• IMA sites
  • IMAJ services
  • IMA journals
  • Follow us
  • Alternate Text Alternate Text
עמוד בית
Wed, 17.07.24

Search results


June 2023
Ibrahim Marai MD, Josef Steier MD, lia Novic MD, Ali Sakhnini MD, Liza Grosman-Rimon, Batsheva Tzadok MD

Background: The evaluation of syncope in emergency departments (EDs) and during hospitalization can be ineffective. The European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines were established to perform the evaluation based on risk stratification.

Objectives: To investigate whether the initial screening of syncope adheres to the recent ESC guidelines.

Methods: Patients with syncope who were evaluated in our ED were included in the study and retrospectively classified based on whether they were treated according to ESC guidelines. Patients were divided into two groups according to the ESC guideline risk profile: high risk or low risk.

Results: The study included 114 patients (age 50.6 ± 21.9 years, 43% females); 74 (64.9%) had neurally mediated syncope, 11 (9.65%) had cardiac syncope, and 29 (25.45%) had an unknown cause. The low-risk group included 70 patients (61.4%), and the high-risk group included 44 (38.6%). Only 48 patients (42.1%) were evaluated according to the ESC guidelines. In fact, 22 (36.7%) of 60 hospitalizations and 41 (53.2%) of 77 head computed tomography (CT) scans were not mandatory according to guidelines. The rate of unnecessary CT scans (67.3% vs. 28.6%, respectively, P = 0.001) and unnecessary hospitalization (66.7% vs. 6.7%, respectively, P < 0.02) were higher among low-risk patients than high-risk patients. Overall, a higher percentage of high-risk patients were treated according to guidelines compared to low-risk patients (68.2% vs. 25.7% respectively, P < 0.0001).

Conclusions: Most syncope patients, particularly those with a low-risk profile, were not evaluated in accordance with the ESC guidelines.

February 2016
Amjad Shalabi MD, Ehud Raanani MD, Amihai Shinfeld MD, Rafael Kuperstein MD, Alexander Kogan MD, Alexander Lipey MD, Eyal Nachum MD and Dan Spiegelstein MD

Background: Prolonged life expectancy has increased the number of elderly high risk patients referred for surgical aortic valve replacement (AVR). These referred high risk patients may benefit from sutureless bioprosthesis procedures which reduce mortality and morbidity.

Objectives: To present our initial experience with sutureless aortic bioprotheses, including clinical and echocardiographic results, in elderly high risk patients referred for AVR. 

Methods: Forty patients (15 males, mean age 78 ± 7 years) with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis underwent AVR with the 3F Enable™ or Perceval™ sutureless bioprosthesis during the period December 2012 to May 2014. Mean logistic EuroScore was 10 ± 3%. Echocardiography was performed preoperatively, intraoperatively, at discharge and at follow-up.

Results: There was no in-hospital mortality. Nine patients (22%) underwent minimally invasive AVR via a right anterior mini-thoracotomy and one patient via a J-incision. Four patients underwent concomitant coronary aortic bypass graft, two needed intraoperative repositioning of the valve, one underwent valve exchange due to inappropriate sizing, three (7.5%) had a perioperative stroke with complete resolution of neurologic symptoms, and one patient (2.5%) required permanent pacemaker implantation due to complete atrioventricular block. Mean preoperative and postoperative gradients were 44 ± 14 and 13 ± 5 mmHg, respectively. At follow-up, 82% of patients were in New York Heart Association functional class I and II.

Conclusions: Sutureless AVR can be used safely in elderly high risk patients with relatively low morbidity and mortality. The device can be safely implanted via a minimally invasive incision. Mid-term hemodynamic results are satisfactory, demonstrating significant clinical improvement.

 

February 2014
Edward Koifman, Paul Fefer, Ilan Hay, Micha Feinberg, Elad Maor and Victor Guetta
Background: Percutaneous edge-to-edge mitral valve repair using the MitraClip® system has evolved as a new tool in the treatment of mitral regurgitation (MR).

Objectives: To present our initial experience with MitraClip implantation in 20 high risk patients at Sheba Medical Center.

Methods: Twenty high surgical risk patients with symptomatic significant MR underwent MitraClip implantation. Clinical and echocardiographic parameters were recorded at baseline and at follow-up.

Results: The patients’ mean age was 76 years and 65% were male. Coronary artery disease was present in 85% and 45% had previous bypass surgery. Renal failure was present in 65%, atrial fibrillation in 60%, and 30% had an implantable cardioverter defibrillator/cardiac resynchronization therapy device. Mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 36%. Grade III-IV MR was present in all patients with the vast majority suffering from functional MR secondary to ventricular remodeling. New York Heart Association (NYHA) class was III-IV in 90%. Patients were followed for a mean of 231 days. Acute reduction of MR grade to ≤ 2 was accomplished in 19 of the 20 patients (95%) with a 30 day mortality of 5%. At follow-up MR was reduced to ≤ 2 in 64% of patients, and NYHA class improved in 70% of patients. An additional 2 patients (11%) died during follow-up.

