubular cerebellar lesion requiring follow-up. In the remaining patients (n=23), the findings were subclinical and included: mucosal thickening in the paranasal sinuses in 9 patients, cystic changes of the pineal gland in 8 (size 2–9 mm), small developmental venous anomalies in 6, non-specific FLAIR hyperintensities in 4, opacification of the mastoids in 2, and telangiectasia in 1 patient. The subclinical cases that were missed on pre-contrast images were: one small developmental venous anomaly, one telangiectasia and one small pineal cyst, none of which hold clinical significance. All kappa inter-rater and intra-rater agreement scores resulted in values above 0.75, excellent agreement according to Fleiss guidelines.

Conclusions: There seems to be little reason to medically justify large-scale use of routine IV contrast administration to evaluate a brain MRI of pediatric patients referred for chronic headache. 

 

March 2015
Sigal Tal MD, Nadav Berkovitz MD, Paul Gottlieb MD and Konstantin Zaitsev MD

Abstract

Background: Forensic imaging was officially introduced in Israel in 2011. Religious and cultural opposition to autopsies prevails in most of the population in Israel.

Objectives: To examine the extent to which forensic imaging has been accepted as an adjuvant or partial replacement of forensic autopsy, particularly among those opposed to forensic autopsy.

Methods: The study was conducted in a pediatric population. Data were collected from the National Center of Forensic Medicine and Assaf Harofeh Medical Center during the 18 month period following the introduction of forensic imaging (group A). The data were compared to those of the previous 18 months (group B). The examined parameters were cases submitted, examined, autopsied or imaged depending on family consent.

Results: Consent to autopsy was similar in both groups (A = 56% vs. B = 54%). In group A, consent for imaging was 24% of all cases, and of those imaged 77% underwent autopsy. Of those examined externally only, 16% consented to imaging. For 7% of the total cases in group A, estimation of cause of death was based on virtopsy alone.

Conclusions: In a country with a high level of religious opposition to autopsy, it is a challenge to add forensic to the pediatric forensic investigation. Those consenting to forensic imaging are more likely to be those consenting to autopsy. Consent for forensic imaging only was given in 7% of cases. Greater efforts should be invested to educate and inform the public regarding the benefits of virtual autopsy and the importance of data acquired from forensic images. 

March 2009
L. Migirov, S. Tal, A. Eyal and J. Kronenberg

Background: Aural cholesteatoma is an epidermal cyst of the middle ear or mastoid that can only be eradicated by surgical resection. It is usually managed with radical or modified radical mastoidectomy. Clinical diagnosis of recurrent cholesteatoma in a closed postoperative cavity is difficult. Thus, the accepted protocol in most otologic centers for suspected recurrence consists of second-look procedures performed approximately 1 year after the initial surgery. Brain herniation into a post-mastoidectomy cavity is not rare and can be radiologically confused with cholesteatoma on the high resolution computed tomographic images of temporal bones that are carried out before second-look surgery.

Objectives: To present our experience with meningoceles that were confused with recurrent disease in patients who had undergone primary mastoidectomy for cholesteatoma and to support the use of magnetic resonance imaging as more suitable than CT in postoperative follow-up protocols for cholesteatoma.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of four patients.

Results: Axial CT sections demonstrated a soft tissue mass in the middle ear and mastoid in all four patients. Coronal reconstructions of CT scans showed a tympanic tegmen defect in two patients. CT failed to exclude cholesteatoma in any patient. Each underwent a second-look mastoidectomy and the only finding at surgery was meningocele in all four patients.

Conclusions: Echo-planar diffusion-weighted MRI can differentiate between brain tissue and cholesteatoma more accurately than CT. We recommend that otolaryngologists avoid unnecessary revision procedures by using the newest imaging modalities for more precise diagnosis of the patients who had undergone mastoidectomy for cholesteatoma in the past.
 

January 2003
O. Shovman, Y. Levi, S. Tal and Y. Shoenfeld
March 2002
Giselle Zandman-Goddard, MD and Sigal Tal, MD
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