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עמוד בית
Sat, 02.03.24

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October 2023
Gilad Rotem MD, Amir Arami MD, Iana Leineman MD, Alon Covo MD

Psoriatic arthritis can present with significant hand and wrist deformity and dysfunction [1]. The development of newer biological therapies has resulted in higher rates of remission [2]. However, surgical intervention is still indicated in pain, disability, and severe deformation cases. The management of patients with rheumatic diseases has a controversial history, characterized by rheumatologists and hand surgeons debating the efficacy of surgical interventions. Some surgeons attribute the controversial results to “too little and too late” referral of patients from rheumatologists [3]. While the availability of new and more effective medication has changed the indications and postponed surgical intervention, it is important to remember that surgery is often more effective when used preventively in the early stages than when forced to salvage. In the following case, we present a patient with psoriatic arthritis who presented with advanced-stage debilitating hand deformity and was treated surgically.

July 2023
Michael Goldenshluger MD, Carmel Margalit BSc, Afek Kodesh MS4, Ephraim Katz MD, David Hazzan MD, Lior Segev MD

Background: Perianal abscesses require immediate incision and drainage (I&D). However, prompt bedside drainage is controversial as it may compromise exposure and thorough anal examination.

Objectives: To examine outcomes of bedside I&D of perianal abscesses in the emergency department (ED) vs. the operating room (OR).

Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of all patients presented to the ED with a perianal abscesses between January 2018 and March 2020. Patients with Crohn’s disease, horseshoe or recurrent abscesses were excluded.

Results: The study comprised 248 patients; 151 (60.89%) underwent I&D in the OR and 97 (39.11%) in the ED. Patients elected to bedside I&D had smaller abscess sizes (P = 0.01), presented with no fever, and had lower rates of inflammatory markers. The interval time from diagnosis to intervention was significantly shorter among the bedside I&D group 2.13 ± 2.34 hours vs. 10.41 ± 8.48 hours (P < 0.001). Of patients who underwent I&D in the OR, 7.3% had synchronous fistulas, whereas none at bedside had (P = 0.007). At median follow-up of 24 months, recurrence rate of abscess and fistula formation in patients treated in the ED were 11.3% and 6.2%, respectively, vs. 19.9% and 15.23% (P = 0.023, 0.006). Fever (OR 5.71, P = 0.005) and abscess size (OR 1.7, P = 0.026) at initial presentation were risk factors for late fistula formation.

Conclusions: Bedside I&D significantly shortens waiting time and does not increase the rates of long-term complications in patients with small primary perianal abscesses.

May 2023
Noa Leybovitz-Haleluya MD, Reli Hershkovitz MD PhD

A 26-year-old female at 28 weeks of gestation with her fourth pregnancy presented with a 24-hour history of diffuse abdominal pain and distension. In addition, she had nausea, vomiting, and constipation. The pain did not respond to analgesics. She had poor prenatal care during her pregnancy. She had previously had three cesarean deliveries. The first cesarean delivery was due to non-progressive second stage of labor, the second was preterm due to abdominal pain and suspected uterine rupture, and the last was due to the previous cesarean deliveries. In her last previous pregnancy, she presented with recurrent milder abdominal pain, which resolved spontaneously.

On examination, she was afebrile, with normal blood pressure and heart rate. Her abdomen was distended, tympanic, and mildly tender to palpation with no tenderness on the cesarean scar and no peritoneal signs. Her laboratory testing was normal except for mild hypokalemia.

Mailam Eltity MD, Merav Ben-David MD, Vera Nikitin MD, Amir Dori MD PhD

Contactin associated protein-like 2 (CASPR2) and leucine-rich glioma-inactivated protein 1 (LGI1) voltage gated potassium channel (VGKC) proteins are found in both the central and peripheral nervous systems [1]. Antibodies against these proteins are associated with encephalopathy, seizures, peripheral nerve hyper-excitability, autonomic dysfunction, hyponatremia, pain, and insomnia in varying severity and combination [1].

