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עמוד בית
Sun, 21.07.24

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May 2010
H. Rosenblum, Y. Bar-Dayan, Z. Dovrish, S. Lew, N. Weisenberg, A. Neumann, T. Klein and H. Amital

Background: Obstruction of urine outflow can result from mechanical blockade as well as from functional defects. In adults, urinary tract obstruction is due mainly to acquired defects, such as pelvic tumors, calculi, and urethral stricture. In childhood it is mostly due to congenital malformations. In this article we present two rare cases of acute obstructive renal failure that presented with hydronephrosis. These cases underline the wide range of causes that may lead to this clinical feature. 

October 2007
A. Lipey, A. Kogan, T. Ben-Gal, E. Mor, A. Stamler, B. Medalion, B.A. Vidne, E. Porat and G. Sahar
October 2006
March 2006
D. Bar-Zohar, B. Sagie, N. Lubezky, M. Blum, J. Klausner and S. Abu-Abeid

Background: Peritoneal dialysis is a widely accepted route for renal replacement. With the advent of endoscopy, many surgical techniques for the prevention of catheter failure have been proposed.

Objectives: To evaluate the outcomes of patients undergoing laparoscopic Tenckhoff catheter implantation, using the pelvic fixation technique.

Methods: Data analysis was retrospective. All procedures were performed under general anesthesia. A double-cuffed catheter was inserted using two 5 mm trocars and one 10 mm trocar, fixing its internal tip to the dome of the bladder and its inner cuff to the fascia. Catheter failure was defined as persistent peritonitis/exit-site/tunnel infection, severe dialysate leak, migration or outflow obstruction.

Results: LTCI[1] was performed in 34 patients. Mean patient age was 65 ± 17 years. In 12 of the 34 patients the indication for LTCI was end-stage renal failure combined with NYHA class IV congestive heart failure. Operative time was 35 ± 15 minutes. A previous laparotomy was performed in 9 patients. Hospital stay was 1.5 ± 0.6 days. The first continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis was performed after 20 ± 12 days. Median follow-up time was 13 months. There were several complications, including 5 (14%) exit-site/tunnel infections, 27 episodes (0.05 per patient-month) of bacterial peritonitis, 3 (9%) incisional hernias, 1 case of fatal intraabdominal bleeding, 2 (5.8%) catheter migrations (functionally significant), and 10 (30%) cases of catheter plugging, 8 of which were treated successfully by instillation of urokinase and 2 surgically. A complication-mandated surgery was performed in 8 patients (23.5%). The 1 year failure-free rate of the catheter was 80.8%. One fatal intraabdominal bleeding was recorded.
Conclusions: LTCI is safe, obviating the need for laparotomy in high risk patients. Catheter fixation to the bladder may prevent common mechanical failures







[1] LTCI = laparoscopic Tenckhoff catheter implantation


February 2006
K. Khazim, C. Simsolo, M. Nahir, F. Vigder and A. Blum

Chronic periaortitis is a rare disease affecting the abdominal aorta, usually below the level of the renal arteries.

September 2004
May 2003
D.S Silverberg, D. Wexler, M. Blum, D.Schwartz, G. Keren, D. Sheps, and A. Iaina

Background: Congestive heart failure is extremely common in octogenarians and is associated with severe fatigue, shortness of breath, recurrent hospitalizations, and death. These patients, many of whom are anemic, are often resistant to standard CHF[1] therapy including angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, beta-blockers and diuretics.

Objectives: To examine whether correction of the anemia (hemoglobin <12 g/dl) in CHF patients lowers their resistance to therapy.

Methods: Forty octogenarians with anemia and severe resistant CHF were administered a combination of subcutaneous erythropoietin and intravenous iron sucrose.

Results: This combination therapy led to a marked improvement in cardiac function, shortness of breath and fatigue, a marked reduction in the rate of hospitalization and a stabilizing of renal function.

Conclusion: Anemia appears to be an important but ignored contributor to the progression of CHF, and its correction may improve cardiac and renal status as well as the quality of life in elderly patients.






[1] CHF = congestive heart failure


September 2002
Alla Shnaider, MD, Anna Basok, MD, Boris Rogachev, MD and Marcus Mostoslavsky, MD
March 2002
Alfred Drukker, MD, PhD

Recent data have shed significant new light on the structural and functional development of the kidneys, as well as on a rare congenital form of bilateral renal hypoplasia called congenital oligomeganephronia. In this renal disorder, few greatly enlarged and hard-working nephrons are found that will ultimately sclerose and lead to end-stage renal failure during early childhood. At the same time it has been recognized that the number of nephrons in the kidneys of various animal species and humans is correlated to renal mass. Therefore, premature babies and/or infants small for gestational age due to intrauterine malnutrition will be born with relatively small kidneys and a certain nephron deficit, a condition called congenital oligonephropathy. Extensive worldwide epidemiologic studies have now shown that these premature or SGA[1] infants have a high incidence of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes and renal failure in adulthood. Although the pathophysiologic mechanisms responsible for these complications of premature birth are not entirely understood, it has become clear that the described association may pose a possible health problem in the adult population. This review describes the background of COMN[2] and CON[3] as well as the evidence that has accumulated on the adult complications of the latter. In addition, some thoughts are presented on the importance of identifying subjects possibly affected by CON, such that early recognition may alter the ultimate outcome.

