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עמוד בית
Wed, 17.07.24

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June 2024
Yacov Shacham MD

Among patients admitted with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF), deterioration of renal function with resulting acute kidney injury (AKI) is reported in up to 70% of patients with cardiogenic shock. Twenty percent of heart failure patients with AKI progress to dialysis (AKI-D). Optimal timing for initiation of renal replacement therapies (RRT) has been researched; however, minimal studies discuss guidelines for weaning from RRT [1]. Electronic monitoring of urine output (UO) may serve as a tool to aid in withdrawal from RRT. We present a case of ADHF with severe AKI requiring continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) where real-time electronic monitoring of UO was implemented for the first time to guide de-escalation therapy from CRRT until successful withdrawal.

May 2023
Yuval Cavari MD, Olga Yermiahu CCRN MHA, Orna Staretz Chacham MD, Guy Beck Rosen MD MHA, Eitan Neeman MD, Isaac Lazar MD

Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 1 (CPS1; MIM *608307; E.C. is the first rate-limiting enzyme of the urea cycle, an essential metabolic pathway for ammonia detoxification. CPS1 deficiency (CPS1-D) is characterized by severe hyperammonemia during disease exacerbations. During a metabolic crisis, children with CPS1-D are admitted with vomiting, altered mental status, and high serum levels of ammonia. Rapid normalization of ammonia level ameliorates neurological outcome [1,2]. The first-line treatment for hyperammonemia in these patients is ammonia scavengers in combination with citrulline or arginine and high-calorie supplementation while controlling protein intake [1].

March 2011
S. Siegert, D. Hazan and M. Szyper-Kravitz
November 2010
B. Chikman, R. Lavy, T. Davidson, I. Wassermann, J. Sandbank, N. Siegelmann-Danieli and A. Halevy

Background: Infiltrating ductal carcinoma and infiltrating lobular carcinoma account for more than 90% of all invasive breast cancer histological types. The rate of ILC[1] is reported to be increasing steadily in the United States and Europe.

Objectives: To describe the trend in the incidence of ILC in a large cohort of patients who underwent surgery in a single institution over an 18 year period.

Methods: Our comprehensive database of 2175 consecutive patients with invasive breast cancer diagnosed during the period 1992–2009 served for the analysis. Several potential factors associated with lobular carcinoma as compared with ductal carcinoma were evaluated.

Results: During this period, a 2.4-fold increase in the incidence of pure ILC was noted, from 4.6% in the years 1992–1994 to 10.9% in 2004–2006, followed by a modest decrease to 8.7% in 2007–2009. A significant association of lobular malignancies with external hormonal use was noted, including hormone replacement therapy exposure in patients diagnosed at age 50–64, and ovarian overstimulation during in vitro fertilization in those diagnosed at age 50 or less.  

Conclusions: Better diagnostic tools – such as the liberal use of ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging – and more accurate pathological definition for ILC type appear to influence the changes in the incidence of ILC in the subgroups of invasive breast cancer.

[1] ILC = infiltrating lobular carcinoma

September 2008
A. Brautbar, A. Abrahamov, I. Hadas-Halpern, D. Elstein and A. Zimran

Background: With regard to ethnic predilections for Gaucher disease, the most common storage disorder, Ashkenazi Jews are at risk for the non-neuronopathic form (type I), Norbottnian Swedes are at risk for the sub-acute neuronopathic form (type III), and perhaps Arabs are at risk for the very rare cardiac variant of the sub-acute neuronopathic form (type IIIc) for which there is a relatively tight genotype-phenotype correlation. Type II, the acute infantile form, being the rarest form, has not been associated with any ethnic predilection.

Objectives: To examine whether Arab ethnicity influences the Gaucher phenotype.

Methods: We reviewed the records of all Arab patients in a referral clinic of 586 patients in Israel.

Results: There were 46 patients (7.8%) of Arab ethnicity: 23 (50%) had type I disease, 16 (34.8%) had type IIIc disease, 4 (8.7%) had type IIIb disease, and 3 (6.5%) had type II disease. Type IIIc disease was characterized by genotype-phenotype correlation with homozygosity for the D409H (1342C) mutation. All five Bedouin patients (10.9%) had the R48W (C259T) mutation on at least one allele.

Conclusions: For all genotypes, disease severity among Arab patients was relatively similar to that reported among other Caucasian patients. Apparently Arab ethnicity does not impact phenotypic expression in Gaucher disease in a unique manner. The predilection for type IIIc may be a result of consanguinity.

December 2005
Z. Tellier

Intravenous immunoglobulins have been used as therapeutic proteins since the early 1980s.

