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עמוד בית
Tue, 06.06.23

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March 2023
Abedallh Hamad MD, Frida Shemesh MD, Avi Ohry MD, Yekaterina Slutzky MD, Valeria Kaplan RN MA, Svetlana Kartoon MD, Raphael Joseph Heruti MD

Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS), or toxic epidermal necrolysis, is a rare syndrome that develops after an allergic reaction to a medication [1,2]. It affects the skin and the mucocutaneous tissue. Individuals diagnosed with SJS are rarely referred to a rehabilitation medicine (RM) facility.

The annual prevalence of SJS is about one in one million. The skin is covered with blisters. Usually, it affects about 10 % of body surface area. The patients are treated usually by ophthalmologists, dermatologists, allergologists, and immunologists. When severe complications occur, plastic surgeons and intensive care physicians may also be involved. Few publications were found that linked SJS with comprehensive rehabilitation treatment [3-5].

August 2021
Shai Shemesh MD, Alex Bebin MD, Nadav Niego MD, and Tal Frenkel Rutenberg MD

Background: Hip fractures in elderly patients are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Variability in length of hospital stay (LOS) was evident in this population. The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic led to prompt discharge of effected patients in order to reduce contagion risk. LOS and discharge destination in COVID-19 negative patients has not been studied.

Objectives: To evaluate the LOS and discharge destination during the COVID-19 outbreak and compare it with a similar cohort in preceding years.

Methods: A retrospective study was conducted comparing a total of 182 consecutive fragility hip fracture patients operated on during the first COVID-19 outbreak to patients operated on in 2 preceding years. Data regarding demographic, co-morbidities, surgical management, hospitalization, as well as surgical and medical complications were retrieved from electronic charts.

Results: During the pandemic 67 fragility hip fracture patients were admitted (COVID group); 55 and 60 patients were admitted during the same time periods in 2017 and 2018, respectively (control groups). All groups were of similar age and gender. Patients in the COVID group had significantly shorter LOS (7.2 ± 3.3 vs. 8.9 ± 4.9 days, P = 0.008) and waiting time for a rehabilitation facility (7.2 ± 3.1 vs. 9.3 ± 4.9 days, P = 0.003), but greater prevalence of delirium (17.9% vs. 7% of patients, P = 0.028). In hospital mortality did not differ among groups.

Conclusions: LOS and time to rehabilitation were significantly shorter in the COVID group. Delirium was more common in this group, possibly due to negative effects of social distancing.

Tal Frenkel Rutenberg MD, Shai Shemesh MD, Ran Rutenberg MD, Snir Heller MD, Barak Haviv MD, and Alon Burg MD

Background: Flexible flatfoot (FF) is a common foot deformity that can often consist of foot pain. Surgical treatment is designed to lengthen the lateral column.

Objectives: To resolve whether radiographic standing feet measurements of normo-plantigrade feet and FF, symptomatic or not, differ and to determine whether the lateral column is shorter.

Methods: The study comprised 72 patients (127 feet) consecutive patients, 18 years of age and older, who were divided into three groups: normal feet (56), asymptomatic FF (29), and symptomatic FF (42). All patients had a standing anterior posterior (AP) and lateral radiographs. AP images were used for the measurement of the talocalcaneal angle, talar-1st metatarsal angle, and talonavicular coverage. Lateral X-rays were used to estimate the talocalcaneal angle, talar-1st metatarsal angle, calcaneal pitch, naviculocuboid overlap, and column ratio.

Results: All three of the AP radiograph measurements differed among groups, and higher values were measured in the symptomatic FF group. Post hoc analysis found that the talonavicular coverage and the talocalcaneal angles also differed between symptomatic and asymptomatic FF patients. While some lateral measurements differed within groups, only the lateral talar-1st metatarsal angle distinguished between asymptomatic and symptomatic patients. The lateral column length was not found to be shorter among FF patients, weather symptomatic or not.

Conclusions: Only the talonavicular coverage, the AP talocalcaneal, and the lateral talar-1st metatarsal angles were found to differ between asymptomatic and symptomatic FF patients. The lateral column was not found to be shorter

Uri Barak MD, Dimitri Sheinis MD, Eliezer Sidon MD, Shai Shemesh MD, Amir Amitai MD, and Nissim Ohana MD

Background: Cervical spinal surgery is considered safe and effective. One of the few specific complications of this procedure is C5 nerve root palsy. Expressed primarily by deltoid muscle and biceps brachii weakness, it is rare and has been related to nerve root traction or to ischemic spinal cord damage.

Objectives: To determine the clinical and epidemiological traits of C5 palsy. To determine whether C5 palsy occurs predominantly in one specific surgical approach compared to others.

