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עמוד בית
Wed, 24.07.24

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June 2024
Milana Gelman MD, Tzipora Galperin MD, Esther Maor-Sagie MD, Yochai Yoeli MD, Mordechai Hallak MD, Rinat Gabbay-Benziv MD, Amir Naeh MD

Background: The prevalence of pregestational diabetes mellitus (PGDM) in women of reproductive age has surged globally, contributing to increased rates of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is a crucial marker for diagnosing and monitoring PGDM, with periconceptional levels influencing the risk of congenital anomalies and complications.

Objectives: To evaluate the association between periconceptional HbA1c levels and perinatal complications in pregnant women with poorly controlled PGDM.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data of pregnancies between 2010 and 2019, HbA1c > 6% at 3 months prior to conception or during the first trimester. Outcomes of periconceptional HbA1c levels were compared.

Results: The cohort included 89 women: 49 with HbA1c 6–8%, 29 with HbA1c 8–10%, and 11 with HbA1c > 10%. Higher HbA1c levels were more prevalent in type 1 diabetics and were associated with increased end-organ damage risk. Women with elevated HbA1c levels tended toward unbalanced glucose levels during pregnancy. The cohort exhibited high rates of preterm delivery, hypertensive disorders, cesarean delivery, and neonatal intensive care unit admission. Overall live birth rate was 83%. While a significant correlation was found between HbA1c levels and preterm delivery, no consistent association was observed with other adverse outcomes.

Conclusions: Periconceptional glycemic control in PGDM pregnancies is important. Elevated HbA1c levels are associated with increased risks of adverse outcomes. Beyond a certain HbA1c level, risks of complications may not proportionally escalate.

October 2019
Nataly Zilberman Sharon MD, Yaakov Melcer MD and Ron Maymon MD

Background: Complete hydatidiform mole and a co-existing normal fetus (CHMCF) is associated with a high complication rate. A possible association with assisted conception might increase the prevalence of CHMCF.

Objectives: To study the potential association between assisted conception and the risks of CHMCF.

Methods: Case series at a single university hospital from 2008 to 2018 are presented and contrasted with data from a comprehensive literature review (1998–2018). Cases were identified from the institutional database that matched the sonographic criteria for CHMCF. A literature review showed comparable cases.

Results: None of the three pregnancies presented in this article resulted in a viable fetus, all were aborted. One of the three patients needed chemotherapy due to gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN). A literature search identified 248 reported cases in which 22 fetuses (9%) reached term, 88/248 (35%) progressed to GTN, and 25/120 (21%) were conceived following assisted conception. From 2008 until 2018 at our medical facility, there were 3144 twin pregnancies of which 1667 (53%) were conceived using assisted conception. In our cohort, there was no statistical trend for assisted conception as an etiological factor for CHMCF.

Conclusions: No association between assisted conception and the risk for CHMCF was established at our hospital, although approximately one-quarter of all reported CHMCF pregnancies are attributed to assisted conception technology. However, these data are not always reported, making it difficult to draw definitive conclusions.

February 2019
Olga Perelshtein Brezinov MD, Michal J. Simchen MD, Sagit Ben Zekry MD and Rafael Kuperstein MD

Background: Rheumatic mitral stenosis (MS) is a relatively rare diagnosis in the developed countries and its treatment during pregnancy is challenging due to hemodynamic changes. With the demographic changes due to recent waves of immigration an increase in the prevalence of rheumatic heart disease is expected.

Objective: To evaluate maternal and neonatal complications in patients with mitral stenosis.

Methods: During the years 2006–2017, 22 women who underwent 31 pregnancies were followed at the Sheba Medical Center in Israel. We collected on regarding hemodynamic changes and their clinical course. MS was classified as mild, moderate, or severe according to mitral valve area by echocardiography. Maternal and fetal adverse events were evaluated according to severity of MS and compared by Poisson regression modeling.

Results: MS was severe in 7 pregnancies (22.6%), moderate in 9 (29%), and mild in 15 (48.4%). Twenty patients were managed conservatively and 2 underwent a successful percutaneous mitral balloon valvuloplasty (PBMVP) during pregnancy. All pregnancies ended with a liveborn neonate and with no maternal mortality. Peak and mean mitral pressure gradients increased during pregnancy from 13.3 ± 5.3 to 18.6 ± 5.1 mmHg and from 5.9 ± 2.3 to 9.6 ± 3.4 mmHg respectively (P < 0.05). Eight pregnancies (25.8%) were complicated by pulmonary congestion, 2/15 (13.3%) with mild MS, 2/9 (22.2%) with moderate, and 4/7 (57.1%) with severe MS. The adverse event rate was higher among patients with severe MS compared with moderate and mild MS [hazard ratio (HR) 3.15, 95% confidence interval (95%CA) 1.04–9.52 and HR 4.06, 95%CI 1.4–11.19 respectively, P < 0.05]. Nine of 31 deliveries were vaginal; 6 of 22 cesarean sections (27.3%) were performed for cardiac indications.