Conclusions: MitraClip implantation is feasible and safe in high risk highly symptomatic patients with significant MR. Acute and mid-term results are comparable to similar high risk patient cohorts in the literature. Continued surveillance and longer follow-up are needed to elucidate which patients are most likely to benefit from the procedure.

December 2012
January 2012
Michael B. Levy, MD, Michael R. Goldberg, MD, PhD, Liat Nachshon, MD, Elvan Tabachnik, MD and Yitzhak Katz, MD

Background: Most reports in the medical literature on food allergy mortality are related to peanuts and tree nuts. There is limited knowledge regarding these reactions and often only a partial medical history is described.

Objective: To record and characterize all known cases of mortality due to food allergy in Israel occurring during the period 2004–2011.

Methods: All cases of food allergy-related mortality that were known to medical personnel or were published in the Israeli national communications media were investigated. We interviewed the parents and, when feasible, physicians who treated the final event.

Results: Four cases of food-related mortality were identified: three cases were due to cow’s milk and one to hazelnut. All were exposed to a hidden/non-obvious allergen. All four had a history of asthma but were not on controller medications, and all had experienced previous non-life threatening accidental reactions. Three of the four patients had not been evaluated by an allergist, nor were they prescribed injectable epinephrine. The one patient who had been prescribed injectable epinephrine did not use it during her fatal anaphylactic attack.

Conclusions: Fatal reactions to cow’s milk and hazelnut but not to peanut are the only reported food mortality cases in Israel. Although these patients had previous reactions following accidental exposures, none had experienced a life-threatening reaction. Patients at risk are not adequately evaluated by allergists, nor are they prescribed and instructed on the proper use of injectable epinephrine. Cow’s milk should be considered a potentially fatal allergen.




 



 
July 2011
I. Mor-Yosef Levi, I.Z. Ben-Dov, A. Klimov, G. Pizov and A.I. Bloom

Background: Transjugular kidney biopsy (TJKB) was first described in 1990. Indications for TJKB include uncorrectable bleeding disorders and conditions precluding the prone position. Objectives: To describe our initial experience with TJKB.

Methods: Between February 2008 and December 2009 all patients in whom percutaneous biopsy was contraindicated or unsuccessful underwent image-guided TJKB using a standard set with a 19 gauge core biopsy needle. Prospectively collected data included indication, number of needle passes, contrast dose, tissue yield, and complications.

Results: Twelve patients, age range 15–76 years (mean 55), underwent 14 TJKB procedures. Indications for the transjugular route included bleeding diathesis, dyspnea, ventral hernia, ascites, marked obesity, need for concomitant liver biopsy or concomitant insertion of tunneled dialysis catheter, discrepant kidney size, and failed percutaneous attempt. Thirteen biopsies were performed in 11 patients; in one patient TJKB was abandoned due to unfavorable renal vein anatomy. Four patients were premedicated with desmopressin and one with platelet transfusion, due to prolonged bleeding time. Three to six passes (mean 3.8) were made per biopsy, with an overall yield of 9.6 ± 8.2 glomeruli, providing a definite diagnosis in nine patients and a probable diagnosis in two. In two patients the first biopsy attempt yielded insufficient tissue, necessitating a repeat procedure. There were two minor bleeding episodes not requiring intervention. Serum creatinine was unchanged after the procedure and hemoglobin levels asymptomatically dropped by 0.3 ± 1.0 g/dl within 48 hours, requiring no treatment.

Conclusions: TJKB appears to safely allow adequate tissue diagnosis in patients at increased risk for complications from or contraindications to percutaneous renal biopsy.
 

April 2011
D. Belkic and K. Belkic

There are major dilemmas regarding the optimal modalities for breast cancer screening. This is of particular relevance to Israel because of its high-risk population. It was suggested that an avenue for further research would be to incorporate advances in signal processing through the fast Padé transform (FPT) to magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). We have now applied the FPT[1] to time signals that were generated according to in vitro MRS[2] data as encoded from extracted breast specimens from normal, non-infiltrated breast tissue, fibroadenoma and cancerous breast tissue. The FPT is shown to resolve and precisely quantify the physical resonances as encountered in normal versus benign versus malignant breast. The FPT unambiguously delineated and quantified diagnostically important metabolites such as lactate, as well as phosphocholine, which very closely overlaps with glycerophosphocholine and phosphoethanolamine, and may represent a magnetic resonance-visible molecular marker of breast cancer. These advantages of the FPT could clearly be of benefit for breast cancer diagnostics via MRS. This line of investigation should continue with encoded data from benign and malignant breast tissue, in vitro and in vivo. We anticipate that Padé-optimized MRS will reduce the false positive rates of MR-based modalities and further improve their sensitivity. Once this is achieved, and given that MR entails no exposure to ionizing radiation, new possibilities for screening and early detection emerge, especially for risk groups. For example, Padé-optimized MRS together with MR imaging could be used with greater surveillance frequency among younger women with high risk of breast cancer.