Morvan syndrome, first described in 1890, combines symptoms of peripheral nervous system (PNS), central nervous system (CNS), and autonomic nervous system dysfunction. It was later found to be associated with VGKC-complex antibodies, mainly against CASPR2 or LGI1 or both.

Our patient had a history of anti-LGI1 positive limbic encephalitis, which presented years later with anti-CASPR2 positive Morvan syndrome.

December 2021
Ada Rosen MD, Sorin Elias MD, Hadas Ganer Herman MD, Alexander Condrea MD, and Shimon Ginath MD

Background: The current approach to performing sacral neuromodulation consists of a two-stage procedure, the first of which includes insertion of the sacral electrode under fluoroscopic visualization of the S3 foramen. Alternatively, in certain situations computed tomography (CT)-guided insertion can be used.

Objectives: To evaluate the use of CT in cases of reinsertion of the electrode due to infection, dislocation, or rupture.

Methods: Medical records of patients who underwent neuromodulation device reinsertion between 2005 and 2016 for fecal incontinence were reviewed. Study outcomes included procedure course, successful placement, and long-term treatment success.

Results: During the study period, we inserted a neuromodulation device in 67 patients. A CT-guided insertion of a sacral electrode was performed in 10 patients. In nine patients, the insertion and the final location of the electrode were successful. In one patient, the electrode migrated upward due to a malformation of the S3 foramen on both sides and had to be placed in S4. In a mean follow-up of 68.4 ± 30.0 months following the re-insertion, there was a significant reduction in the number of incontinence episodes per day (P < 0.001) and the number of pads used per day (P = 0.002).

Conclusions: CT-guided insertion of a sacral electrode is a safe and promising option, especially in recurrent and or selected cases

November 2019
Omar Hakrush MD, Yochai Adir MD, Sonia Schneer MD, and Amir Abramovic MD

Background: Transesophageal endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration using a bronchoscope (EUS-B-FNA) allows clinicians to determine mediastinal staging and lung mass evaluation of lesions not accessible by endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) or where endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration might not be safe.

Objectives: To evaluate the safety, diagnostic accuracy, and feasibility of EUS-B-FNA.

Methods: The study comprised patients who underwent a pulmonologist-performed EUS-B-FNA of mediastinal lymph nodes and parenchymal lung lesions between June 2015 and September 2017 at the Carmel Medical Center, Haifa, Israel.

Results: EUS-B-FNA was performed in 81 patients. The transesophageal procedure was performed for easier accessibility (49.4%) and in high-risk patients (43.3%). The most frequently sampled mediastinal stations were left paratracheal and sub-carinal lymph nodes or masses (38.3% and 56.7%, respectively). There were no complications (e.g., acute respiratory distress, esophageal perforation, or bleeding). An accurate diagnosis was determined in 91.3% of cases.

Conclusions: Pulmonologist-performed EUS-B-FNA is safe and accurate for evaluating mediastinal and parenchymal lung lesions and lymphadenopathy. Diagnostic accuracy is high. EUS-B-FNA may allow access to sites not amenable to other forms of bronchoscopic sampling, or may increase diagnostic accuracy in patients where anatomic position predicts a low diagnostic yield.

June 2019
Ahmet Namazov MD, Vladislav Volchok MD, Alejandro Liboff MD, Michael Volodarsky MD, Viki Kapustian MD, Eyal Y Anteby MD and Ofer Gemer MD

Background: The sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy procedure is a well-known method for identifying solid tumors such as breast cancer, vulvar cancer, and melanoma. In endometrial and cervical cancer, SLN has recently gained acceptance.

Objectives: To evaluate the detection rate of SLN with an indocyanine green and near-infrared fluorescent imaging (ICG/NIR) integrated laparoscopic system in clinically uterine-confined endometrial or cervical cancer.

