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עמוד בית
Sun, 03.03.24

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July 2021
Moshe Y. Flugelman MD, Ruth Margalit MD, Ami Aronheim PhD, Omri Barak PhD, Assaf Marom MD PhD, Katya Dolnikov MD, Eyal Braun MD, Ayelet Raz-Pasteur MD, Zaher S. Azzam MD, David Hochstein MD, Riad Haddad MD, Rachel Nave PhD, Arieh Riskin MD, Dan Waisman MD, Robert Glueck MD, Michal Mekel MD, Yael Avraham BSc, Uval Bar-Peled BSc, Ronit Kacev MA, Michal Keren BA, Amir Karban MD, and Elon Eisenberg MD

Background: The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic forced drastic changes in all layers of life. Social distancing and lockdown drove the educational system to uncharted territories at an accelerated pace, leaving educators little time to adjust.

Objectives: To describe changes in teaching during the first phase of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Methods: We described the steps implemented at the Technion–Israel Institute of Technology Faculty of Medicine during the initial 4 months of the COVID-19 pandemic to preserve teaching and the academic ecosystem. 

Results: Several established methodologies, such as the flipped classroom and active learning, demonstrated effectiveness. In addition, we used creative methods to teach clinical medicine during the ban on bedside teaching and modified community engagement activities to meet COVID-19 induced community needs. 

Conclusions: The challenges and the lessons learned from teaching during the COVID-19 pandemic prompted us to adjust our teaching methods and curriculum using multiple online teaching methods and promoting self-learning. It also provided invaluable insights on our pedagogy and the teaching of medicine in the future with emphasis on students and faculty being part of the changes and adjustments in curriculum and teaching methods. However, personal interactions are essential to medical school education, as are laboratories, group simulations, and bedside teaching

November 2018
Naim Abu Freha MD MHA, Wafi Badarna MD, Muhammad Abu Tailakh RN MPH PhD, Heba Abu Kaf MD, Alex Fich MD, Doron Schwartz MD, Arik Segal, Jabir Elkrinawi and Amir Karban MD

Background: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) prevalence is increasing among Bedouin Arabs in Israel. This population is known to have a high rate of consanguinity. NOD2/CARD15 mutations are well-studied in IBD.

Objectives: To investigate the frequency of NOD2/CARD15 mutations in IBD Bedouin patients and their relevance to disease phenotype.

Methods: The IBD-Arab cohort in southern Israel included 68 patients, of which 25 Crohn's disease (CD) patients and 25 ulcerative colitis (UC) patients consented to participate (72%). Blood samples were obtained from all participants who were genotyped for NOD2/CARD15 variants Arg702Trp, Gly908Arg, and Leu1007fsinsC.

Results: The NOD2/CARD15 mutation frequency was higher in Crohn's disease than in ulcerative colitis patients. Carrier frequency for the Gly908Arg mutation in CD and UC patients was 8/25 (32%) and 3/25 (12%), respectively (P = 0.08). Neither the Arg702Trp nor Leu1007fsinsC mutation was found in our cohort. No homozygous/compound heterozygote mutations were found. Genotype-phenotype analysis revealed that CD patients carrying the Gly908Arg mutation were younger at diagnosis, 22.8 ± 4.5 vs. 28.82 ± 9.1 years (P = 0.04). All carriers were males, compared with 41.2% in non-carriers (P = 0.005). NOD2/CARD15 mutation carriers with UC were older, 67.0 ± 24.5 years compared with 41.2 ± 12.3 years (P = 0.006). No other associations regarding disease localization or other clinical parameter were found.

Conclusions: The frequency of NOD2/CARD15 gene mutations is high in CD and UC among Bedouin Arab IBD patients and is associated with younger age at onset in CD and male gender.

May 2018
Ronen Zalts MD, Tomer Twizer MD, Ronit Leiba BsC and Amir Karban MD

Background: The identification of the etiology of a pleural effusion can be difficult. Measurement of serum B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels is helpful in the diagnosis of congestive heart failure (CHF) as a cause of respiratory failure, but pleural fluid BNP measurement is still not part of the workup for pleural effusion.

Objectives: To identify the correlation between pleural fluid BNP levels and clinical diagnosis.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, data from 107 patients admitted to the department of internal medicine between November 2009 and January 2015 were obtained from medical records. Patients underwent a diagnostic thoracocentesis as part of their evaluation. They were grouped according to final diagnosis at discharge and clinical judgment of the attending physician.

Results: Serum BNP levels were significantly higher in the CHF patients compared to patients with non-cardiac causes of pleural effusion (1519.2 and 314.1 respectively, P < 0.0001). Mean pleural fluid BNP was also significantly higher in the CHF patients (1063.2 vs. 208.3, P < 0.0001). Optional cutoff points to distinguish between cardiac and non-cardiac etiology of pleural effusion were 273.4 pg/ml (sensitivity 83.3%, specificity 72.3%, accuracy 76.7%) or 400 pg/ml (sensitivity 78.6%, specificity 86.2%, accuracy 83.0%). A strong correlation was found between serum BNP and pleural fluid BNP levels.

Conclusions: High levels of serum BNP in patients presenting with pleural effusion suggest CHF. In cases with doubt regarding the etiology of pleural effusion, high levels of pleural fluid BNP can support the diagnosis, but are not superior to serum BNP levels.

October 2002
by Amir Karban, MD, Rami Eliakim, MD and Steven R. Brant, MD

The etiology of inflammatory bowel diseases, Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, is uncertain. Studies of specific environmental factors and immune dysfunction have provided limited insight into disease pathogenesis. There is ample evidence that these diseases are in part the result of genetic predisposition. The early search for candidate genes focused on genes involved in the regulation of immune function.

Recent genome wide searches reported several susceptibility loci for Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. The recent identification of the IBD1 gene (NOD2) with mutations that are associated with susceptibility to Crohn’s disease will have a major impact on the understanding of the genetics of this disease.
 

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