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עמוד בית
Sat, 20.07.24

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November 2020
Ilona Voskoboynikov-Ugortsev MPH, Yaakov Rosenfeld MD MPH, and Lital Keinan Boker MD PhD MPH

Background: A thorough informed consent (IC) process is required before in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatments can begin because these treatments are by and large elective and they have expectable and preventable complications, such as ovarian hyper-stimulation syndrome and multi-fetal pregnancies.

Objectives: To empirically examine whether patient knowledge and understanding of potential hazards associated with IVF treatment are better after the IC process compared to before. The authors hypothesized that patients' better understanding of potential complications would be translated and expressed as rational choices of treatment alternatives.

Methods: Responses of 48 IVF patients after IC process (study group) from two IVF units in northern Israel were compared to those of 46 patients before IVF (control group).

Only women undergoing IVF for first time who were older than 18 years of age were eligible for the study.

Results: Socio-demographic parameters were found to be quite similar between the study group and the control group. Contrary to our expectations, in the study group 12 women (25.5%) considered delivery of a single baby as their optimal result, compared to 15 (32.6%) in the control group. Furthermore, preferences shifted toward triplets: eight patients (17%) after IC considered this option as their best result, compared to only five patients (11%) before IC.

Conclusions: IC process goals are not achieved under current practices, at least as far as IVF treatment are concerned. New tools and incentives should be implemented to meet the requirements dictated by the laws regarding patient rights.

August 2018
Ohad Gluck MD, Liliya Tamayev MD, Maya Torem MD, Jacob Bar MD, Arieh Raziel MD and Ron Sagiv MD

Background: Laparoscopic salpingectomy is strongly related to successful in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatments.

Objectives: To compare the ovarian reserve, including anti-mullerian hormone (AMH) levels, in patients who underwent salpingectomy before IVF to IVF patients who had not been salpingectomized.

Methods: In this retrospective study, medical records of women who were treated by the IVF unit at our institute were reviewed. We retrieved demographic data, surgical details, and data regarding the ovarian reserve. Details of 35 patients who were treated by IVF after salpingectomy were compared to 70 IVF patients with no history of salpingectomy treatment. Nine women underwent IVF treatment before and after having salpingectomy, and their details were included in both groups.

Results: The levels of AMH, follicular stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol, and progesterone were not significantly different in the groups. The antral follicular count (AFC), number of oocytes retrieved, amount of gonadotropin administered for ovarian stimulation, and number of embryos transferred (ET) were also not significantly different.

Conclusions: Salpingectomy does not seem to affect ovarian reserve in IVF patients.

December 2011
A.Ben-Haroush, J. Farhi, I. Ben-Aharon, O. Sapir, H. Pinkas and B. Fisch

Background: Adjuvant/neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients may be associated with amenorrhea and a marked reduction in ovarian reserve.

Objectives: To assess the use of letrozole with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogue protocols, based on reported attempts to avoid the estradiol (E2) increase during controlled ovarian hyperstimulation for embryo cryopreservation in breast cancer patients using a combination of low dose FSH and aromatase inhibitor (letrozole) in a GnRH-antagonist protocol.

Methods: Twenty-four breast cancer patients were treated with recombinant FSH (150–450 U/day) and letrozole (5 mg/day) in a long GnRH-agonist (n=7) or GnRH-antagonist (n=17) protocol. After oocyte retrieval, insemination and/or intracytoplasmic sperm injection was performed. The embryos were frozen.

Results: The average interval from surgery to oocyte retrieval was 40 days. Average duration of treatment was 9.6 days and mean peak E2 level 1342 ± 1091 pmol/L, yielding 16.0 ± 16.3 oocytes (range 0–82). Mean fertilization rate was 69.5 ± 20.4% and mean number of embryos cryopreserved 10.3 ± 9.3. More oocytes were retrieved with the long GnRH protocol, but the difference was not statistically significant (24.8 ± 24.6 vs. 12.0 ± 8.8 pmol/L, P = 0.07).