[1] FPT = fast Padé transform



[2] MRS = magnetic resonance spectroscopy


August 2010
H. Danenberg, A. Finkelstein, R. Kornowski, A. Segev, D. Dvir, D. Gilon, G. Keren, A. Sagie, M. Feinberg, E. Schwammenthal, S. Banai, C. Lotan and V. Guetta

Background: The prevalence of aortic stenosis increases with advancing age. Once symptoms occur the prognosis in patients with severe aortic stenosis is poor. The current and recommended treatment of choice for these patients is surgical aortic valve replacement. However, many patients, mainly the very elderly and those with major comorbidities, are considered to be at high surgical risk and are therefore denied treatment. Recently, a transcatheter alternative to surgical AVR[1] has emerged.

Objectives: To describe the first year experience and 30 day outcome of transcatheter aortic self-expandable CoreValve implantation in Israel.

Methods: Transcatheter aortic valve implantation using the CoreValve system has been performed in Israel since September 2008. In the following year 55 patients underwent CoreValve TAVI[2] in four Israeli centers.

Results: Patients' mean age was 81.7 ± 7.1 years; there were 35 females and 20 males. The mean valve area by echocardiogram was 0.63 ± 0.16 cm2. The calculated mean logistic Euroscore was 19.3 ± 8%. Following TAVI, mean transvalvular gradient decreased from baseline levels of 51 ± 13 to 9 ± 3 mmHg. The rate of procedural success was 98%. One patient died on the first day post-procedure (1.8%) and all-cause 30 day mortality was 5.5% (3 of 55 patients). One patient had a significant post-procedural aortic regurgitation of > grade 2. Symptomatic improvement was evident in most patients, with reduction in functional capacity grade from 3.2 ± 0.6 at baseline to 1.4 ± 0.7. The most common post-procedural complication was complete heart block, which necessitated permanent pacemaker implantation in 37% of patients.

Conclusions: The Israeli first year experience of transcatheter aortic valve implantation using the CoreValve self-expandable system demonstrates an effective and safe procedure for the treatment of severe aortic stenosis in patients at high surgical risk.






[1] AVR = aortic valve replacement



[2] TAVI = transcatheter aortic valve implantation


December 2009
O. Barak, R. Elazary, L. Appelbaum, A. Rivkind and G. Almogy

Background: Current treatment options for acute calculous cholecystitis include either early cholecystectomy, or conservative treatment consisting of intravenous antibiotics and an interval cholecystectomy several weeks later. Percutaneous drainage is reserved for patients in whom conservative therapy failed or as a salvage procedure for high risk patients.

Objective: To identify clinical and radiographic factors leading to failure of conservative treatment.

Methods: We prospectively collected data on consecutive patients admitted with the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis. Parameters were compared between patients who were successfully treated conservatively and those who required percutaneous cholecystostomy. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify predictors for failure of conservative treatment. 

Results: The study population comprised 103 patients with a median age of 60 who were treated for acute cholecystitis. Twenty-seven patients (26.2%) required PC[1]. On univariate analysis, age above 70 years, diabetes, elevated white blood cell count, tachycardia (> 100 beats/min) at admission, and a distended gallbladder (> 5 cm transverse diameter) were found to be significantly more common in the PC group (P < 0.001). WBC[2] was higher in the PC group throughout the initial 48 hours. On multivariate analysis, age above 70 (odds ratio 3.6), diabetes (OR[3] 9.4), tachycardia at admission (OR 5.6), and a distended gallbladder (OR 8.5) were predictors for cholecystostomy (P < 0.001). Age above 70 (OR 5.2) and WBC > 15,000 (OR 13.7) were predictors for failure of conservative treatment after 24 and 48 hours (P < 0.001). 

Conclusions: Age above 70, diabetes, and a distended gallbladder are predictors for failure of conservative treatment and such patients should be considered for early cholecystostomy. Persistently elevated WBC (> 15,000) suggests refractory disease and should play a central role in the clinical follow-up and decision-making process for elderly patients with acute cholecystitis.


 




[1] PC = percutaneous cholecystostomy



[2] WBC = white blood cells



[3] OR = odds ratio


January 2009
I.R. Makhoul, H. Sprecher, R. Sawaid, P. Jakobi, T. Smolkin, P. Sujov, I. Kassis and S. Blazer

Background: According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control guidelines, prolonged rupture of membranes mandates intrapartum antimicrobial prophylaxis for group B Streptococcus whenever maternal GBS[1] status is unknown.

