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עמוד בית
Fri, 30.09.22

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January 2020
Ariel Greenberg MD, Revital Kariv MD, Irit Solar PhD and Dov Hershkovitz MD PhD

Background: Evaluation of mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency is conducted via immunohistochemistry or by microsatellite instability (MSI) analysis. Heterogeneous immunohistochemistry staining for MMR proteins may show different patterns; however, according to current guidelines, all of those patterns should be interpreted as MMR proficient. This conclusion might lead to false negative results because although most cases of heterogeneity stem from technical factors and biological variability, other types of heterogeneity represent true MMR deficiency.

Objectives: To identify a unique heterogeneity pattern that is associated with true MMR loss.

Methods: We analyzed 145 cases of colorectal carcinoma. Immunohistochemistry staining for MLH1, PMS2, MSH2, and MSH6 were performed. We defined geographic heterogeneity as areas of tumor nuclear staining adjacent to areas of loss of tumor nuclear staining with intact staining in the surrounding stroma. All cases were evaluated for the presence of geographic heterogeneity. In addition, 24 cases were also evaluated by MSI testing.

Results: Of the 145 cases, 24 (16.5%) were MMR deficient. Of the 24 cases for which MSI analysis was also available, 10 cases (41.7%) demonstrated biological heterogeneity, 5 (20.8%) demonstrated technical heterogeneity, and 2 (8.3%) demonstrated geographic heterogeneity. Only the two cases with geographic heterogeneity were MSI-high via MSI analysis. In addition, a germline mutation in MSH-6 was identified in one of these cases.

Conclusions: Geographic heterogeneity may raise a suspicion for a MMR-deficient case, which should be further analyzed using additional methodologies such as MSI analysis.

September 2010
G. Rosner, P. Rozen, D. Bercovich, C. Shochat, I. Solar, H. Strul, R. Kariv and Z. Halpern

Background: Patients with multiple (< 100) colorectal adenomatous polyps are at increased risk for colorectal cancer. Genetic evaluation of those patients who test negative for APC gene mutation is both a clinical and economic burden but is critical for counseling and surveillance. In Israel, this is confounded by the fact that national health insurance does not fully cover genetic evaluation of APC gene exon 16.

Objectives: To perform a comprehensive genetic evaluation of APC gene mutation-negative polyposis patients with the aim of developing a future evaluation protocol.

Methods: Genetic analyses were performed in 29 APC gene mutation-negative Jewish individuals with 5 to ≥ 40 colonic adenomas who did not fulfill Amsterdam (clinical) criteria for Lynch syndrome. Analyses included completion of APC gene exon 16 sequencing, analysis for APC gene copy number variations (deletions or duplications), MUTYH gene sequencing, and microsatellite instability in CRC[1] patients fulfilling “Bethesda” (laboratory investigation) criteria for Lynch syndrome.

Results: Completion of APC gene exon 16 sequencing revealed one patient with the E1317Q polymorphism. All were normal by APC multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis. Pathogenic MUTYH mutations were found in three patients, all of North African origin; two additional patients had variants of unknown significance. One of six patients with Bethesda-positive criteria was MSI2-High with immunohistology consistent with MLH1 mutation.

Conclusions: Based on this small but well-characterized cohort with multiple colorectal adenomas, Lynch syndrome needs to be excluded if there are compatible criteria; otherwise MUTYH sequencing is probably the first step in evaluating APC-negative patients, especially for Jews of North African descent. Completing APC exon 16 sequencing and copy number variations analysis should probably be the last evaluations.

 






[1] CRC = colorectal cancer


December 2002
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