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עמוד בית
Sun, 14.07.24

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June 2023
Yotam Bronstein MD, Dana Elhadad MD, Eyas Midlij MD, Moshe Yana MD, Daniel Yakubovich MD, Nechama Sharon MD

Background: Factor VII (FVII) deficiency is characterized by normal activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and prolonged prothrombin time (PT) values. It is diagnosed by determining protein level and coagulation activity (FVII:C). FVII:C measurements are expensive and time consuming.

Objectives: To analyze correlations between PT, international normalized ratio (INR), and FVII:C in pediatric patients before otolaryngology surgery and to establish alternative methods for identifying FVII deficiency.

Methods: FVII:C data were collected from 96 patients with normal aPTT and prolonged PT values during preoperative otolaryngology surgery coagulation workup between 2016 and 2020. We compared demographic and clinical parameters using Spearman correlation coefficient and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis to determine the accuracy of PT and INR values to predict FVII deficiency.

Results: The median values of PT, INR and FVII:C were 13.5 seconds, 1.14, and 67.5%, respectively. In total, 65 participants (67.7%) displayed normal FVII:C compared to 31 (32.3%) with decreased FVII:C. A statistically significant negative correlation was observed between FVII:C and PT values and between FVII:C and INR. Despite statistically significant ROC of 0.653 for PT (P-value = 0.017, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 0.529–0.776) and 0.669 for INR (P-value = 0.08, 95%CI 0.551–0.788), we were unable to determine an optimal cutoff point to predict FVII:C deficiency with high sensitivity and high specificity.

Conclusions: We could not identify a PT or INR threshold to best predict clinically relevant FVII:C levels. When PT is abnormal, determining FVII:C protein levels is needed for diagnosing FVII deficiency and considering surgical prophylactic treatment.

September 2020
Anna Shklovsky-Kordi MD, Renana Gelernter MD, Matitiahu Berkovitch MD, Zahi Dagan MD and Eran Kozer MD

Background: Acetaminophen is the most common drug involved in pediatric poisonings, both intentionally and accidentally, and is the leading cause of acute liver failure among all age groups.

Objectives: To define the characteristics of patients admitted to a pediatric emergency department (ED) where serum acetaminophen concentrations were measured, and to determine which variables are associated with significant risk of acetaminophen toxicity.

Methods: Acetaminophen serum concentrations were measured, in a retrospective case series, of patients younger than 18 years who had been admitted to the ED at Shamir Medical Center between 1 January 2008 and 31 December 2015.

Results: During the study period 180,174 children were admitted to the ED. Acetaminophen serum concentrations were measured in 209 (0.12%) patients. Mean age was 12.4 ± 5.9 years. Elevated liver enzymes were found in 12 patients, 5 of whom had documented acute liver injury. All five were older than 11years.Two cases of acute liver injury were attributable to acetaminophen ingestion. In both cases the cause was intentional overdose. Univariate analysis showed a significant (P < 0.05) correlation between detectable acetaminophen blood level and a positive history of drug or acetaminophen ingestion, and suicide attempt. Not all children with non-severe acetaminophen poisoning had been diagnosed during the study period. A positive history of acetaminophen ingestion was associated with a 28-fold higher risk for detectable acetaminophen blood level.

Conclusions: In the absence of a positive history of acetaminophen ingestion and in young children with accidental intoxication, the risk of hepatotoxicity is relatively low.

 

February 2017
December 2016
Najwan Nasrallah MD, Yael Shachor-Meyouhas MD, Zipi Kra-Oz PhD, Tania Mashiach MA, Moran Szwarcwort-Cohen PhD, Eynat Shafran MSc and Imad Kassis MD

Background: In March 2009 the pandemic influenza A (H1N1) strain was identified. The disease initially appeared to be accompanied by complications and high mortality rates. It became an endemic virus during the influenza season in our region, along with the classical seasonal H3N2.

Objectives: To identify the burden of pandemic influenza, its effect in pediatric patients, and complicated hospitalizations, compared to seasonal influenza years after the pandemic.

Methods: A retrospective observational study was conducted at a tertiary hospital. Data were collected from the medical records of all children who were hospitalized from April 2009 to 2011 with laboratory-confirmed influenza.

Results: Of 191 patients with influenza, 100 had the 2009 pandemic influenza, 62 had seasonal influenza, and 29 had H1N1 in 2010–2011. Patients with the 2009 H1N1 were characterized by older age, more co-morbidity conditions and more symptoms including fever, cough and rhinitis on admission. No significant differences in outcomes between the groups were recorded. Of patients hospitalized with pandemic influenza in 2009, 28% had complicated hospitalizations, compared with 17.7% of patients hospitalized with seasonal influenza in 2010–11. Children with pandemic influenza received more oseltamivir (Tamiflu®) (94% vs. 19.4%, P < 0.001) and more antibiotics than the other groups.

Conclusions: The type of influenza had no effect on outcome. There were no significant differences between groups in the percentages of in-hospital mortality, admission to intensive care units, prolonged hospitalization (> 9 days), or the development of complications during hospitalization.

 

June 2016
Rona Dagan BSc, Roxana Cleper MD, Miriam Davidovits MD, Levana Sinai-Trieman MD and Irit Krause MD

Background: The incidence of post-infectious glomerulonephritis (PIGN) has decreased over the last decades. As a result, recent epidemiological data from industrialized countries are scarce. 

Objectives: To evaluate patterns of PIGN in children and detect possible predictors of disease severity.