Methods: A retrospective study of patients who underwent cervical spine surgery at our medical center during a consecutive 8-year period was conducted. The patient data were analyzed for demographics, diagnosis, and surgery type and approach, as well as for complications, with emphasis on the C5 nerve root palsy.

Results: The study group was comprised of 124 patients. Seven (5.6%) developed a C5 palsy following surgery. Interventions were either by anterior, by posterior or by a combined approach. Seven patients developed this complication. All of whom had myelopathy and were older males. A combined anteroposterior (5 patients) and posterior access (2 patients) were the only approaches that were associated with the C5 palsy. None of the patients who were operated via an anterior approach did develop this sequel.

Conclusions: The incidence of the C5 root palsy in our cohort reached 5.6%. Interventions performed through a combined anterior-posterior access in older myelopathic males, may carry the highest risk for this complication

January 2021
Mohamed Kittani MD, Barak Haviv MD, Shai Shemesh MD, Lee Yaari MD, Mustafa Yassin MD, and Lea Rath-Wolfson MD

Background: Injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) are common and complete tears often fail to heal. ACL reconstruction is considered the surgical gold standard of care for ACL injuries in young active patients.

Objectives: To determine the corresponding morphological and histological features of the torn ACL in different time periods after injury.

Methods: The study included 28 remnant specimens of torn ACLs from patients who had ACL reconstruction surgery of the knee. The remnant pathology was evaluated by its morphology during arthroscopy and by histopathologic measurements.

Results: At surgery there were three progressive and distinct morphological tear patterns. The first pattern was noticed within the first 3 months from injury and showed no scar tissue. The second pattern appeared later and was characterized by the appearance of scar tissue with adhesion to the femoral wall. The third pattern was characterized by adhesion of the ACL remnant to the posterior cruciate ligament. The histological changes of the first morphological pattern showed abundance of blood vessels and lymphocytes at the torn femoral end with few irregular collagen fibers. The second and third tear patterns showed decrement in the number of blood vessels and lymphocytes with longitudinally oriented collagen fibers.

Conclusions: The morphological features of the ACL remnant in the first 3 months after injury showed no scar tissue and its histological features had the characteristics of a reparative phase. This phase was followed by a prolonged remodeling phase that ended with attachment of the remnant to the posterior cruciate ligament.

December 2020
Rachel Shemesh BSc, Guy J. Ben Simon MD, Lev Bedrin MD, and Arkadi Yakirevitch MD
August 2019
Tal Frenkel Rutenberg MD, Yuval Baruch MD, Nissim Ohana MD, Hanna Bernstine MD, Amir Amitai MD, Nir Cohen MD, Liran Domachevsky MD and Shai Shemesh MD

Background: Implant-related spinal infections are a surgical complication associated with high morbidity. Due to infection, hardware removal may be necessary, which could lead to pseudarthrosis and the loss of stability and alignment.

Objectives: To evaluate the accuracy and diagnostic value of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) in the workup of patients with suspected implant-related infections of the spine and to assess the clinical impact of PET/CT results on the management of these infections.

Methods: The study included nine consecutive patients with a history of spinal surgery who underwent PET/CT for evaluation of suspected spinal implant related infection. All imaging studies were performed between January 2011 and December 2013. All 18F-FDG PET/CT scans were performed on an 8 slice PET/CT following an 18F-FDG injection. Images were scored both visually and semi-quantitatively by a radiology expert. Results were compared to additional imaging studies when available, which were correlated to clinical and bacteriological findings allowing calculation of sensitivity, specificity and accuracy.

Results: Among the patients, five experienced hardware-related spinal infection. 18F-FDG PET/CT sensitivity was 80%, specificity 100%, and accuracy 88.9%. One scan produced a false negative; however, a second PET/CT scan revealed an infection.

Conclusions: PET/CT was found to be valuable for the diagnosis of postoperative hardware-related spinal infection, especially when other imaging modalities were uninformative or inconclusive. As such, PET/CT could be useful for management of infection treatment.

November 2013
D. J. Jakobson and I. Shemesh
 Background: Goal-oriented ultrasound examination is gaining a place in the intensive care unit. Some protocols have been proposed but the applicability of ultrasound as part of a routine has not been studied.

Objectives: To assess the influence of ultrasound performed by intensive care physicians.

Methods: This retrospective descriptive clinical study was performed in a medical-surgical intensive care unit of a university-affiliated general hospital. Data were collected from patients undergoing ultrasound examinations performed by a critical care physician from January 2010 to June 2011.