Conclusions: The number of total adverse events were higher among patients with severe MS. Patients with moderate and mild MS should be treated attentively, but good obstetric and maternal outcome can be expected.

 

August 2017
Paola Triggianese MD PhD, Paola Conigliaro MD PhD, Maria Sole Chimenti MD PhD, Carmen Barbato MD, Elisabetta Greco MD, Barbara Kroegler MD, Caterina De Carolis MD and Roberto Perricone, MD

Background: Evidence has shown that pregnancy failure (PF) in women with systemic sclerosis (SSc) consists mainly of preterm delivery (PD) and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Thyroid dysfunction (TD) and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) represent a common feature of SSc. Since TD has been associated with PF, its presence in SSc women may potentially affect pregnancy outcome. 

Objectives: To analyze the interplay between TD and PF in a cohort of SSc women. 

Methods: SSc women (n=77) and age-matched controls from the general obstetric population (n=50) were included. Clinical/biochemical/instrumental data exploring TD and the visceral involvement were collected in the context of a clinical practice setting. Pregnancy outcome was assessed by registering the history of primary infertility, recurrent spontaneous abortion, PD (≤ 37 gestational week), IUGR, and intrauterine fetal death. 

Results: A higher prevalence of PD/IUGR was recorded in the SSc cohort than the controls (P = 0.04). SSc women with PF showed a higher prevalence of diffuse SSc than women without PF (P = 0.03). Scl-70 positive SSc women had a higher prevalence of PF than women with anti-centromere positivity (P = 0.01). A higher prevalence of HT was recorded in SSc women with PF than in patients without (P = 0.04). 

Conclusions: Our findings support the evidence that women with SSc can have successful pregnancies despite a higher prevalence of PD/IUGR. Diffuse SSc and Scl-70 positivity may predispose SSc women to PF. Routine thyroid workup may be included in the multi-specialist monitoring of SSc women for the early detection of thyroid dysfunctions.

 

June 2017
Luis J Jara MD, Gabriela Medina MD MSc, Polita Cruz-Cruz MD MSc, Javier Olivares-Rivera MD, Carolina Duarte-Salazar MD and Miguel A. Saavedra MD

Obstetric antiphospholipid syndrome (Obs-APS) is one of the most commonly identified causes of recurrent pregnancy loss and its accurate diagnosis is a requirement for optimal treatment. Some patients do not fulfill the revised Sapporo classification criteria, the original APS classification criteria, and are considered to be non-criteria Obs-APS. In these patients with non-criteria, there is controversy about their inclusion within the spectrum of APS and eventually their treatment as having Obs-APS. A subset of patients may also have clinical characteristics of Obs-APS even though lupus anticoagulant (LA), anticardiolipin antibodies, and anti-β2-glycoprotein I (aβ2GPI) antibodies are consistently negative. These patients are recognized as seronegative Obs-APS.

We reviewed evidence of non-criteria Obs-APS and discuss a case of a woman with a diagnosis of active systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and non-criteria Obs-APS with four consecutive pregnancy losses. After an accurate diagnosis the patient received prenatal counseling and benefited from the optimal treatment of Obs-APS that led to a successful pregnancy. The applicability of this successful experience about outcomes in women with non-criteria, or seronegative, Obs-APS is also evaluated.

 

February 2014
Itai Gat, Mordechai Dulitzki, Eyal Schiff, Eyal Sivan and Michal J. Simchen
Background: Homozygous carriers of factor V Leiden (FVL) have an up to 80-fold increased risk of venous thrombosis, but the risk of obstetric complications in FVL homozygosity is unclear.

Objectives:
To compare obstetric and thromboembolic complications among factor V Leiden (FVL) homozygous and heterozygous carriers treated with prophylactic dose anticoagulation during pregnancy.

Methods:
In this retrospective case-control study we performed a chart review for the years 2004–2010 of homozygous and heterozygous FVL carriers who were treated with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) at a dose of 0.6 mg/kg/day during pregnancy. Adverse outcomes included thromboembolic and obstetric complications. A composite adverse obstetric outcome was defined as the presence of at least one of the following: late intrauterine fetal demise, severe intrauterine growth restriction (< 5th percentile), preeclampsia, placental abruption. Pregnancy outcomes of homozygous and heterozygous FVL carriers were compared.

Results:
We compared the pregnancies of 13 homozygous FVL women with those of 82 heterozygous FVL carriers. Thromboembolic events occurred only in heterozygous FVL controls. Gestational age and birth weight were similar. The composite adverse obstetric outcome rate was higher for homozygous compared with heterozygous FVL carriers (23.1% vs. 11%, respectively), although not statistically significant. A trend for prematurity among homozygous FVL patients was evident, with 2/13 women (15.3%) in the homozygous FVL group giving birth before 34 weeks gestation, compared with only 2/82 (2.3%) in the heterozygous group.

