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עמוד בית
Sat, 20.07.24

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December 2015
Ori Segal MD, Joseph R. Ferencz MD, Michael Mimouni MD, Ronit Nesher MD, Perri Cohen MA and Arie Y. Nemet MD
 

Background: Reports of lamellar macular holes (LMHs) with underlying age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are rare and the specific definition, pathogenesis, and surgical recommendations for this macular condition remain unclear.


Objectives: To present a series of LMHs in eyes with underlying end-stage AMD, and describe optical coherence tomography (OCT) detection of associated morphologic abnormalities.


Methods: We reviewed the files of consecutive patients diagnosed with LMH and underlying end-stage AMD between September 2007 and September 2011. 


Results: Sixteen eyes of 14 patients were included in this study. The average follow-up after the OCT-established diagnosis of LMH was 19.8 months (range 4–48). The average visual acuity (VA) at last follow-up visit was 20/400 (20/60–20/1200). The best-corrected VA was stable in 10 eyes (62.5%) and deteriorated in 6 (37.5%). There was a statistically significant correlation between VA and minimal foveal thickness (r = -0.598, P = 0.014).


Conclusions: In this series of LMHs with underlying AMD the OCT findings were intraretinal fluid, cystic spaces and window defect.


 
August 2014
Ronit Nesher MD, on behalf of the Israel Glaucoma Screening Group*

* Israel Glaucoma Screening Group 2009-2010 (in alphabetical order):

Applebaum E, Arodi A, Avidar A, Barkana Y, Beiran I, Bracha Z, Burgansky Z, Cotlear D, Dafna O, Drori L, ElNaddaf H, Epstein E, Garzozi H, Gawi H, Geffen N, Glovinsky Y, Hadayer A, Jubran R, Kalev-Landoy M, Kaniezer B, Kratz A, Kurtz S, Matanes M, Mazover A, Mazzawi N, Naveh L, Nesher R, Neuman H, Pedut T, Pikel Y, Rachmiel R, Rath E, Robinson A, Segev E, Shemesh G, Shoham N, Silverston B, Tam G, Tessler Z, Tiosano B, Vidan A, Vishinevski I, Zalish M, Zarfati D, Zorani Y.

Background: Early detection of glaucoma enables early initiation of treatment. Screening populations at risk is likely to help achieve this goal.

Objectives: To increase public awareness regarding early detection of glaucoma, and estimate the prevalence of increased intraocular pressure (IOP) and optic disk cupping in the screened population.

Methods: A public awareness campaign was carried out in Israel during the 2009 and 2010 World Glaucoma Week, culminating each year in a one-day, free-of-charge screening of individuals in 13 outreach public locations. Screening was performed by 45 ophthalmologists and included a brief medical history, slit-lamp exam with measurement of intraocular pressure (IOP), and evaluation of cup/disk ratio.

Results: A total of 2560 individuals were screened; the mean age was 59 ± 13 years. IOP ≥ 21 mmHg was found in 4.8%, and 12.3% had cupping ≥ 0.5. IOP ≥ 21 mmHg together with cupping ≥ 0.5 were present in 1.4% and this rate increased with age: 3.7% of cases in the age group ≥ 70 years compared to 1% and 0.6% in the age groups 50–69 and < 50 years, respectively (P < 0.001). Likewise, the prevalence of cupping ≥ 0.7 and of IOP ≥ 24 mmHg increased significantly with age. The prevalence of IOP ≥ 21 mmHg increased in cases with a family history of glaucoma in first-degree relatives (10.5% compared to 3.9%, P < 0.001). The prevalence of IOP ≥ 21 mmHg was also increased in diabetic patients (8.3% vs. 4.3% in non-diabetics, P = 0.002). Further ophthalmologic evaluation was recommended to 13% of the screened individuals.

Conclusions: Outreach screening for glaucoma is a valuable tool for detecting glaucoma, pre-perimetric glaucoma, or ocular hypertension in a meaningful number of previously undiagnosed cases. Yet, cost-effectiveness issues should also be considered. The yield of such screening increases with age and seems to be most advantageous in cases with diabetes or a family history of glaucoma. 

July 2013
O. Segal, J.R. Ferencz, P. Cohen, .A.Y. Nemet and R. Nesher

Background: The number of patients treated with intravitreal injections has increased significantly over the past few years, mainly following the introduction of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor antibody intraocular medications. Bevacizumab is mostly used in this group of medications.

Objectives: To describe persistent elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP) following intravitreal injection of bevacizumab.

Methods: We reviewed consecutive cases of persistent IOP elevation after intravitreal bevacizumab injection for exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD). A total of 424 patients (528 eyes) met the inclusion criteria and received 1796 intravitreal injections of bevacizumab. Persistent IOP elevation was found in 19 eyes (3.6%, 19/528) of 18 patients (4.2%, 18/424) with IOP elevated 30–70 mmHg, 3–30 days after injection.

Results: Mean IOP was 42.6 mmHg (range 30–70); IOP elevations occurred after an average of 7.8 injections of bevacizumab (range 3–13). Injected eyes (19/528) had a significantly higher incidence of elevated IOP than uninjected eyes (fellow eyes), 1/328, P < 0.001.

