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עמוד בית
Thu, 25.07.24

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October 2017
Efraim Siegler MD, Maayan Shiner PhD, Yakir Segev MD, Lena Mackuli MD, Nitza Lahat MD and Ofer Lavie MD

Background: Invasive cervical cancer is caused by human papillomavirus (HPV).

Objectives: To describe the prevalence and genotype distribution of HPV types in women at risk for cervical neoplasia.

Methods: Our study summarized HPV types detected in 6654 samples that were sent to the serology laboratory from cervical clinics in northern Israel between 2006–2014. The HPV test was performed during investigation of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) results on Pap tests or due to complaints suggestive of cervical neoplasia. HPV types were classified as high risk (HPV-HR) and low risk (HPV-LR).

Results: Of the samples, 46.4% (3085/6654) were HPV-HR positive. Of women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2-3 (CIN 2-3) or cancer, 292/318 (91.8%) and 137/145 (94.5%), respectively, were HPV-HR positive. HPV 16 and HPV 18 were detected in 11.8% of the total samples and in 48.2% and 64.9% of the women with CIN 2-3 and with cancer, respectively. HPV was negative in 8/145 (5.5%) and 26/318 (8.2%) of women with cervical cancer and CIN 2-3, respectively.

Conclusions: This study shows the prevalence of HPV types in women at risk for cervical neoplasia. The sensitivity of all HPV types for CIN 2-3 and cervical cancer was 91.8% and 94.5%, respectively; and of HPV-HR types, 89% and 92.4%, respectively. Triage of HPV-HR types should be considered in women with ASCUS because HPV-HR types were discovered in only 36.7%. The distribution of HPV types in our population is similar to that reported for other developed countries.

 

 

March 2010
O. Amir, O. Rogowski, M. David, N. Lahat, R. Wolff and B.S. Lewis

Background: Interleukin-10 is an anti-inflammatory cytokine and consequently is considered by many to have a protective role in heart failure, as opposed to the notorious tumor necrosis factor-alpha.

Objectives: To test the hypothesis of the possible beneficial impact of IL-10[1] on mortality in systolic heart failure patients in relation to their circulating TNFα[2] levels.

Methods: We measured circulating levels of IL-10 and TNFα in 67 ambulatory systolic heart failure patients (age 65 ± 13 years).

Results: Mortality was or tended to be higher in patients with higher levels (above median level) of circulating TNFα (9/23, 39% vs. 6/44, 14%; P = 0.02) or IL-10 (10/34, 30% vs. 5/33, 15%; P = 0.10). However, mortality was highest in the subset of patients with elevation of both markers above median (7/16, 44% vs. 8/51, 16%; P = 0.019). Elevation of both markers was associated with more than a threefold hazard ratio for mortality (HR[3] 3.67, 95% confidence interval 1.14–11.78).

Conclusions: Elevated circulating IL-10 levels in systolic heart failure patients do not have a protective counterbalance effect on mortality. Moreover, patients with elevated IL-10 and TNFα had significantly higher mortality, suggesting that the possible interaction in the complex inflammatory and anti-inflammatory network may need further study.

 






[1] IL = interleukin

[2] TNFα = tumor necrosis factor-alpha

[3] HR = hazard ratio


June 2005
E. Bamberger, N. Lahat, V. Gershtein, R. Gershtein, D. Benilevi, S. Shapiro, I. Kassis, L. Rubin and I. Srugo
 Background: Whereas the diagnosis of classical pertussis has traditionally been based on clinical criteria, increasing numbers of atypical presentations suggest the need for an extensive laboratory-based approach.

Objectives: To assess the relative efficacy of clinical and laboratory methods in the diagnosis of Bordetella pertussis by patient age and immunization status.

Methods: We compared the clinical and laboratory diagnosis of B. pertussis in 87 pre-vaccinated, 78 recently vaccinated, and 75 post-vaccinated children with suspected pertussis. Serum and nasopharyngeal swabs were obtained for serology, culture and polymerase chain reaction.

Results: PCR[1] and culture identified 41% and 7% of patients with B. pertussis, respectively (P < 0.001). All positive cultures were PCR-positive. Positive PCR was less common among those recently vaccinated than among those in the pre- (P < 0.001) and post-vaccinated groups (P < 0.05). Positive culture was more common among those pre-vaccinated than among those recently vaccinated (P < 0.01). Positive tests for immunoglobulin M and A were more common among the post-vaccinated than the pre- and recently vaccinated (P < 0.001), respectively. Logistic regression analyses revealed that clinical criteria have no significant association with infection in recently and post-vaccinated children. Among the pre-vaccinated children, whoop and cough duration were associated with a positive PCR (odds ratio 7.66 and 0.5, P < 0.001). Seventy-six percent of pre-vaccinated, 39% of recently vaccinated and 40% of post-vaccinated children with positive PCR did not meet the U.S. Centers for Disease Control diagnostic criteria for B. pertussis.

Conclusions: PCR is a useful tool for pertussis diagnosis, particularly in pre-vaccinated infants. The yield of culture and serology is limited, especially among pre- and recently vaccinated children. In pre-vaccinated infants with whoop and less than 2 weeks of cough, PCR testing should be implemented promptly.


 





[1] PCR = polymerase chain reaction


August 2002
Raanan Shamir, MD, Rami Eliakim, MD, Nitza Lahat, PhD, Esther Sobel, MSc and Aaron Lerner, MD, MHA

Background: Celiac disease is common in both children and adults. Small intestinal biopsy is mandatory for establishing a diagnosis. Anti-endomysial antibodies, detected by immunofluorescence, have a sensitivity and specificity close to 100% in the diagnosis of CD[1]. Recently, tissue transglutaminase has been identified as the target autoantigen of antibodies against endomysium, and TTG[2] antibodies are comparable to EMA-IMF[3] in the diagnosis of CD.

Objective: To evaluate a new enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit for EMA, compared to EMA-IMF and TTG antibodies in the diagnosis of CD.

Methods: Our study population included all subjects with positive EMA-IMF who underwent intestinal biopsy (n=21). From the same sera, TTG antibodies and EMA-ELISA[4] were determined, and all antibody results were compared to the biopsy findings.

Results: EMA-IMF was able to predict biopsy findings of CD in 19 of 21 cases (90.5%). When patients with biopsy findings compatible with CD and positive EMA-IMF (n=19) were tested for EMA-ELISA and TTG antibodies, 18 of the 19 were positive for both EMA-ELISA and TTG antibodies. A significant correlation was found between EMA-ELISA and TTG antibody titers (r = 0.74, P < 0.001).

Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that EMA-ELISA is comparable to TTG antibodies in the diagnosis of CD, and supports the use of EMA-ELISA as a serologic marker for this disease.


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[1]
CD = celiac disease

[2] TTG = tissue transglutaminase

[3] EMA-IMF = anti-endomysial antibodies measured by immunofluorescence

[4] ELISA = enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

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