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עמוד בית
Mon, 15.07.24

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May 2023
Aviv Schupper MD, Galia Barash MD, Lilach Benyamini MD, Revital Ben-Haim MD, Eli Heyman MD, Eli Lahat MD, Haim Bassan MD

Global developmental delay (GDD), defined as a significant delay in two or more developmental domains (e.g., gross/fine motor, cognitive, speech/language, personal/social, activities of daily living), affects 1–3% of children. According to the Israeli Ministry of Health, thyroid function studies are not indicated in children with GDD unless there are systemic features suggestive of thyroid dysfunction (https://www.health.gov.il/hozer/mr36_2012.pdf). This approach also exists in other countries with newborn screening programs for congenital hypothyroidism.

We present the case of an infant with GDD, who despite normal newborn screening tests, underwent a repeated extended thyroid function analysis (including T3 levels) leading to a diagnosis of Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome, a rare genetic neurodevelopmental syndrome.

January 2019
Emily Fisher MD MSc, Christine Loock MD, Ariana Melamed BA, Shulamit Blank MD and Gideon Koren MD

Background: Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) may be under-recognized and under-diagnosed in Israel. Fewer than 10 FASD diagnoses were reported between 1998 and 2007; however, several hundred diagnoses have been made since. Furthermore, less than 10% of surveyed Israeli pediatricians reported adequate knowledge of FASD.

Objectives: To determine the prevalence of suspected FASD, to establish a database as a starting point for epidemiological studies, and to develop FASD awareness for health, social, and educational services.

Methods: A chart review was conducted at an educational facility for children and adolescents with behavioral and learning challenges. The following information was extracted: adoption status, history of alcohol/drug abuse in the biological mother, medical diagnoses, medication use, and information regarding impairment in 14 published neurobehavioral categories. Subjects were classified as: category 1 (highly likely FASD) – impairment in three or more neurobehavioral categories and evidence of maternal alcohol abuse was available; category 2 (possible FASD) – impairment in three or more neurobehavioral categories and evidence to support maternal substance abuse (type/time unspecified); and category 3 (unconfirmed likelihood of FASD) – impairment in three or more neurobehavioral categories and no information regarding the biological family.

Results: Of 237 files analyzed, 38 subjects (16%) had suspected FASD: 10 subjects (4%) in category 1, 5 (2%) in category 2, and 23 (10%) in category 3. Twenty-seven subjects with suspected FASD (69%) had been adopted.

Conclusions: This study is the most comprehensive review of FASD among Israeli children and adolescents in a population with learning and behavior challenges.

November 2015
Brian Steiman MD and Nathan Watemberg MD

Background: The long-term significance of apparent life-threatening events (ALTE) has not been thoroughly studied. 

Objectives: To evaluate, at age 5 years, the health status of consecutive children diagnosed with ALTE in infancy. 

Methods: Based on the diagnostic workup, patients were classified into two groups: a ‘broad’ evaluation group (at least one test/procedure related to each of the five main causes: infectious, metabolic, cardiopulmonary, gastroenterological, neurological), and a ‘narrow’ workup group whose evaluation did not cover all five domains. Health status around age 5 was obtained from hospital records, community clinics and parents/caregivers.

Results: We identified 132 children with ALTE. Choking (49.2%) was the most common description, followed by apnea (13.6%), suspected seizure (12.9%), cyanosis (12.1%), breath-holding spell (8.3%), and pallor (3.8%). A broad diagnostic workup was performed in 62.1% of the infants, and a narrow workup in 37.9%. At age 5 years, 56.8% of the children were healthy; 27.3% reported chronic conditions unrelated to ALTE. Twenty-one children (15.9%) had unrelated neurodevelopmental conditions, mostly attention deficit disorder. One of the 132 ALTE patients relapsed and was eventually diagnosed with epilepsy.

Conclusions: A single episode of ALTE in infancy was neither predictive of nor associated with chronic systemic or neurological disease at age 5 years. 

 

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