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עמוד בית
Tue, 06.06.23

Search results

February 2021
Nir Hod MD MHA, Daniel Levin MD, Sophie Lantsberg MD, Gideon Sahar MD, Karen Nalbandyan MD, Aharon Yehonatan Cohen MD, and Aryeh Shalev MD
April 2019
Lotem Dafna MD, Hadas Ganer Herman MD, Shimon Ginath MD, Amir Shalev MD, Ram Kerner MD, Ran Keidar MD, Jacob Bar MD MsC and Ron Sagiv MD

Background: When a woman with an endometrioma presents with acute abdominal pain, it is unclear whether ovarian torsion should be suspected.

Objectives: To compare patient characteristics, imaging results, and surgical management of endometriomas in elective versus emergent surgeries.

Methods: This retrospective cohort study included women treated at our institution during the period 1990–2015 who presented with histologically verified endometrioma and who underwent either planned surgery or emergent surgery due to suspected adnexal torsion.

Results: Of 225 surgeries performed, 174 were elective and 51 emergent. Patients in the emergent group were significantly younger (33.9 ± 11.1 vs. 39.01 ± 10.9 years, P = 0.004). Abdominal pain was the main complaint of all the emergent surgery patients and the leading complaint in 21% of the elective surgery patients (P < 0.001), with right-sided predominance in both groups. Sonographic parameters were similar in both groups. Bilateral ovarian cysts were noted in 11.7% and 11.0% of emergent and elective patients, respectively (P = 0.87). Laboratory evaluation was notable for a higher white blood cell count and CA125 levels among emergent patients. All patients in the emergent group and 93% of patients in the elective group were managed laparoscopically. No cases of torsion were noted. The rate of intra-pelvic adhesions was similar in both groups (56.8% vs. 66.6%, P = 0.19).

Conclusions: Endometrioma may present with acute abdominal pain. However, adnexal torsion in these patients is rare. These cases can be managed using a minimally invasive approach, assuming an optimal surgical setting.

January 2016
Etty Daniel-Spiegel MD, Micha Mandel PhD, Daniel Nevo MA, Avraham Ben-Chetrit MD, Ori Shen MD, Eliezer Shalev MD and Simcha Yagel MD

Background: Selection of appropriate reference charts for fetal biometry is mandatory to ensure an accurate diagnosis. Most hospitals and clinics in Israel use growth curves from the United States. Charts developed in different populations do not perform well in the Israeli population.

Objectives: To construct new reference charts for fetal biparietal diameter (BPD), head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC) and femur length (FL), using a large sample of fetuses examined at 14–42 weeks gestational age in a medical center and a community ultrasound unit located in two different regions of Israel. 

Methods: Data from the medical center and the community clinic were pooled. The mean and standard error of each measure for each week was calculated. Based on these, reference charts were calculated using quantiles of the normal distribution. The performance of the reference charts was assessed by comparing the new values to empirical quantiles.

Results: Biometric measurements were obtained for 79,328 fetuses. Growth charts were established based on these measurements. The overall performance of the curves was very good, with only a few exceptions among the higher quantiles in the third trimester in the medical center subsample.

Conclusions: We present new local reference charts for fetal biometry, derived from a large and minimally selected Israeli population. We suggest using these new charts in routine daily obstetric practice.


November 2015
Moshe Simons MD, Samuel N. Heyman MD, Michael Bursztyn MD, Oded Shalev MD, Nurith Hiller MD and Sarah Israel MD
October 2014
Yael Bar-On MD, Varda Shalev MD, Dahlia Weitzman PhD, Gabriel Chodick PhD and Howard Amital MD MHA
December 2013
Sergiu C. Blumen, Anat Kesler, Ron Dabby, Stavit Shalev, Chaiat Morad, Yechoshua Almog, Joseph Zoldan, Felix Benninger, Vivian E. Drory, Michael Gurevich, Menachem Sadeh, Bernard Brais and Itzhak Braverman
 Background: Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD) produced by the (GCG)13 expansion mutation in the PABPN1 gene is frequent among Uzbek Jews in Israel.

