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עמוד בית
Mon, 15.07.24

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July 2014
Adi Klein-Kremer MD, Irena Liphshitz MA, Ziona Haklai MA, Shai Linn PhD and Micha Barchana MD MPH
Background: Physicians’ occupational environment includes exposures to potential carcinogenic. Factors on a regular basis. The prevalence of specific tumor types and subsequent mortality are reported to be elevated in physicians.

Objectives: To assess the incidence of various cancer types among Israeli physicians of various specialties, as compared with the general population, and to determine the role, if any, of gender and ethnicity.

Methods: This historical retrospective cohort analysis incorporated data on Israeli officially licensed physicians and information retrieved from the Israel National Cancer Registry database (INCR). Physicians were divided into five groups: 1) non-specialists, 2) internists, 3) pediatricians, 4) surgeons, and 5) potentially at-risk specialties. Data were collected retrospectively for the years 1980–2007.

Results: The study cohort comprised 37,789 physicians, of whom 33,393 (88.37%) were Jews and 4396 (11.63%) were Arabs. Comparing Jewish physicians to the general population revealed higher rates of: a) breast cancer among female specialized physicians, and b) melanoma among specialized male and female physicians. All cancer types were more prevalent in the Arab physicians than in the general Arab population.

Conclusions: This study revealed incidences of specific cancer types among different medical specialties as compared to the general population. Hopefully, these findings will prompt changes in the occupational environment of physicians of particular specialties in order to reduce their high risk for cancer occurrence.
June 2013
E.D. Amster, S.S. Fertig, U. Baharal, S. Linn, M.S. Green, Z. Lencovsky and R.S. Carel
 Background: From 2 to 5 December 2010, Israel experienced the most severe forest fire in its history, resulting in the deaths of 44 rescue workers. Little research exists on the health risks to emergency responders during forest fires, and there is no published research to date on occupational health among firefighters in Israel.

Objectives: To describe the exposures experienced by emergency responders to smoke, fire retardants and stress; the utilization of protective equipment; and the frequency of corresponding symptoms during and following the Carmel Forest fire.

Methods: A cohort of 204 firefighters and 68 police who took part in rescue and fire-abating activities during the Carmel Forest fire were recruited from a representative sample of participating stations throughout the country and interviewed regarding their activities during the fire and their coinciding symptoms. Unpaired two-sample t-test compared mean exposures and symptom frequency for firefighters and police. Chi-square estimates of OR and 95% CI are provided for odds of reporting symptoms, incurring injury or being hospitalized for various risk factors.

Results: Of the study participants, 87% reported having at least one symptom during rescue work at the Carmel Forest fire, with eye irritation (77%) and fatigue (71%) being the most common. Occupational stress was extremely high during the fire; the average length of time working without rest was 18.4 hours among firefighters.

Conclusions: Firefighters and police were exposed to smoke and occupational stress for prolonged periods during the fire. Further research is needed on the residual health effects from exposure to forest fires among emergency responders, and to identify areas for improvement in health preparedness.  

March 2011
O. Beyar Katz, A. Ben Barak, G. Abrahami, N. Arad, Y. Burstein, R. Dvir, S. Fischer, J. Kapelushnik, H. Kaplinsky, A. Toren, S. Vilk-Revel, M. Weintraub, I. Yaniv, S. Linn, B. Futerman and M. Weyl Ben-Arush

Background: Survival in T cell lymphoblastic lymphoma has improved over the past 30 years, largely due to treatment protocols derived from regimens designed for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Objectives: To assess the outcome of the NHL-BFM-95 protocol in children and adolescents hospitalized during the period 1999–2006.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective multi-institutional, non-randomized study of children and adolescents up to age 21 with T cell lymphoma admitted to pediatric departments in six hospitals in Israel, with regard to prevalence, clinical characteristics, pathological characteristics, prognostic factors, overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS). All patients had a minimal follow-up of one year after diagnosis. The study was based on the NHL[1]-BFM[2]-95 protocol.

Results: At a median follow-up of 4 years (range 1–9 years), OS and EFS for all patients was 86.5% and 83.8%, respectively. OS was 86.7% and 83.3% for patients with stage III and stage IV, respectively, and EFS was 83.3% and 83.3%, respectively. EFS was 62.5% for Arab patients and 89.7% for Jewish patients (P = 0.014). Patients who did not express CD45 antigen showed superior survival (P = 0.028). Five (13.5%) patients relapsed, four of whom died of their disease. Death as a consequence of therapy toxicity was documented in one patient while on the re-induction protocol (protocol IIA).

Conclusions: Our study shows that OS and EFS for all patients was 86.5% and 83.8%, respectively.






[1] NHL = non-Hodgkin lymphoma



[2] BFM = Berlin-Frankfurt-Munster


September 2006
Y. Haron, O. Hussein, L. Epstein, D. Eilat, B. Harash and S. Linn

Background: The Muslim Circassians in Israel represent a unique ethnic community, distinct from Jews and Arabs. This endogamous group has a limited genetic variability that allows studying risk factors associated with type 2 diabetes.

Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of type 2 diabetes among Israeli Circassians and its correlation to obesity and genetic susceptibility.

Methods: Israeli Circassian women (n=450) and men (n=289) older than 35 were included in the study. They were classified as having or not having diabetes, and their risk factors, including hypertension, body mass index, family history of diabetes, and laboratory tests, were examined retrospectively.

Results: The age-adjusted prevalence of diabetes among the 739 participants was 12% (men 14.6%, women 10.7%). It was higher among those with BMI[1] > 30 than in those with lower BMI and a family history of diabetes without high BMI. But the risk of diabetes with BMI > 30 plus a family history was three times higher than when these factors were missing (odds ratio 2.96, 95% confidence interval 1.30–6.6). Multivariate analysis, however, found familial history of diabetes to be the strongest risk factor, independent of obesity (OR[2] 2.47, 95% CI[3] 1.45–4.20).

Conclusions: The results yielded by this homogeneous Circassian population, sharing the same environmental influences and having an endogamous pattern of marriage, suggest a role of genetic risk factors for diabetes. Israeli Circassians are suitable for additional genetic studies that may lead to the identification of susceptibility genes for type 2 diabetes.






[1] BMI = body mass index



[2] OR = odds ratio



[3] CI = confidence interval


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