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[1] SGA = small for gestational age

[2] COMN = congenital oligomeganephronia

[3] CON = congenital oligonephropathy


July 2001
Tsafra Ilan, MSc, Tamy Shohat, MD, Ana Tobar, MD, Nurit Magal, PhD, Michal Yahav, BSc, Gabrielle J. Halpern, MB, ChB, Gidi Rechavi, MD and Mordechai Shohat, MD

Background: Familial nephritis is a heterogeneous group of disorders caused by several genetic conditions such as Alport syndrome, glomerulonephritic syndromes, and unclas­sified nephritis without deafness or ocular defects.

Objectives: To describe a family of Iraqi Jewish origin, several of whose members suffer from non-syndromic renal failure without deafness or ocular defects and where transmis­sion is by autosomal dominant inheritance. We present the case histories of four family members and describe the molecular analysis performed in order to seek a possible linkage to one of the genes causing Alport or Alport-like syndromes.

Methods: We investigated all family members over the age of 18 for evidence of renal failure. We also extracted DNA and carried out molecular linkage analysis with polymorphic markers in each of the known loci involved in Alport and Alport­like syndromes.

Results: Histology of the renal biopsy specimens showed non-specific findings. Linkage was excluded for all the Alport and Alport-like syndrome loci.

Conclusions: The condition suffered by several members of this family seems to represent a unique autosomal dominant type of progressive hereditary nephritis, characterized by hypertension and progressive renal failure without significant hematuria or proteinuria. The main histological changes are non-specific in the early stage of the disease. Our study rules out all the currently known genes that cause Alport syndrome as being responsible for the basic defect in this type of nephritis.

April 2000
Ella Zeltzer MD, Jacques Bernheim MD, Ze’ev Korzets MB BSc,, Doron Zeeli PhD, Mauro Rathaus MD, Yoseph A. Mekori MD and Rami Hershkoviz MD

Background: Cell-mediated immunity is impaired in uremia. Cell-matrix interactions of immune cells such as CD4+T lymphocytes with extracellular matrix are an important requirement for an intact immune response. The adherence of CD4+T cells of healthy subjects (normal T cells) to ECM components is inhibited in the presence of uremic serum. Such decreased adhesive capacity is also found in T cells of dialysis patients. Various chemokines and cytokines affect the attachment of CD4+T cells to ECM.

Objective: To evaluate chemokine (MIP-1β and RANTES) and tumor necrosis factor α-induced adhesion of CD4+T cells to ECM in a uremic milieu.

Methods: We examined adhesion of normal CD4+T cells (resting and activated) to intact ECM in response to soluble or bound chemokines (MIP-1β and RANTES) and to TNF-α following incubation in uremic versus normal serum. Thereafter, we evaluated the adhesion of resting CD4+T cells from dialysis patients in a similar fashion and compared it to that obtained from a healthy control group.

Results: Addition of uremic serum diminished soluble and anchored chemokine-induced attachment of normal resting and activated CD4+T cells to ECM compared to a normal milieu (a peak response of 10–11% vs. 24–29% for soluble chemokines, P<0.001; 12–13% vs. 37–39% for bound chemokines on resting cells, P<0.01; and 18–20% vs. 45–47% for bound chemokines on activated cells, P<0.02). The same pattern of response was noted following stimulation with immobilized TNF-α (7 vs. 12% for resting cells, P<0.05; 17 vs. 51% for activated cells, P<0.01).  Adherence of dialysis patients’ cells to ECM following stimulation with both bound chemokines was reduced compared to control T cells (15–17% vs. 25–32%, P<0.0000). In contrast, adherence following stimulation by TNF-α was of equal magnitude.

Conclusions: Abnormal adhesive capacity of T lymphocytes to ECM in uremia may, in part, be related to a diminished response to MIP-1β, RANTES and TNF-α. However, whereas reduced adhesion to chemokines was present in both normal CD4+T cells in a uremic environment and in dialysis patients’ T cells, TNF-α-induced adhesion was found to be inhibited only in normal cells in a uremic milieu.

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ECM = extracellular matrix

TNF-α = tumor necrosis factor-a

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