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עמוד בית
Sat, 20.07.24

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June 2023
Dorit Ravid MD, Michal Kovo MD PhD, Sophia Leytes MD, Yael Yagur MD, Maty Fakterman MD, Omer Weitzner MD

Background: Treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has been shown to improve both maternal and neonatal outcomes. For women with GDM who require glucose-lowering medication, insulin is regarded as the drug of choice by most medical societies. Oral therapy, with metformin or glibenclamide, is a reasonable alternative in certain medical circumstances.

Objectives: To compare the efficacy and safety of insulin detemir (IDet) vs. glibenclamide for GDM when glycemic control cannot be achieved through lifestyle modification and diet.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of 115 women with singleton pregnancy and GDM treated with IDet or glibenclamide. GDM was diagnosed via the two-step oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) of 50 grams glucose, followed by 100 grams. Maternal characteristics and outcomes (preeclampsia and weight gain) and neonatal outcomes (birth weight and percentile, hypoglycemia, jaundice, and respiratory morbidity) were compared between groups.

Results: In total, 67 women received IDet and 48 glibenclamide. Maternal characteristics, weight gain, and the incidence of preeclampsia were similar in both groups. Neonatal outcomes were also similar. The proportion of large for gestational age (LGA) infants was 20.8% in the glibenclamide group compared to 14.9% in the IDet group (P = 0.04).

Conclusions: In pregnant women with GDM, glucose control on IDet yielded comparable results as on glibenclamide, except for a significantly lower rate of LGA neonates.

September 2021
Naim Shehadeh MD, Aryeh Simmonds MD, Samuel Zangen MD, Arieh Riskin MD MHA, and Raanan Shamir MD

Background: Infants born very prematurely have functionally and structurally immature gastrointestinal tracts.

Objectives: To assess the safety and tolerability of administration of enteral recombinant human (rh) insulin on formula fed preterm infants and to assess whether enteral administration of rh-insulin enhances gastrointestinal tract maturation by reducing the time to reach full enteral feeding.

Methods: A phase 2, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study was conducted. Premature infants (26–33 weeks gestation) were randomized 1:1 to receive insulin 400 μU/ml mixed with enteral feeding or placebo added to their formula. The primary efficacy outcome measure was the number of days required to achieve full enteral feeding. Safety outcomes included adverse events and blood glucose levels.

Results: The study consisted of 33 infants randomized for the safety population and 31 for efficacy analysis. The mean time to full enteral feeding was 6.37 days (95% confidence interval [95%CI] 4.59–8.15) in the enteral rh-insulin treatment group (n=16) and 8.00 days (95%CI 6.20–9.80) in the placebo group (n=15), which represents a statistically significant reduction of 1.63 days (95%CI 0.29–2.97; P = 0.023). There was no difference in blood glucose levels between the groups and none of the participants experienced hypoglycemia. Adverse events occurred in 9/17 (53%) infants in the enteral rh-insulin group and 12/16 (75%) in the placebo group.

Conclusions: Our trial demonstrated that administration of enteral rh-insulin as supplement to enteral nutrition significantly reduced time to achieve full enteral feeding in preterm infants with a gestational age of 26–33 weeks.

January 2019
Itay Wiser MD PHD, Roni Averbuch Sagie MD, Liran Barzilai MD, Moti Haratz MD and Josef Haik MD MPH

Background: Burn injury pathophysiology is characterized by severe catabolic state and poor glycemic control. A tight glycemic control protocol using insulin for burn victims has yielded inconsistent mortality and morbidity outcomes.

Objectives: To compare the effect of standard and tight glycemic control protocols on mortality and hypoglycemia events in critical care burn patients.

Methods: We conducted a case-control study of burn victims admitted to the burn intensive care unit between 2005 and 2011. Patients were assigned to either a standard or a tight glycemic control protocol.

Results: Of the 38 burn patients in the study, 28 were under a tight glycemic control protocol. No differences in glucose area-under-the-curve per day levels were observed between the groups (148.3 ± 16 vs. 157.8 ± 16 mg/dl in the standard and tight glycemic control protocol groups respectively, P < 0.12). The hypoglycemic event rate was higher in the tight glycemic control protocol group (46.4% vs. 0%, P < 0.008). No difference in mortality rate was noted (67.9% vs. 50%, P < 0.31). Mortality-independent risk factors found on multivariate analysis included total body surface area (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] 1.039, 95% confidence interval  [95%CI] 1.02–1.06, P < 0.001), white blood cell count on admission (AHR 1.048, 95%CI 1.01–1.09, P < 0.02) and surgery during hospitalization (AHR 0.348, 95%CI 0.13–0.09, P < 0.03).