Results: A total of 299 ultrasound exams were performed in 113 mechanically ventilated patients (70 males, mean age 65 years). Exams included trans-cranial Doppler (n=24), neck evaluation before tracheostomy (n=15), chest exam (n=83), focused cardiac echocardiography (n=60), abdominal exam (n=41), and comprehensive screening at patient admission (n=30). Ultrasound was used to guide invasive procedures for vascular catheter insertion (n=42), pleural fluid drainage (n=24), and peritoneal fluid drainage (n=7). One pneumothorax was seen during central venous line insertion but no complications were observed after pleural or abdominal drainage. The ultrasound study provided good quality visualization in 86% (258 of 299 exams) and was a diagnostic tool that induced a change in treatment in 58% (132 of 226 exams).

Conclusions: Bedside ultrasound examinations performed by critical care physicians provide an important adjunct to diagnostic and therapeutic performance, improving quality of care and patient safety. 

November 2012
December 2011
S. Shemesh, S. Heller, M. Salai and S. Velkes

Background: Intraarticular injections for the local treatment of osteoarthritis are widely used in the office or hospital setting. Septic arthritis is a potential catastrophic complication of intraarticular injection, as bacterial arthritis of any cause is associated with up to 15% mortality and residual impairment of joint function in up to 50% of survivors. There is lack of evidence regarding the precautions that should be taken to avoid such a complication, as well as how often it is encountered.

Objectives: To report our experience with the clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of knee septic arthritis following intraarticular injections. 

Methods: We followed six patients who were admitted to the hospital and underwent surgery for the treatment of pyogenic arthritis following injection to the knee joint in outpatient clinics.

Results: All but one patient were over 70 years old with comorbidities. Three patients were injected with steroid preparations and three with hyaluronic acid several days before admission. In all six patients the infection was treated surgically and three of them had undergone more than one operation during their hospitalization. Four of the six patients were treated by means of an open arthrotomy and synovectomy, and the other two were treated successfully with arthroscopic lavage and synovectomy. One patient underwent an above-knee amputation due to septic shock and died after several days.

Conclusions: Despite the rarity of this complication, surgeons must be aware of the possibility of pyogenic arthritis when administering injections, especially in elderly patients with serious underlying medical conditions.

April 2009
O. Sadan, N. Shemesh, Y. Cohen, E. Melamed and D. Offen

Background: Stem cell-based therapy is a promising approach for the treatment of neurodegenerative disease. In our laboratory, a novel protocol has been developed to induce bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells into neurotrophic factor-secreting cells. These cells produce and secrete factors such as BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) and GDNF (glial-derived neurotrophic factor).

Objectives: To evaluate the migratory capacity and efficacy of NTF-SC[1] in animal models of Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease.

Methods: MSCs[2] underwent two-phase medium-based induction. An efficacy study was conducted on the 6-hydroxydopamine-induced lesion, a rat model for Parkinson's disease. Cells were transplanted on the day of 6-OHDA[3] administration, and amphetamine-induced rotations were measured as a primary behavioral index. In a second experiment, migratory behavior was examined by transplanting cells a distance from a quinolinic acid-induced striatal lesion, a rat model for Huntington's disease. Migration, in vivo, was monitored using longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging scans followed by histology.

Results: NTF-SCs attenuated amphetamine-induced rotations by 45%. HPLC analysis demonstrated a marked decrease in dopamine depletion, post-cellular treatment. Moreover, histological assessments revealed that the engrafted cells migrated and acted to regenerate the damaged striatal dopaminergic nerve terminal network. In a preliminary work on an animal model for Huntington's disease, we demonstrated by high resolution MR images and correlating histology that induced cells migrated along the internal capsule towards the QA[4]-induced lesion.

Conclusions: The induced MSCs are a potential therapy for neurodegenerative diseases, due both to their NTF secretion and their ability to migrate towards the diseased tissue.

[1] NTF-SC = neurotrophic factor-secreting cells

[2] MSCs = mesenchymal stem cells

[3] 6-OHDA = 6-hydroxydopamine

[4] QA = quinolinic acid

November 2008
I. Greenberg-Wolff et al

Background: Cardiac computed tomography scans influde several extra-cardiac structures such as mediastinum, lung parenchyma and upper abdominal organs. A variety of abnormalities in those structures might be clinically important and in some cases might explain the patient's complaints.

Objectives: To analyze consecutive cardiac computed tomography examinations for the prevalence and clinical significance of extra-cardiac findings.

Methods: Cardiac CT scans of 134 sequential patients (104 males, 30 females) aged 20–77 years (mean 54 years) with suspected coronary artery disease were prospectively and independently reviewed by a consensus of two radiologists for the presence of lung, mediastinal, pleural, upper abdominal and skeletal abnormalities. CT scans with extra-cardiac abnormalities were divided into two groups: group A – defined as "clinically significant" or "potentially significant findings" – consisted of patients requiring further evaluation or follow-up, and group B – "clinically non-significant findings."