 Conclusions: Like other anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) substances reported in a few recent studies, intravitreal injection of bevacizumab for neovascular AMD may be associated with persistent IOP elevation. Providers should be aware that significant IOP elevation might occur after repeated treatments. 

June 2013
G.S. Breuer, R. Nesher, K. Reinus and G. Nesher
 Background: In most cases of giant cell arteritis (GCA) the diagnosis is confirmed by temporal artery biopsy. Aside from the diagnostic purpose, histological parameters may serve as prognostic markers.

Objectives: To review positive temporal artery biopsiese of GCA in an attempt to correlate various histological parameters with clinical features, disease complications and outcome.

Methods: Positive biopsies from 65 GCA patients were randomly selected for review by a single pathologist. In each biopsy the following parameters were scored: intensity and location of the inflammatory infiltrate, presence of giant cells and other cell types, fragmentation and calcification of the internal elastic lamina, intimal thickening, and presence of luminal thrombus. Clinical data were obtained from the patients’ charts. Intensity of the initial systemic inflammatory reaction (ISIR) at the time of diagnosis was scored by the presence of five parameters: fever, anemia, thrombocytosis, leukocytosis, and sedimentation rate > 100 mm/hr.

Results: In cases with bilateral positive biopsy (n=27), there was good correlation between the two sides regarding intensity of inflammation (r = 0.65, P < 0.001), location of the infiltrate (r = 0.7, P < 0.001), degree of intimal thickening (r = 0.54, P < 0.001), and presence of giant cells (r = 0.83, P < 0.001). The rate of corticosteroid discontinuation tended to be quicker in patients with inflammatory infiltrates confined mainly to the adventitia, but other histological parameters did not affect this rate.

Conclusions: Inflammatory infiltrates confined to the adventitia were associated with more neuro-ophthalmic ischemic manifestations, weak/moderate ISIR at the time of diagnosis, and faster rate of corticosteroid discontinuation. No association was found between other temporal artery biopsy histological parameters and clinical features of GCA patients.

 

April 2012
R. Nesher, R. Kohen, S. Shulman, B. Siesky, Y. Nahum and A. Harris

Background: Vascular insufficiency is considered to play an important role in the pathogenesis of normal-tension glaucoma (NTG). Autoregulation of blood flow in the eye has been shown to be impaired in NTG, resulting in the inability to compensate for changes in intraocular pressure or blood pressure in order to maintain adequate perfusion. Objectives: To evaluate the occurrence of combined bradycardia-hypotension during 24 hour monitoring of blood pressure and heart rate in patients with NTG.

Methods: Eleven NTG patients participated in the study. All had episodic symptoms of dizziness or lightheadedness, but were confirmed as not having a diagnosis of orthostatic hypotension. Twenty-four hour monitoring was performed with systemic blood pressure and heart rate automatically measured every 20 minutes during daytime and every hour during the night. The cardiac diastolic and systolic double products (dDP and sDP) at each reading were calculated by multiplying the heart rate by the respective blood pressure. dDP < 3600 and sDP < 5400 (corresponding to a heart rate of 60 beats/min and a blood pressure of 60 and 90 mmHg, respectively) were considered abnormally low, and dDP < 2500 and sDP < 4000 (corresponding to a heart rate 50 beats/min and a blood pressure of 50 and 80 mmHg, respectively) were considered severely abnormal.

Results: dDP was abnormally low in all 11 NTG patients on at least one occasion, the majority occurring during the night-time hours, while abnormally low sDP was present in 8 of the 11 patients. The mean cumulative duration of low dDP readings was 4.2 ± 3.2 hours. Severely low dDP readings were observed in six patients.

Conclusions: Abnormally low dDP was recorded in all NTG patients, lasting more than an hour in the majority of cases. Abnormally decreased dDP may represent a state of cardiovascular autonomic dysregulation, resulting in low ocular perfusion in certain NTG patients.

April 2003
R. Nesher and U. Ticho

Background: The frequent systemic side effects associated with the use of systemic carbonic anhydrase inhibitors have adversely affected the compliance to treatment in glaucoma patients, obviating their long-term use. The introduction of the topical CAI[1], dorzolamide, has further reduced their use. However, the tolerability of dorzolamide in patients who have been intolerant to systemic CAIs has not been evaluated prospectively.

Objectives: To study the tolerability and efficacy of dorzolamide (a topical CAI) in a selected group of glaucoma and ocular hypertensive patients who have been intolerant to systemic CAI.

Methods: A 3 month prospective study was conducted in 39 patients. Following recruitment, patients were evaluated on the day of switching from systemic CAI to dorzolamide and for five more visits. The SF-36 health assessment questionnaire was used to evaluate changes in well-being and quality of life, and the intraocular pressure was measured periodically.

Results: Within 4 weeks of switching from systemic CAI to dorzolamide, the mean health assessment scores improved significantly in seven of the eight categories of the SF-36, and remained generally unchanged for the rest of the study. No significant differences were noted between the mean IOP[2] on day 0 and the following measurements throughout the 84 days of dorzolamide therapy.

Conclusion: In glaucoma patients who were intolerant to systemic CAI, topical CAI dorzolamide offers a similar efficacy and better tolerability.






[1] CIA = carbonic anhydrase inhibitor



[2] IOP = intraocular pressure


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