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עמוד בית
Wed, 24.07.24

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July 2003
January 2003
D. Kohelet

Background: High frequency oscillatory ventilation has proved valuable in recruiting and sustaining lung volume; the combined treatment may augment nitric oxide delivery to target vessels. NO[1] therapy lowers pulmonary resistance and improves oxygenation.

Objective: To retrospectively review data on changes in oxygenation – indicated by arterial/alveolar PO2 ratio, oxygenation index, and outcome – in a cohort of 10 infants with hypoxemic respiratory failure in whom nitric oxide inhalation was instituted in a compassionate-use protocol after deteriorated oxygenation.

Methods: NO inhalation was administered at a range of 0.12–122 days of life using the SensorMedics system in 10 infants who developed hypoxemic respiratory failure associated with a variety of lung diseases while on HFOV[2].

Results: The infants' birthweight was 1,717 ± 1,167 g and their gestational age 31.1 ± 6.5 weeks. Mean exposure to NO inhalation was 14.2 days and ranged from 3–59 days. Oxygenation index decreased from 39.3 ± 13.2 to 12.7 ± 6.9 (P < 0.0002) after NO therapy. Despite an initial prompt response to NO inhalation, two patients died of progressive intractable respiratory failure and one term infant died of extrapulmonary complications (hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy grade III and multiorgan failure).

Conclusion: Our results indicate that the combined treatment of HFOV and NO inhalation is superior to HFOV alone for improving oxygenation in a selected cohort of infants ventilated for a variety of lung diseases.






[1] NO = nitric oxide



[2] HFOV = high frequency oscillatory ventilation


February 2002
Imad R. Makhoul, MD, DSc, Polo Sujov, MD, Leon Ardekian, DDS, Imad Kassis, MD, Tatiana Smolkin, MD, Imad Abu-Elnaa'j, DMD, Ada Tamir, DSc and Dov Laufer, DMD

Background: Factors influencing the oral flora of premature infants have not been adequately investigated.

Objective: To investigate the effects of gestational age and of anti-bacterial therapy on the oral flora of premature infants.

Methods: Oral cultures were obtained at age 1 day and age 10 days from 65 premature infants, divided into three groups: a) 24 neonates of 30-34 weeks gestation who did not receive ABT, b) 23 neonates of 30-34 weeks gestation who received ABT, and c) 18 neonates < 30 weeks gestation who received ABT.

Results: Oral bacterial colonization increased from day 1 to day 10 of life. In 24-34 week neonates, gestational age did not affect early bacteremia or oral colonization at birth. Neither gestational age nor ABT affected late bacteremia or oral colonization at day 10. In 30-34 week neonates with ABT, the oral flora consisted mainly of non-Escherichia coli gram-negative bacteria, whereas those who did not receive ABT grew mainly alpha-hemolytic streptococci, Klebsiella pneumoniae and E. coli in neonates < 30 weeks who received ABT the oral flora were mainly coagulase-negative staphylococci. Oral colonization with anearobes was zero and colonization with fungi was minimal.

Conclusions: Acquistion of oral bacteria rose from day 1 to day 10 of life, regardless of gestational life or ABT. On day 10 of life, the spectrum of oral bacterial flora changed following ABT and consisted mainly of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and non E. coli garm-negative bacteria. Oral colonization showed few fungi but no anaerobes. These microbiologic observations merit attention when empirical anti-microbial therapy is considered in premature infants suspected or having late-onset sepsis.

October 2000
October 1999
Shaul Dollberg MD and Francis B. Mimouni MD
 Background and Objective: Very low birthweight infants (<1,500 g birthweight) often develop significant anemia that requires multiple blood transfusions, which carry a significant risk. Erythropoietin therapy is known to reduce the need for blood transfusions in preterm VLBW(1) infants. Analysis of cost had been reported in prospective studies with conflicting results. No studies comparing the cost-effectiveness of EPO(2) have been reported during routine use in preterm VLBW infants.

Methods: We compared the cost of treating anemia of prematurity in two consecutive 12-month periods: before and after the introduction of EPO therapy in our unit. The cost of blood bank charges as well as disposable items and the cost of EPO were compared.

Results: A significantly smaller number of infants required blood transfusions in the EPO group (2 of 25 vs. 9/21 before EPO was introduced). The cost of therapy for anemia of prematurity was significantly smaller in the EPO group (128±168 US$ per infant vs. 151±189 US$ per infant before the introduction of EPO).

Conclusion: We conclude that EPO is an efficient and cost-effective alternative to blood transfusions in VLBW infants.

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(1) VLBW = very low birthweight

(2) EPO = erythropoietin

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