Methods: Patients with clinically early-stage endometrial or cervical cancer were included in this retrospective study. ICG was injected into the uterine cervix and an ICG/NIR integrated laparoscopic system was used during the surgeries. The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) protocol was followed. SLN and/or suspicious lymph nodes were resected. Side-specific lymphadenectomy was performed when mapping was unsuccessful. Systematic lymphadenectomy was completed in patients with high-grade histology or deep myometrial invasion. Enhanced pathology using ultra-staging and immunohistochemistry were performed in all cases.

Results: We analyzed 46 eligible patients: 39 endometrial and 7 cervical cancers. Of these, 44 had at least one SLN (93.6%). In 41 patients (89%) we detected bilateral SLN, in 3 (7%) only unilateral, and in 2 (4%) none were detected. Seven patients presented with lymph node metastasis. All were detected by NCCN/SLN protocol. Of these cases, two were detected with only pathological ultra-staging.

Conclusions: SLN mapping in endometrial and cervical cancer can easily be performed with a high detection rate by integrating ICG/NIR into a conventional laparoscopic system. Precision medicine in patients evaluated by SLN biopsy changes the way patients with endometrial or cervical cancer are managed.

November 2018
Tatiana Dorfman MD, Mariya Neymark MD, Julia Begal MD and Yoram Kluger MD FACS

Background: Enlarged lymph nodes (ELN) pose a great diagnostic challenge. They may represent the first clinical finding of a hematologic disease or other malignancy and may be an indication of a wide range of infectious and non-infectious diseases. Because many patients undergo percutaneous biopsy, surgical excisional biopsy is not often considered.

Objectives: To analyze indications for a patient's referral for surgical biopsy of ELN and diagnostic steps to follow until referral, and to determine the number of ELN.

Methods: A retrospective study was conducted of prospectively collected data of patients who underwent surgical biopsy of ELN from January 2004 to December 2013.

Results: Of 118 patients who underwent surgical biopsy of ELN, only 52 (44%) had needle biopsy (NB) before referral. Lymphoma was diagnosed by NB in 24 (46%) of the referred patients. In patients with a previous diagnosis of lymphoma, NB of ELN yielded a sensitivity of 67% and specificity of 79%. In patients with lymphadenopathy but with no previous history of malignancy, sensitivity for lymphoma was 68% and specificity was 71%. The investigative time period until final diagnosis was 3 months in patients who had NB but only 1.25 months in patients who were referred directly for surgery (P < 0.0001).

Conclusions: Surgical biopsy of ELN still has a place in the clinical evaluation of patients with ELN. Surgery may significantly reduce the length of investigation and prevent unnecessary diagnostics, especially in patients with suspected lymphoma recurrence.

November 2017
Itzhak Sharabi MD, Michael Kriwisky MD, Michael Welt MD and Yoseph Rozenman MD
October 2017
Amit Frenkel MD MHA, Abraham Borer MD, Aviel Roy-Shapira MD, Evgeni Brotfain MD, Leonid Koyfman MD, Lisa Saidel-Odes MD, Alir Adina RN and Moti Klein MD

Background: The authors describe a multifaceted cross-infection control program that was implemented to contain an epidemic of multidrug-resistant microorganisms (MRO) (carbapenem resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii; extended spectrum β-lactamase producing Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter Cloacae, and Proteus mirabilis; and ‎methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Candida species). 

Objectives: To assess the effect of a control program on the incidence of cross-infection with MRO.

Methods: Clinical criteria triaged patients into a high-risk wing (HRW) or a low-risk wing (LRW). Strict infection control measures were enforced; violations led to group discussions (not recorded). Frequent cultures were obtained, and use of antibiotics was limited. Each quarter, the incidence of MRO isolation was reported to all staff members. 

Results: Over a 6 year period, 1028 of 3113 patients were placed in the HRW. The incidence of MRO isolation within 48 hours of admission was 8.7% (HRW) vs. 1.91% (LRW) (P < 0.001). Acquired MRO infection density was 30.4 (HRW) vs. 15.6 (LRW) (P < 0.009). After the second year, the incidence of group discussions dropped from once or twice a month to once or twice a year.