Conclusions: As previously reported, ovarian stimulation with letrozole and FSH, in both the long GnRH-agonist and GnRH-antagonist protocols, is apparently effective in breast cancer patients and spares them exposure to high E2 levels.
 

November 2010
B. Chikman, R. Lavy, T. Davidson, I. Wassermann, J. Sandbank, N. Siegelmann-Danieli and A. Halevy

Background: Infiltrating ductal carcinoma and infiltrating lobular carcinoma account for more than 90% of all invasive breast cancer histological types. The rate of ILC[1] is reported to be increasing steadily in the United States and Europe.

Objectives: To describe the trend in the incidence of ILC in a large cohort of patients who underwent surgery in a single institution over an 18 year period.

Methods: Our comprehensive database of 2175 consecutive patients with invasive breast cancer diagnosed during the period 1992–2009 served for the analysis. Several potential factors associated with lobular carcinoma as compared with ductal carcinoma were evaluated.

Results: During this period, a 2.4-fold increase in the incidence of pure ILC was noted, from 4.6% in the years 1992–1994 to 10.9% in 2004–2006, followed by a modest decrease to 8.7% in 2007–2009. A significant association of lobular malignancies with external hormonal use was noted, including hormone replacement therapy exposure in patients diagnosed at age 50–64, and ovarian overstimulation during in vitro fertilization in those diagnosed at age 50 or less.  

Conclusions: Better diagnostic tools – such as the liberal use of ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging – and more accurate pathological definition for ILC type appear to influence the changes in the incidence of ILC in the subgroups of invasive breast cancer.






[1] ILC = infiltrating lobular carcinoma


July 2009
Y. Rosenfeld and A. Strulov

Background: The rate in Israel of in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer procedures is the highest among industrialized countries. The procedure has the potential to make treated patients forever happy, should the desired result occur. It also entails, however, numerous potential complications. Patients who are candidates for the procedure should fully understand potential desired and undesired results, and should give their consent based on this understanding. The question whether currently used informed consent forms for these procedures indeed serve this purpose is, however, open.

Objectives: To explore the usefulness of informed consent forms for IVF&ET[1] that are currently used in Israel to represent the potential benefits and risks of the procedures to the patients.

Methods: Informed consent forms for IVF&ET were scrutinized for accuracy, clarity and relevance, by comparison to relevant medical literature. IVF&ET informed consent forms were also assessed whether they fulfill the requirements of the Israeli Law of Patient's Rights.

Results: Currently used "informed" consent forms for IVF&ET were found to be fundamentally inaccurate and outdated. In some cases (number of embryos to be transferred), the information is grossly obscure. In other cases (alternative management) there are glaring omissions.

Conclusions: Informed consent forms for IVF&ET that are currently used in Israel do not adequately serve their stated purpose. Potential risks and benefits are not presented clearly and alternative management strategies are also missing. Thus, they do not fulfill their social, ethical or legal goals. Updating these forms is urgently needed. New versions should clearly distinguish between common (controllable) and uncommon (uncontrollable) complications.






[1] IVF&ET = in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer


August 2004
A. Horani, J. Ulitsky, Y. Kalish and R. Safadi
February 2003
D. Glick, H. Soreq

Behavioral genetics is the identification of behavioral traits that are genetically determined, the identification of the genes that are involved, and the discovery of modes of intervention to alter the expected course of the disease. Unlike the classical Mendelian traits, many specific aspects of behavior are, in part, determined by several genes. The corresponding abnormalities of behavior or deficiencies are therefore polygenic. New genetic techniques are leading to the discovery of these genes, and the techniques and knowledge developed in the Human Genome Project make it possible to screen the genome of any individual for the presence of known polymorphisms. This raises great hopes for diagnosis and the individualization of therapy. However, the genetic prediction of unacceptable behavior can further lead to social and occupational discrimination and enforced therapy. This raises serious concerns about how this information will be collected and who will have access to it.

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