October 2004
May 2004
S. Efrat

Type 1 diabetes mellitus is caused by an autoimmune destruction of pancreatic islet beta cells, leading to insulin deficiency. Beta-cell replacement is considered the optimal treatment for type 1 diabetes, however it is severely limited by the shortage of human organ donors. An effective cell replacement strategy depends on the development of an abundant supply of beta cells and their protection from recurring immune destruction. Stem/progenitor cells, which can be expanded in tissue culture and induced to differentiate into multiple cell types, represent an attractive source for generation of cells with beta-cell properties: insulin biosynthesis, storage, and regulated secretion in response to physiologic signals. Embryonic stem cells have been shown to spontaneously differentiate into insulin-producing cells at a low frequency, and this capacity could be further enhanced by tissue culture conditions, soluble agents, and expression of dominant transcription factor genes. Progenitor cells from fetal and adult tissues, such as liver and bone marrow, have also been shown capable of differentiation towards the beta-cell phenotype in vivo, or following expression of dominant transcription factors in vitro. These approaches offer novel ways for generation of cells for transplantation into patients with type 1 diabetes.

March 2004
R. Haimov-Kochman, T. Kochman, A. Stabholz and D. Hochner-Celinkier
August 2003
E. Lebel, D. Elstein, D. Hain, I. Hadas-Halperin, A. Zimran and M. Itzchaki
September 2002
Dafna Merom, MPH, Anneke Ifrah, MA, MPH, Irit Cohen-Manheim, MSc, Ayelet Chinich, MA and Manfred S. Green, MD, PhD

Background: Despite the controversy regarding the risks and benefits of hormone replacement therapy, studies in various countries indicate a two- to threefold increase in the use of HRT[1] during the last decade.

Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of HRT use among post-menopausal Jewish women in Israel and to determine the variables predicting current HRT use.

Methods: A cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted in 1998 on a random sample of Jewish women aged 45–74. Of 935 women who were located and eligible, 704 (75%) were interviewed by means of a structured questionnaire.

Results: A total of 589 women (85%) were peri-menopausal or post-menopausal.  Ninety-nine of them (16.8%) were currently using HRT and 78 (13.2%) were past users. Higher rates of current use were found among women who had undergone hysterectomy and/or oophorectomy (38%) than among all other women (13.5%).  Among naturally menopausal women the highest rate of current use (25.6%) was found in those aged 55–59.  A multiple logistic regression showed that the variables associated with current HRT use among naturally menopausal women  were: having a regular gynecologist (odds ratio 3.6, 95% confidence interval 1.7–7.5), visiting a gynecologist during the past year (OR[2] 2.9, 95% CI[3] 1.4–6.0), experiencing symptoms of menopause (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.01–3.8), having more than a high-school education (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.04–3.6), and a lower body mass index (OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.85–0.99).

Conclusions: The factors associated with HRT use may be markers for other socioeconomic or psychological characteristics. The disparities noted between population subgroups may be indicative of differences in awareness or in the delivery of preventive healthcare services to women in Israel, and as such need to be addressed by the health system.


[1] HRT = hormone replacement therapy

[2] OR = odds ratio

[3] CI = confidence interval

May 2002
Alik Kornecki, MD, Riva Tauman, MD, Ronit Lubetzky, MD and Yakov Sivan, MD

Background: The role of continuous renal replacement therapy in patients with acute renal failure is well recognized. CRRT[1] has also become an important modality of treatment in various acute situations without renal failure.

Objectives: To describe our experience with CRRT in acutely ill infants and children without renal failure.

Methods: We analyzed all infants and children who underwent CRRT during the years 1998-2000 in the pediatric intensive care unit and we focus our report on those who were treated for non-renal indications.

Results: Fourteen children underwent 16 sessions of CRRT. The indications for CRRT were non-renal in 7 patients (age range 8 days to 16 years, median = 6.5). Three children were comatose from maple syrup urine disease, three were in intractable circulatory failure secondary to septic shock or systemic inflammatory response, and one had sepsis with persistent lactic acidosis and hypernatremia. Three children underwent continuous hemodiafiltration and four had continuous hemofiltration. The mean length of the procedure was 35 ± 24 hours. All patients responded to treatment within a short period (2–4 hours). No significant complications were observed. Two patients experienced mild hypothermia (34°C), one had transient hypotension and one had an occlusion of the cannula requiring replacement.

Conclusion: Our findings suggest that CRRT is a safe and simple procedure with a potential major therapeutic value for treating acute non-renal diseases in the intensive care setting.

[1] CRRT = continuous renal replacement therapy

August 2001
Altoon Dweck, MD, Ayala Abrahamov, MD, Irith Hadas-Halpern, MD, Ari Zimran, MD and Devorah Elstein, PhD
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