Conclusions: These measures contained epidemics. Clinical criteria successfully triaged HRW from LRW patients and reduced cross-infection between the medical center wings. The quarterly reports of culture data were associated with improved staff compliance. MRO epidemic control with limited resources is feasible. 

 

December 2016
Eyal Klang MD, Michal M. Amitai MD, Stephen Raskin MD, Noa Rozendorn, Nicholas Keddel MD, Jana Pickovsky MD and Miri Sklair-Levy MD

Background: Silicone breast augmentation is a common cosmetic surgery. Previous case reports demonstrated lymphadenopathy in the presence of implant ruptures.

Objectives: To investigate the association between enlarged axillary lymph nodes and silicone implant ruptures as seen on breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Methods: Two groups were derived retrospectively from breast MRI reports in our institution for the period December 2011–May 2014. A search of our hospital records for "silicone" and "lymph node" was performed (group A), and the relationship between the presence of enlarged nodes and ruptures was evaluated. The prevalence of ruptures in the presence of nodes was calculated and the association between MRI imaging features and ruptures evaluated. A search for "silicone" and "implant rupture" was performed (group B) and, as for group A, the relationship between the presence of ruptures and nodes was evaluated and the prevalence of enlarged nodes in the presence of ruptures calculated.

Results: Group A comprised 45 women with enlarged nodes. Intracapsular ruptures were associated with nodes (P = 0.005), while extracapsular ruptures showed a trend of association with nodes (P = 0.08). The prevalence of ruptures in the presence of nodes was 31.4%. Nodes associated with ruptures showed a strong silicone signal (P = 0.008) and absent enhancement (P = 0.005). Group B comprised 73 women with ruptures. Enlarged nodes were associated with both intra- and extracapsular ruptures (P < 0.001 and P = 0.002 respectively). The prevalence of nodes in the presence of ruptures was 22.2%.

Conclusions: Enlarged axillary nodes were associated with ruptures in two groups of patients. This finding can guide clinical decisions when either enlarged nodes or ruptures are encountered in patients with silicone implants. The association between silicone lymphadenopathy and implant rupture raises concerns regarding the role of rupture in silicone-induced systemic disease.

 

August 2016
Tal Bergman-Levy MD MHA, Oren Asman LLB LLM LLD, Eyal Dahan MD, Binyamin Greenberg MD, Shmuel Hirshmann MD and Rael Strous MD MHA

Background: In Israel a general code of ethics exists for physicians, drafted by the Israel Medical Association. The question arises whether psychiatrists require a separate set of ethical guidelines.

Objectives: To examine the positions of Israeli psychiatrists with regard to ethics in general and professional ethics in particular, and to explore opinions regarding a code of ethics or ethical guidelines for psychiatry. 

Methods: A specially designed questionnaire was compiled and completed by psychiatrists recruited for the study. 

Results: Most participants reported low levels of perceived knowledge regarding ethics, professional ethics, and the general code of ethics. Older and more experienced professionals reported a higher level of knowledge. Most psychiatrists agreed or strongly agreed with the need for a distinct code of ethics/ethical guidelines for psychiatrists. This support was significantly higher among both psychiatrists under 50 years and residents. 

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the existing code of ethics and position papers may not be sufficient, indicating a potential need to develop and implement a process to create the ethical code itself. In addition, the findings highlight the importance of ethics education, suggesting that the need for a code of ethics is more urgent in the early stages of professional training, as younger professionals may be more exposed to advanced media technology. While some may fear that a distinct code of ethics will distance psychiatry from modern medicine, others assert that the profession combines aspects from the humanities and social sciences that require a unique sort of management and thus this profession requires a distinct code of ethics.

 

May 2014
Donato Rigante MD PhD, Aurora Rossodivita MD PhD and Luca Cantarini MD PhD
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