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עמוד בית
Sun, 03.03.24

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September 2019
September 2018
Keren Cohen-Hagai MD, Dan Feldman MD, Tirza Turani-Feldman BOT, Ruth Hadary MD, Shilo Lotan MD and Yona Kitay-Cohen MD

Background: Magnesium is an essential intracellular cation. Magnesium deficiency is common in the general population and its prevalence among patients with cirrhosis is even higher. Correlation between serum levels and total body content is poor because most magnesium is intracellular. Minimal hepatic encephalopathy is a subclinical phase of hepatic encephalopathy with no overt symptoms. Cognitive exams can reveal minor changes in coordination, attention, and visuomotor function, whereas language and verbal intelligence are usually relatively spared.

Objectives: To assess the correlation between intracellular and serum magnesium levels and minimal hepatic encephalopathy.

Methods: Outpatients with a diagnosis of compensated liver cirrhosis were enrolled in this randomized, double-blinded study. Patients were recruited for the study from November 2013 to January 2014, and were randomly assigned to a control (placebo) or an interventional (treated with magnesium oxide) group. Serum and intracellular magnesium levels were measured at enrollment and at the end of the study. Cognitive function was assessed by a specialized occupational therapist.

Results: Forty-two patients met the inclusion criteria, 29 of whom were included in this study. Among these, 83% had abnormal cognitive exam results compatible with minimal hepatic encephalopathy. While only 10% had hypomagnesemia, 33.3% had low levels of intracellular magnesium. Initial intracellular and serum magnesium levels positively correlated with cognitive performance.

Conclusions: Magnesium deficiency is common among patients with compensated liver cirrhosis. We found an association between magnesium deficiency and impairment in several cognitive function tests. This finding suggests involvement of magnesium in the pathophysiology of minimal hepatic encephalopathy.

April 2005
J. Kogan, S. Turkot, B. Golzman and S. Oren
Background: Hemodynamic changes, including systemic vascular resistance, in cirrhotic patients during massive paracentesis have been reported, but large and small artery compliance has not yet been investigated.

Objective: To investigate hemodynamic variables, including small and large artery compliance, in cirrhotic patients during total paracentesis.

Methods: The study included 15 cirrhotic patients admitted for an episode of tense diuretic-resistant ascites. Hemodynamic variables including vascular compliance were measured using an HDI pulse wave cardiovascular profiling instrument CR-2000. The variables were measured in these patients before, immediately after and 24 hours following large volume (mean 5.6 L) paracentesis.

Results: Cardiac output increased immediately after paracentesis due to increment in stroke volume, with no change in heart rate. However, 24 hours later the cardiac output decreased to below the basal level. The fluctuation was statistically significant (P < 0.05). There was no change in large artery compliance, but small artery compliance increased after paracentesis (P < 0.05) and partially returned to the basal level after 24 hours. Systemic vascular resistance measurement showed the same pattern of change: vasodilatation occurred during paracentesis and was attenuated 24 hours later.

Conclusions: Large volume paracentesis with albumin replacement caused an accentuation of the vasodilatation (small but not large artery) already present in these patients. This may be the first sign of enhanced vasodilatation due to large volume paracentesis before the clinical expression of impaired hemodynamics and deterioration of renal function.

June 2001
Carmi Bartal, MD, Maximo Maislos, MD, Doron Zilberman, MD and Emanuel Sikuler, MD
February 2001
Joram Wardi, MD, Ram Reifen, MD, Hussein Aeed, PhD, Liliana Zadel, MD, Yona Avni, MD and Rafael Bruck, MD

Objective: To study whether retinolpalmitate, beta-car­otene or lycopene could prevent liver cirrhosis induced by thioacetamide in rats.

Methods: In the control group liver cirrhosis was induced in male Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injections of TAA 200 mg/ kg for 12 weeks. The three study groups received in addition to TM either beta-carotene, lycopene or retinolpalmitate by gavage through an orogastric tube. Histopathological analysis and determination of the hydroxyproline contents of the livers were performed at the end of the protocol.

Results: Rats treated with beta-carotene and TAA had lower histopathologic scores and reduced levels of hepatic hydroxyproline (P= 0.02) than those treated by TAA alone. A trend of decreased fibrosis was observed in the rats treated with lycopene and TAA although this lacked statistical significance.

Conclusions: Beta-carotene attenuated liver cirrhosis induced by TAA in rats. The mechanism may be related to effects on hepatic stellate cells or to scavenging of free radicals by beta-carotene. Retinolpalmitate and lycopen had no significant beneficial effect.

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