Objectives: To describe the phenotypic and genotypic features in five Bulgarian Jewish patients, from different families, with autosomal dominant OPMD.

Methods: We performed clinical follow-up, electrodiagnostic tests and mutation detection. Blood samples were obtained after informed consent and DNA was extracted; measurement of GCG repeats in both PABPN1 alleles and sequencing of OPMD mutations were performed according to standard techniques.

Results: We identified five patients (four females), aged 58 to 71 years, with bilateral ptosis, dysphagia, dysphonia (n=3) and myopathic motor units by electromyography. In all patients we noticed proximal weakness of the upper limbs with winging scapulae in three of them. All cases shared the (GCG)13-(GCG)10 PABPN1 genotype.

Conclusions: OPMD among Bulgarian Jews is produced by a (GCG)13 expansion, identical to the mutation in Uzbek Jews and French Canadians. In addition to the classical neurological and neuro-ophthalmological features, early shoulder girdle weakness is common in Bulgarian Jewish patients; this is an unusual feature during the early stages of OPMD produced by the same mutation in other populations. We suggest that besides the disease-producing GCG expansion, additional ethnicity-related genetic factors may influence the OPMD phenotype. OPMD is a rare disease, and the identification of five affected families in the rather small Bulgarian Jewish community in Israel probably represents a new cluster; future haplotype studies may elucidate whether a founder effect occurred. 

September 2012
R. Sukenik-Halevy, U. leil-Zoabi, L, Peled-Perez, J. Zlotogora, and S. Allon-Shalev

Background: Genetic screening tests for cystic fibrosis (CF), fragile X (FRAX) and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) have been offered to the entire Arab population of Israel in the last few years. Since 2008, screening for CF is provided free of charge, but for FRAX and SMA the screening is privately funded with partial coverage by complementary health insurance programs.

Objectives: To assess the compliance of Arab couples for genetic screening tests, and the factors that affect their decisions.

Methods: We analyzed compliance for genetic screening tests at the Emek Medical Center Genetic Institute, and in outreach clinics in four Arab villages. We enquired about the reasons individuals gave for deciding not to undergo testing. We also assessed the compliance of these individuals for the triple test (a screening test for Down syndrome).

Results: Of the 167 individuals included in our study, 24 (14%) decided not to be tested at all. Of the 143 (86%) who decided to be tested, 109 were tested for CF only (65%) and 34 (20%) for SMA and FRAX (as well as CF). The compliance rate for the triple test was 87%. Technical reasons, mainly financial issues, were the most significant factor for not undergoing all three tests.

Conclusions: The compliance of the Arab community for genetic testing for SMA and FRAX is extremely low. We believe that this low utilization of screening is due to economic reasons, especially when a complementary health plan has not been acquired, and largely reflects the perception that these tests are less important since they are privately funded.

July 2012
S. Giryes, E. Leibovitz, Z. Matas, S. Fridman, D. Gavish, B. Shalev, Z. Ziv-Nir, Y. Berlovitz and M. Boaz
Background: Depending on the definition used, malnutrition is prevalent among 20¨C50% of hospitalized patients. Routine nutritional screening is necessary to identify patients with or at increased risk for malnutrition. The Nutrition Risk Screening (NRS 2002) has been recommended as an efficient tool to identify the risk of malnutrition in adult inpatients.

Objectives: To utilize the NRS 2002 to estimate the prevalence of malnutrition among newly hospitalized adult patients, and to identify risk factors for malnutrition.

Methods: During a 5 week period, all adult patients newly admitted to all inpatient departments (except Maternity and Emergency) at Wolfson Medical Center, Holon, were screened using the NRS 2002. An answer of yes recorded for any of the Step 1 questions triggered the Step 2 screen on which an age-adjusted total score ¡Ý 3 indicated high malnutrition risk.