Results: Extra-cardiac abnormalities were found in 103 of the 134 patients (76.8%). Group A abnormalities were found in 52/134 patients (39%), while group B abnormalities were seen in 85/134 (63%). The most common abnormalities in group A were non-calcified lung nodules (> 4 mm) noted in 17/134 patients (13%), followed by enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes (> 10 mm) in 14/134 (10%), diaphragmatic hernia (2 cm) in 12/134 (9%), moderate or severe degenerative spine disease in 12/134 (9%), and emphysema and aortic aneurysm in 6 patients each (4.5%). A malignant lung tumor was noted in one patient.

Conclusions: There is a high prevalence of non-cardiac abnormalities in patients undergoing CCT[1]. Clinically significant or potentially significant findings can be expected in 40% of patients who undergo CCT, and these will require further evaluation and follow-up. The reporting radiologist should be experienced in chest imaging and aware of the large variety of non-cardiac findings in CCT that might explain the patient's complaints. 

[1] CCT = coronary computed tomography

November 2007
E. Gal, Z. Levi, I. Shemesh, N. Chorev and Y. Niv

Background: Open access gastroscopy allows physicians to refer patients for endoscopic procedures without a prior consultation.

Objectives: To compare the safety and efficacy of OAG[1] with gastroscopy performed after a gastroenterological consultation.

Methods: Patients referred for gastroscopy directly (open access) or after consultation with a gastroenterologist, by physicians in the departments of internal medicine and surgery at a major tertiary center, were compared for indications, background disease, outcome and diagnostic yield. The data were collected prospectively over a 5 month period following the introduction of OAG at the center. Physicians in both departments participated in an education program on the indications and procedure of gastroscopy. For each patient referred for OAG the attending physician completed a specially designed questionnaire that had to be signed by a senior physician. Data were managed and analyzed with Excel and SPSS software.

Results: The study sample comprised 494 patients: of whom 236 were referred for OAG and 258 after prior consultation. On multivariate analysis, hospitalization in the department of internal medicine was the only independent factor for OAG. Severe background disease and aspirin treatment had no effect on physician use of OAG, although they served as a “red light” for the gastroenterology consultants. There was no difference in the diagnostic yield of the procedures (26.4% normal findings for OAG and 28.3% for consultations) or in mortality rates. The main indications for referral to gastroscopy in the surgery department were melena, hematemesis, and "coffee grounds," and anemia and vomiting in the internal medicine department.
Conclusions: OAG is feasible and beneficial in an academic medical center setting, with no bias in appropriateness of indications or decrease in the diagnostic yield compared to the traditional approach. More attention should be directed to safety issues by the referring physicians

[1] OAG = open access gastroscopy

April 2007
A. Eisen, A. Tenenbaum, N. Koren-Morag, D. Tanne, J. Shemesh, A. Golan, E. Z. Fisman, M. Motro, E. Schwammenthal and Y. Adler

Background: Coronary heart disease and ischemic stroke are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in adults, and cerebrovascular disease is associated with the presence of symptomatic and asymptomatic CHD[1]. Several studies noted an association between coronary calcification and thoracic aorta calcification by several imaging techniques, but this association has not yet been examined in stable angina pectoris patients with the use of spiral computed tomography.

Objectives: To examine by spiral CT the association between the presence and severity of CC[2] and thoracic aorta calcification in patients with stable angina pectoris.

Methods: The patients were enrolled in ACTION (A Coronary Disease Trial Investigating Outcome with Nifedipine GITS) in Israel. The 432 patients (371 men and 61 women aged 40–89 years) underwent chest CT and were evaluated for CC and aortic calcification.

Results: CC was documented in 90% of the patients (n=392) and aortic calcification in 70% (n=303). A significant association (P < 0.05) was found between severity of CC and severity of aortic calcification (as measured by area, volume and slices of calcification). We also found an association between the number of coronary vessels calcified and the presence of aortic calcification: 90% of patients with triple-vessel disease (n=157) were also positive for aortic calcification (P < 0.05). Age also had an effect: 87% of patients ≥ 65 years (n=219) were positive for both coronary and aortic calcification (P = 0.005) while only 57% ≤ 65 (n=209) were positive for both (P = 0.081).

Conclusions: Our study demonstrates a strong association between the presence and severity of CC and the presence and severity of calcification of thoracic aorta in patients with stable angina pectoris as detected by spiral CT.


[1] CHD = coronary heart disease

[2] CC = coronary calcification

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