Conclusions: The tight glycemic control protocol in burn patients was associated with higher rates of hypoglycemic events, and no association was found with improved survival in the acute setting of burn trauma care.

November 2018
Shlomit Koren MD, Michael Yoshpa MD, Ronit Koren MD, Dror Cantrell MD and Micha J. Rapoport MD

Background: Basal-bolus (BB) insulin treatment is increasingly used in poorly controlled diabetes patients during hospitalization and is commonly recommended at discharge; however, the extent of adherence with this recommendation is unknown.

Objectives: To determine short-term adherence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients discharged from internal medicine wards with recommendation for BB insulin treatment.

Methods: Prescription (primary physician adherence) and purchase (patient adherence) of long-acting and short-acting insulins during the first month following discharge from internal medicine wards was determined in 153 T2DM patients. Adherence was defined as full if prescription/purchase of both basal (long-acting) and bolus (short-acting) insulin was completed, and as partial if only one kind of insulin (basal or bolus) was prescribed/purchased. Association between demographic and clinical parameters and adherence was determined.

Results: Full adherence with discharge instructions was higher for primary physicians than for patients )79.1% vs. 69.3%, respectively, P = 0.0182). Pre-hospitalization hemoglobin A1C was significantly associated with adherence by both patients and primary physicians (full-adherence group 9.04% ± 2.04%; no-adherence group 7.51% ± 1.35%, P = 0.002). Age was negatively associated with adherence of both primary physicians and patients; however, this association did not reach statistical significance. Patients with certain background diseases such as atrial fibrillation, coronary heart disease, and chronic heart failure had significantly worse adherence (P < 0.05). When the sole cause of admission was diabetes, full adherence (100%) of both primary physicians and patients was found.

Conclusions: Short-term adherence with discharge recommendation for BB insulin treatment is associated with pre-hospitalization patient characteristics.

June 2018
Nadav Shinhar, Dana Marcoviciu and Dror Dicker

Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a multifactorial disease in which genetic susceptibility and environmental factors induce pancreatic β-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance. Additional factors such as hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia have roles in β-cell dysfunction and disease progression. The phenomenon of lipid-induced pancreatic β-dysfunction, designated as lipotoxicity, has been observed in several in vitro and in vivo experiments; however, there is still no solid evidence for the occurrence of this event in humans. The toxic effect of high lipid levels on β-cell function consists of impaired insulin gene expression, apoptosis, and reduced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion.

Objectives: To demonstrate the importance of treating hypertriglyceridemia in reducing glucose intolerance and the need for insulin therapy in hospitalized diabetic patients.

Methods: We evaluated five clinical case reports and conducted a detailed literature review via the PubMed search engine.

Results: Reduction in elevated blood triglyceride and glucose levels in hospitalized diabetic patients resulted in a rapid decline in glucose levels and in the need for insulin therapy.

Conclusions: A decrease in high triglyceride levels in “lipotoxic” diabetic patients may improve insulin intolerance and glucose homeostasis and reduce the need for insulin therapy.

January 2017
Haim Werner PhD, Lena Lapkina-Gendler PhD and Zvi Laron MD
July 2016
Mordechai Shimonov MD, Lior Leibou MD, Eduard Davidov MD, Olga Bernadsky MD, Julio Wainstein MD and Eyal Leibovitz MD

Background: Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection of the gastric mucosa may be involved in the development of insulin resistance (IR). 

Objectives: To investigate the association between HP status in stomach biopsies and weight reduction in patients who underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). 

Methods: In this retrospective analysis of medical charts, all patients who underwent LSG for weight reduction and had at least 1 year of follow-up were included. HP status was ascertained by two to four biopsies of the removed stomach. 

Results: The study group comprised 70 patients; their mean age was 45.9 ± 11.9 years and 31.9% were males. Fourteen patients (20%) tested positive for HP colonization in gastric mucosa. HP status was not associated with age or smoking status. No difference was noted in the rate of diabetes mellitus (DM) or hypertension, but patients with HP had lower rates of hyperlipidemia (0 vs. 29 patients, 52%, P < 0.001). Patients lost an average of 10.5 kg/m2 after 12 months of follow-up, and no difference was noted between HP-positive and HP-negative patients. The rate of DM control was also similar between HP-positive and HP-negative patients at baseline (33.3 vs. 29.4, P = NS) and at 12 months of follow-up (70% vs. 50%, P = NS). 

Conclusions: HP status was not associated with changes in metabolic profiles and co-morbidity status, or in the efficacy of LSG. 