Results: Data were obtained from 504 newly hospitalized adult patients, of whom 159 (31.5%) were identified as high risk for malnutrition. Malnutrition was more prevalent in internal medicine than surgical departments: 38.6% vs. 19.1% (P < 0.001). Body mass index was within the normal range among subjects at high risk for malnutrition: 23.9 ¡À 5.6 kg/m2 but significantly lower than in subjects at low malnutrition risk: 27.9 ¡À 5.3 kg/m2 (P < 0.001). Malnutrition risk did not differ by gender or smoking status, but subjects at high malnutrition risk were significantly older (73.3 ¡À 16.2 vs. 63.4 ¡À 18.4 years, P < 0.001). Total protein, albumin, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, hemoglobin and %lymphocytes were all significantly lower, whereas urea, creatinine and %neutrophils were significantly higher in patients at high malnutrition risk.

Conclusions: Use of the NRS 2002 identified a large proportion of newly hospitalized adults as being at high risk for malnutrition. These findings indicate the need to intervene on a system-wide level during hospitalization.
June 2012
L. Barski, L. Shalev, M. Zektser, H. Malada-Mazri, D. Abramov and Y. Rafaely

Background: Establishing the etiology of a large pericardial effusion is of crucial importance since it is likely the result of a serious underlying disease. However, there is a paucity of literature on the diagnostic management of patients with large hemorrhagic effusions.

Objectives: To analyze the management of patients with large hemorrhagic pericardial effusion.

Methods: We reviewed seven cases of large hemorrhagic pericardial effusions hospitalized in Soroka University Medical Center in 2010.

Results: All seven patients underwent a comprehensive evaluation followed by pericardiocentesis. Six of the seven cases demonstrated echocardiographic signs of tamponade. Large amounts of hemorrhagic pericardial effusion (> 600 ml) were aspirated from each patient. A pericardial window was performed in two of the seven patients. The causes for the hemorrhagic effusions were malignancy, streptococcal infection, familial Mediterranean fever exacerbation, and idiopathic. Four patients completely recovered. The condition of one patient improved after initiation of chemotherapy for lung cancer, and two patients with progressive malignancies passed away shortly after discharge. Two cases of massive pulmonary embolism were diagnosed which resolved spontaneously without anticoagulation therapy after the effusion was treated.

Conclusions: All cases of pericardial effusion resolved after rapid diagnosis and initiation of specific treatment. Pulmonary embolism in situ may be a complication of large pericardial effusions that does not require anticoagulation treatment after the effusion resolves.

April 2009
A. Koren, L. Zalman, H. Palmor, R. Bril Zamir, C. Levin, A. Openheim, E. Daniel-Spiegel, S. Shalev and D. Filon

Background: Sickle cell anemia is a hemolytic anemia caused by a single mutation in position 6 of the β globin molecule. About 80 patients with SCA[1] in northern Israel are currently receiving treatment.

Objectives: To assess a screening program in northern Israel aimed at detecting couples at risk for having offspring with SCA.

Methods: Since 1987, screening for β thalassemia in pregnant women in northern Israel has been conducted, and from 1999 all the samples were also tested for hemoglobin S, Hgb C, Hgb D, Hgb O Arab and others.

Results: During the 20 year period 1987–2006 a total of 69,340 women were screened; 114 couples who carried Hgb S were detected and 187 prenatal diagnoses were performed in couples at risk for having an offspring with Hgb S. The mean gestational age was 13 ± 4 weeks. Fifty-four of those diagnoses revealed affected fetuses and in 4 cases the couple declined to perform therapeutic abortion.

Conclusions: The economic burden to the health services for treating SCA patients is about U.S.$ 7000 per year, and the institution of prevention programs has proven cost-effective in populations with a high frequency of carriers. Since our program is aimed to also detect β thalassemia, a disease that is more frequent in this area (> 2.5%), the added cost for the prevention of SCA is less significant in spite a low incidence of the S gene in our population, namely < 1%.