Methods: We collected clinical and laboratory data of patients with PIGN admitted to Schneider Children's Medical Center during 1994–2011. Diagnostic criteria included presence of hematuria with/without other features of nephritic syndrome along with hypocomplementemia and/or microbiological/serological evidence of streptococcal infection. Patients with other diseases (systemic lupus erythematosus, vasculitis, etc.) were excluded from the study. 

Results: A total of 125 patients with a mean age of 5.8 ± 3.3 years (range 1.5–17.6), of whom 16% were < 3 years, matched the study criteria. Presenting features included hypertension in 103 (82.4%) patients, azotemia in 87 (70.2%), fever in 49 (40%), and elevated C-reactive protein in 75 (81.5%). Isolated macrohematuria was found in 21 (16%). Full-blown nephritic syndrome was diagnosed in 51 patients (41.1%) and 28 (22.9%) had nephritic syndrome with nephrotic-range proteinuria. Depressed C3 complement levels were associated with the presence of nephritic syndrome (OR 0.73, 95%CI 0.60–0.88, P = 0.001) as well as older age (OR1.24, CI 1.08–1.43, P = 0.001). At last follow-up (mean 42 months) all examined patients (100 of 125) had normal renal function, 6 had hypertension, and 1 had proteinuria.

Conclusions: PIGN remains an important cause of glomerular disease in children and may affect very young patients. Nephrotic-range proteinuria with hypoalbuminemia seems to be more frequent than previously reported. Hypocomplementemia is associated with a more severe disease course, namely, azotemia and nephritic syndrome. 

 

November 2013
E. Ganelin-Cohen and A. Ashkenasi
 There is a well-established correlation between sleep disturbances and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A large number of pediatric patients diagnosed with ADHD have sleep problems, while patients with sleep disturbances often display behavioral patterns that resemble some features of ADHD. Despite these observations, the relationship between sleep problems and ADHD is not yet fully understood. It is often difficult to pinpoint which of the disorders is the primary and which a byproduct of the other. A complicating factor is that stimulant medication such as methylphenidate, a drug of choice for ADHD, may adversely affect sleep quality in ADHD patients. However, there have also been reports that it may actually improve sleep quality. This review examines the latest trends in the contemporary literature on this clinical dilemma.

January 2013
L. Sasson, I. Cohen, A. Tamir, A. Raucher Sternfeld, Y. Berlowitz, O. Lenczner and S. Houri
 Background: The use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in children after cardiac surgery is well established. ECMO support is becoming an integral tool for cardiopulmonary resuscitation in specified centers.

Objectives: To review our use of ECMO over a 10 year period.

Methods: All children supported with ECMO from 2000 to 2010 were reviewed. Most of these children suffered from cardiac anomalies. The patients were analyzed by age, weight, procedure, RACHS-1 when appropriate, length of support, and outcome.

Results: Sixty-two children were supported with ECMO; their median age was 3 months (range 0–216 months) and median weight 4.3 kg (range 1.9–51 kg). Thirty-four patients (52.3%) needed additional hemofiltration or dialysis due to renal failure. The children requiring ECMO support represented a wide spectrum of cardiac lesions; the most common procedure was arterial switch operation 27.4% (n=17). ECMO was required mainly for failure to separate from the heart-lung machine (n=55). The median duration of ECMO support was 4 days (range 1–14 days); 29 (46.7%) patients were weaned successfully from ECMO during this time period, and 5 of them died during hospitalization, yielding an overall hospital survival rate of 38.7%.

Conclusions: ECMO support has significant survival benefit for patients with post-cardiotomy heart failure. Its early deployment should be considered in cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

March 2012
Y.A. Schwartz

Dopaminergic neurons in the basal ganglia normally fire in a continuous manner, maintaining the striatal dopamine concentration at a relatively constant level. In Parkinson’s disease, dopaminergic treatment produces a discontinuous stimulation, inducing an intermittent pulsatile activation of the striatal receptors. Probably the oscillations in the dopamine level in the striatum contribute to the development of motor complications. Treatment with long-acting dopaminergic agents, or providing a more continuous dopaminergic effect in the striatum, has been associated with fewer clinical motor complications. This review describes the state of the art in the clinical approach to achieve the desired continuous dopaminergic stimulation, providing patients with the best clinical effect and probably minimal motor complications.

October 2011
D.S. Shouval, Z. Samra, I. Shalit, G. Livni, E. Bilvasky, O. Ofir, R. Gadba and J. Amir

Background: Staphylococcus aureus infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Clindamycin is widely used in the treatment of staphylococcal infections; however, it is our impression that in the last few years, inducible clindamycin resistance (ICR) has become more prevalent.

Objective: To assess the prevalence of ICR[1] in methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) infections among pediatric patients in Israel.

Methods: We reviewed the files of children diagnosed with MSSA[2] infections during the period January 2006 to June 2007 for full antibiogram (including the D-test for ICR), phage typing and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA.

Results: Altogether, 240 MSSA isolates were recovered, mainly from wounds and abscesses. ICR was detected in 62 of 68 erythromycin-resistant/clindamycin-sensitive strains (91%); the ICR rate for the total number of isolates was 26% (62/240). Phage type analysis demonstrated that 38 of 61 ICR isolates

(62%) were sensitive to group 2, compared to 42 of 172 isolates (24%) that did not express ICR (P < 0.01). On randomly amplified polymorphic DNA, phage type 2 isolates expressing ICR belonged to the same clone, which was different from ICR isolates sensitive to other phages and from isolates not expressing ICR.

Conclusions: Inducible clindamycin resistance is common among methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus in Israeli children. The D-test should be performed routinely in all isolates of MSSA.






[1] ICR = inducible clindamycin resistance



[2] MSSA = methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus



 
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