November 2012
E. Cohen, I. Krause, A. Fraser, E. Goldberg and M. Garty

Background: There is a striking increase in the number of people with metabolic syndrome (MetS) as a result of the global epidemic of obesity and diabetes. Increasing evidence suggests that uric acid may play a role in MetS.

Objectives: To assess the prevalence of MetS in a large cohort from Israel and its association with hyperuricemia using the latest three definitions of MetS.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of the database from a screening center in Israel, using the revised National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III), the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and the Harmonizing definitions of MetS, to assess 12,036 subjects with an age range of 20–80 years.

Results: The mean age of the study sample was 46.1 ± 10.2 years and 69.8% were male. The prevalence of MetS was 10.6%, 18.2% and 20.2% in the revised NCEP ATP III, the IDF and the Harmonizing definitions respectively. The prevalence of hyperuricemia in subjects with MetS, for all three MetS definitions, was similar: 20.0%, 19.9% and 19.1% respectively. There was a graded increase in the prevalence of MetS among subjects with increasing levels of uric acid. The increasing trend persisted after stratifying for age and gender and after multivariate analysis (P for trend < 0.001).

Conclusions: This large cohort shows a high prevalence of MetS in Israel, but is still lower than the prevalence in western countries. Hyperuricemia is common in those subjects and might be considered a potential clinical parameter in the definition of MetS.

September 2011
J. Wainstein, E. Leibovitz, T. Segal and D. Gavish

Background: Control of diabetes is challenging, and frequent treatment changes are needed. 

Objective: To study the effect of the recommendation to start insulin glargine or insulin determir (long-acting insulin treatment, LAI) at discharge from hospital, on glucose control in the community setting.

Methods: Included were type II diabetes patients who were referred to and received a consultation from the hospital diabetes clinic during their hosptialization, as part of a routine consultation for diabetes management. During the visit, all patients were recommended long-acting insulin-based treatment, as inpatient treatment and at discharge. Follow-up was done by the primary physician in the community or by a community-based diabetes clinic. Glycosylated hemoglobin, glucose levels and other laboratory tests were obtained from the community health records before hospitalization and 612 months later. Medical treatment was ascertained by reviewing the actual usage of prescriptions.

Results: Eighty patients (58% males, mean age 64.1 ± 12.7 years) were included in the analysis. HbA1c levels were 10.1 ± 2.4% before admission, but improved significantly at follow-up (8.6 ± 2.2%, P < 0.001). Seventy-one percent of the patients were taking the LAI treatment and the rest were using non-LAI medications. Changes in diabetes control were similar between the LAI and non-LAI groups (HbA1c was reduced by 1.5 ± 3.2% and 1.9 ± 3.1% respectively). The rate of repeated admissions was also similar, averaging at 1.3 admissions for both groups, the minority of which were related to glucose control.

Conclusions: Insulin glargine or determir-based treatment does not show any superiority over other anti-diabetes treatment. It is our opinion that this treatment should be used as tailored therapy and should not be recommended routinely to all patients.

December 2008
V. Gazit, D. Tasher, A. Hanukoglu, Z. Landau, Y. Ben-Yehuda, E. Somekh, I. Dalal

Background: Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is dominated by a Th1 response whereas atopic diseases such as asthma, eczema and allergic rhinitis are characterized by a Th2 response. Because it is known that Th1 and Th2 cells reciprocally counteract each other, it can be speculated that the prevalence of Th2-mediated diseases is lower in patients with a Th1-mediated disease.

Objectives: To compare the prevalence of atopic diseases among children with IDDM[1] and age-matched controls.

Methods: The study group comprised 65 children with IDDM attending the pediatric endocrinology clinic at the Wolfson Medical Center. The control group consisted of 74 non-diabetic children who presented at the emergency room due to an acute illness (burns, abdominal pain, fever, head trauma). Patients were asked to complete a detailed questionnaire on their history of personal and familial atopic and autoimmune diseases. In addition, a total serum immunoglobulin E concentration and the presence of IgE[2] antibodies to a panel of relevant inhalant allergens were analyzed.

Results: Children with IDDM and their first-degree relatives had a significantly higher prevalence of other autoimmune diseases such as thyroiditis and celiac as compared to controls. The two groups had a similar prevalence of atopic diseases with respect to history, total serum IgE, or the presence of IgE antibodies to a panel of relevant inhalant allergens.

Conclusions: The prevalence of atopic diseases in IDDM patients was similar to that in the normal population. Our results suggest that the traditional Th1/Th2 theory to explain the complexity of the immune response is oversimplified. 



[1] IDDM = insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

[2] Ig = immunoglobulin

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