[1] SCA = sickle cell anemia

July 2008
A. Shalev, L. Zeller, O. Galante, A. Shimony, H. Gilutz and R. Illia
August 2007
G. Chodick, C.M. Ronckers, V. Shalev and E. Ron

Background: The use of computed tomography in Israel has been growing rapidly during recent decades. The major drawback of this important technology is the exposure to ionizing radiation, especially among children, who have increased organ radiosensitivity and a long lifetime to potentially develop radiation-related cancer.

Objective: To estimate the number of excess lifetime cancer deaths related to annual CT scans performed in children in Israel.

Methods: We used CT scan utilization data from 1999 to 2003 obtained from the second largest health management organization in the country to project age and gender-specific CT scan use nationwide. Based on published organ doses for common CT examinations and radiation-related cancer mortality risk estimates from studies in survivors of the atomic bomb, we estimated the excess lifetime risks for cancer mortality attributed to use of CT in children and adolescents (up to 18 years old) in Israel.

Results: We estimated that 17,686 pediatric scans were conducted annually in Israel during 1999–2003. We project that 9.5 lifetime deaths would be associated with 1 year of pediatric CT scanning. This number represents an excess of 0.29% over the total number of patients who are eventually estimated to die from cancer in their lifetime.

Conclusions: Pediatric CT scans in Israel may result in a small but not negligible increased lifetime risk for cancer mortality. Because of the uncertainty regarding radiation effects at low doses, our estimates of CT-related cancer mortality should be considered with caution. Nevertheless, physicians, CT technologists, and health authorities should work together to minimize the radiation dose for children to as low as reasonably achievable and encourage responsible use of this essential diagnostic tool.

December 2006
E.S. Kokia, R. Marom, V. Shalev, Y. Jan and J. Shemer
 Background: During war the health management organizations have tremendous difficulty monitoring members' needs according to geographic spread.

Objectives: To describe how an HMO[1] used its health information technology in a way that enables its management to receive updated online information on the demands of the insured, according to their distribution throughout the country during the time of the war in Lebanon in July-August 2006.

Methods: Data were derived from the computerized medical records of Maccabi Healthcare Services – the second largest HMO in Israel, providing care to more than 1.7 million members nationwide. Data on healthcare utilization by northern members were compared to the geographic distribution of clinics.

Results: The war was characterized by the massive evacuation of citizens southwards. During this period there was an abrupt decline in the utilization of medical services by northern members in the northern region. This decline returned to normal 10 days after the ceasefire. A reciprocal increase was noted in the use of health services by citizens from the north in other regions. This increase returned to normal after the war. No such pattern was noticed during the same period in 2005.

Conclusions: Real-time surveillance of trends in consumption of health services by citizens in times of regular daily living as well as during emergencies and wars is a vital management tool for medical directors responsible for providing health services.


[1] HMO = health management organization

December 2005
V. Yehezkely-Schildkraut, M. Kutai, Y. Hugeirat, C. Levin, S. Alon Shalev, G. Mazor, A. Koren.

Background: The cause of cerebral palsy remains unknown in most cases. Factor V Leiden mutation, a common cause of hereditary thrombophilia, has been associated with CP[1].

Objectives: To analyze the prevalence of factor V Leiden (G1691A), prothrombin (G20210A), and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (C677T) mutations in children with CP.

Methods: Sixty-one children with CP were studied for the presence of the three gene mutations associated with thrombophilia.

Results: We found that 41% of the children with CP and 33% of the controls carry one or more of the studied mutations (P = 0.348). The prevalence of the factor V mutation was 27.9% in CP and 16.4% in controls (P = 0.127). The frequency of the other two genetic factors was even less significant. The FVL[2] mutation was found in 35% of the Arab CP patients (15/42) and in 22% of the controls from the same population (9/40) (P = 0.067).

Conclusions: Each of the genetic factors studied was shown to be related to CP. Despite the high frequency of FVL among the studied patients, we were unable to prove a significant correlation between FVL and CP, mainly because this factor is frequent in the Arab control group. In this population a trend toward significance can be seen (P = 0.067). Larger studies are needed to validate the significance of these results.

[1] CP = cerebral palsy

[2] FVL = factor V Leiden

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