Conclusions:
Pregnancy outcome was similar for homozygous and heterozygous FVL carriers on LMWH thromboprophylaxis. The overall likelihood of thromboembolic complications was low. Thromboprophylaxis may decrease the risk for placental and thromboembolic complications in homozygous FVL patients to a similar level as in heterozygotes.
June 2011
G. Zeligson, A. Hadar, M. Koretz, E. Silberstein, Y. Kriege and A. Bogdanov-Berezovsky
June 2003
A. Ben-Haroush, Y. Yogev, R. Mashiach and I. Meizner

Background: Bleeding in the first trimester of pregnancy is a common phenomenon, associated with early pregnancy loss. In many instances a subchorionic hematoma is found sonographically.

Objective: To evaluate the possible benefit of bed-rest in women with threatened abortion and sonographically proven subchorionic hematoma, and to examine the possible relationship of duration of vaginal bleeding, hematoma size, and gestational age at diagnosis to pregnancy outcome.

Methods: The study group consisted of 230 women of 2,556 (9%) referred for ultrasound examination because of vaginal bleeding in the first half of pregnancy, who were found to have a subchorionic hematoma in the presence of a singleton live embryo or fetus. All patients were advised bed-rest at home; 200 adhered to this recommendation for the duration of vaginal bleeding (group 1) and 30 continued their usual lifestyle (group 2). All were followed with repeated sonograms at 7 day intervals until bleeding ceased, the subchorionic hematoma disappeared, or abortion occurred. The groups were compared for size of hematoma, duration of bleeding, and gestational age at diagnosis in relation to pregnancy outcome (spontaneous abortion, term or preterm delivery).

Results: The first bleeding episode occurred at 12.6 ± 3.4 weeks of gestation (range 7–20 weeks) and lasted for 28.8 ± 19.1 days (range 4–72 days). The women who adhered to bed-rest had fewer spontaneous abortions (9.9% vs. 23.3%, P = 0.006) and a higher rate of term pregnancy (89 vs. 70%, P = 0.004) than those who did not. There was no association between duration of vaginal bleeding, hematoma size, or gestational age at diagnosis of subchorionic hematoma and pregnancy outcome.

Conclusions: Fewer spontaneous abortions and a higher rate of term pregnancy were noted in the bed-rest group. However, the lack of randomization and retrospective design of the outcome data collection preclude a definite conclusion. A large prospective randomized study is required to confirm whether bed-rest has a real therapeutic effect.

February 2000
Jacob Bar MD, Raoul Orvieto MD, Yosef Shalev MD, Yoav Peled MD, Yosef Pardo MD, Uzi Gafter MD, Zion Ben-Rafael MD, Ronny Chen MD and Moshe Hod MD

Background: The preconception and intraconception parameters that are relevant to outcome in women with underlying renal disease remain controversial.  

Objectives: To analyze the types and frequencies of short- and long-term (2 years after delivery) maternal and neonatal complications in 38 patients with primary renal disease (46 pregnancies), most of them with mild renal insufficiency.  

Methods: Logistic regression models were formulated to predict successful outcome.  

Results: Successful pregnancy outcome (live, healthy infant without severe handicap 2 years after delivery) was observed in 98% of the patients with primary renal disease. Factors found to be significantly predictive of successful outcome were absence of pre-existing hypertension, in addition to low preconception serum uric acid level.

Conclusions: Most women with primary renal disease who receive proper prenatal care have a successful pregnancy outcome. Worse pregnancy outcome was observed in women with moderate or severe renal failure. Fitted logistic models may provide useful guidelines for counseling women with preexisting renal disease about their prospects for a successful pregnancy in terms of immediate and long-term maternal and neonatal outcome.
 

January 2000
Rosa Michlin MD, Moshe Oettinger MD, Maruan Odeh MD, Samer Khoury MD, Ella Ophir MD, Mila Barak MD, Margareta Wolfson MD and Avshalom Strulov MD, MPH

Background: Obesity, a common condition in developed countries, is recognized as a threat to health.

Objectives: To describe the distribution of weight in pregnant women and evaluate the influence of obesity on pregnancy outcome in a high parity northern Israeli population.

Methods: The study included 887 women who gave birth in the Western Galilee Medical Center during the period August to November 1995. The patients were classified as underweight, normal weight, overweight, or obese according to body mass index. Maternal demographic, obstetric, and perinatal variables were compared. A control group of 167 normal weight women were matched with the obese group for maternal age, parity, and gestational age.

Results: Obese mothers had a higher incidence of gestational diabetes and pregnancy-induced hypertension compared to normal weight mothers (5.4% vs. 1.8%, and 7.2% vs. 0.6% respectively, P<0.01), a higher rate of labor induction (20.4% vs. 10.2%, P<0.01), and a higher cesarean section rate (19.6% vs.10.8%, P<0.05). There was also a significant difference in the prevalence of macrosomia in the offspring (16.8% vs. 8.4%, P<0.05).

Conclusion: Obese pregnant women are at high risk for complications during delivery and therefore need careful pre-conception and prenatal counseling, as well as perinatal management.

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