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עמוד בית
Sat, 20.07.24

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September 2019
Tal Gazitt MD MSc, Adi Kibari MD, Najwan Nasrallah MD, Muhanad Abu Elhija MD and Devy Zisman MD
December 2017
Shani Dahan MD and Yehuda Shoenfeld MD FRCP MACR

Medical practice is a form of art, with each complex detail essential to the welfare of the individuals in the care of the physician. Art and medicine have shared a close relationship in a variety of ways for centuries, as demonstrated by anatomical drawings and textbooks from the 16th century. Leonardo da Vinci, driven by his fascination with the details of the human body and how it functioned, succeeded in creating an anatomical model of the cerebral ventricles and the aorta using molten wax and a glass structure, respectively (Heart and Its Blood Vessels). By using water that contained grass seeds, this experiment enabled him to study blood flow. da Vinci’s engrossment with the complexity of the human body is reflected in many of his drawings, including the famous depiction of the human physique in his drawing of the Vitruvian Man. This drawing, which defines the ideal proportions of the human body and their correlation with geometry, is an example of how artistic and scientific objectives integrate with each other.

June 2013
G.S. Breuer, R. Nesher, K. Reinus and G. Nesher
 Background: In most cases of giant cell arteritis (GCA) the diagnosis is confirmed by temporal artery biopsy. Aside from the diagnostic purpose, histological parameters may serve as prognostic markers.

Objectives: To review positive temporal artery biopsiese of GCA in an attempt to correlate various histological parameters with clinical features, disease complications and outcome.

Methods: Positive biopsies from 65 GCA patients were randomly selected for review by a single pathologist. In each biopsy the following parameters were scored: intensity and location of the inflammatory infiltrate, presence of giant cells and other cell types, fragmentation and calcification of the internal elastic lamina, intimal thickening, and presence of luminal thrombus. Clinical data were obtained from the patients’ charts. Intensity of the initial systemic inflammatory reaction (ISIR) at the time of diagnosis was scored by the presence of five parameters: fever, anemia, thrombocytosis, leukocytosis, and sedimentation rate > 100 mm/hr.

Results: In cases with bilateral positive biopsy (n=27), there was good correlation between the two sides regarding intensity of inflammation (r = 0.65, P < 0.001), location of the infiltrate (r = 0.7, P < 0.001), degree of intimal thickening (r = 0.54, P < 0.001), and presence of giant cells (r = 0.83, P < 0.001). The rate of corticosteroid discontinuation tended to be quicker in patients with inflammatory infiltrates confined mainly to the adventitia, but other histological parameters did not affect this rate.

Conclusions: Inflammatory infiltrates confined to the adventitia were associated with more neuro-ophthalmic ischemic manifestations, weak/moderate ISIR at the time of diagnosis, and faster rate of corticosteroid discontinuation. No association was found between other temporal artery biopsy histological parameters and clinical features of GCA patients.

 

September 1999
Gideon Nesher, MD, Hanan Gur, MD, Michael Ehrenfeld, MD, Alan Rubinow, MD and Moshe Sonnenblick, MD.
 Objectives: To evaluate whether the increasing incidence of temporal arteritis in Israel is associated with a changing clinical presentation.

Methods: The demographic data and clinical manifestations of 144 TA1 patients in this large multicenter study were recorded and compared with data obtained in a previous study.

Results: The patient population was older, with 24% ≥80 years compared to 6% in the previous study.  There was an increase in the number of nonspecific presenting symptoms, and less patients presented with the “classical” manifestations of headache (81% vs. 71%), fever (83% vs. 40%), jaw claudication (21% vs. 13%), and visual symptoms (47% vs. 24%). The median time from presentation to diagnosis was significantly reduced, from 5 to 1.5 months.

Conclusions: There were substantial changes in the clinical presentation of TA patients in Israel during 1980–95 compared to patients diagnosed prior to 1978. It is suggested that these changes may be attributed not only to the influence of aging of the population, but are due largely to increasing physician awareness to the spectrum of manifestations of TA, which leads to earlier diagnosis.

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1TA = temporal arteritis

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