Objectives: To evaluate the local incidence, early detection and outcome of early-onset GBS sepsis in 35–42 week old neonates born after PROM[2] to women with unknown GBS status who were not given intrapartum antimicrobial prophylaxis.

Methods: During a 1 year period, we studied all neonates born beyond 35 weeks gestation with maternal PROM ≥ 18 hours, unknown maternal GBS status and without prior administration of IAP[3]. Complete blood count, C-reactive protein, blood culture and polymerase chain reaction amplification of bacterial 16S rRNA gene were performed in blood samples collected immediately after birth. Unfavorable outcome was defined by one or more of the following: GBS bacteremia, clinical signs of sepsis, or positive PCR[4].

Results:  Of the 3616 liveborns 212 (5.9%) met the inclusion criteria. Only 12 (5.7%) of these neonates presented signs suggestive of sepsis. PCR was negative in all cases. Fifty-eight neonates (27.4%) had CRP[5] > 1.0 mg/dl and/or complete blood count abnormalities, but these were not significantly associated with unfavorable outcome. Early-onset GBS sepsis occurred in one neonate in this high risk group (1/212 = 0.47%, 95% CI 0.012–2.6). 

Conclusions: In this single-institution study, the incidence of early-onset GBS sepsis in neonates born after PROM of ≥ 18 hours, unknown maternal GBS status and no intrapartum antimicrobial prophylaxis was 0.47%.

 






[1] GBS = Group B Streptococcus



[2] PROM = prolonged rupture of membranes



[3] IAP = intrapartum antimicrobial prophylaxis



[4] PCR = polymerase chain reaction



[5] CRP = C-reactive protein



 
October 2008
J. Mergui, D. Raveh MD, J-L. Golmard, A. Fuer, C. Gropp and S. Jaworowski

Background: General hospital staff are often required to care for physically ill patients who arouse concern regarding risk of harm to themselves or others. Some of these patients will receive one-to-one "constant observation." This is the first Israeli study of general hospital patients with high risk behavior.

Objectives: To examine a population of general hospital patients whose behavioral management required the use of constant observation. Demographic and clinical parameters including physical diagnoses were examined, and risk factors for constant observation were identified. The findings of this study were compared to findings in previous studies.

Methods: This prospective observational study examined 714 inpatients referred for psychiatric consultation; 150 were found to require constant observation, and 156 who did not served as a control group.

Results: In this study younger age, suicidal concerns and alcohol/substance abuse were identified as risk factors for ordering constant observation. Ischemic heart disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were the only physical diagnoses found to be significantly correlated with a longer duration of observation, regardless of admission duration. Constant observation was less frequently used in the management of organic brain syndrome patients in this study compared to other studies.  

Conclusions: Some of our results (predictive factors for constant observation) confirmed the findings of overseas studies. Our finding that a diagnosis of organic brain syndrome was not a predictive factor for constant observation was unexpected and requires further investigation. The correlation between a diagnosis of ischemic heart disease or COPD[1] and duration of observation has not been reported previously and warrants further studies.  






[1] COPD = chronic obstructive pulmonary disease


February 2008
I. Kimiagar, C. Klein, J.M. Rabey, A. Peer, E. Kaluski, M. Zaretsky

Background: Carotid artery stenting is used as an alternative to surgical endarterectomy.

Objectives: To determine the outcome of CAS[1] in a retrospective cohort of patients.

Methods: Between July 1999 and March 2003, 56 consecutive patients with carotid artery stenosis who were considered ineligible for surgery were treated (45 male, 11 female, mean age 69). All cases were performed prior to the introduction of distal protective devices in Israel.

Results: Intraprocedural complications included transient neurological findings in 5 patients (8%), cerebrovascular accident in 2 (3%), hemodynamic changes in 11 (18%), and 4 procedural failures. Post-procedural complications included transient ischemic attack in 3 patients and cardiovascular accident in 6 (10%). At 30 days follow-up, three patients (5%) remained with signs of CVA[2]. Two patients (3%) died during the post-procedural period and 16 (28%) during the 5 year follow-up, one due to recurrent CVA and the remainder to non-neurological causes. Five-year carotid Doppler follow-up was performed in 25 patients (45%), which revealed normal stent flow in 21 (84%), 50–60% restenosis in 3 patients (12%) and > 70% restenosis in one patient (4%).

Conclusions: This study confirms that stent procedures are beneficial for symptomatic carotid stenosis in patients not eligible for surgery.






[1] CAS = carotid artery stenting

[2] CVA = cardiovascular accident


November 2007
Y. Laitman, B. Kaufmann, E. Levy Lahad, M.Z. Papa and E. Friedman

Background: Germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes account for only 20–40% of familial breast cancer cases. The CHEK2 gene encodes a checkpoint kinase, involved in response to DNA damage, and hence is a candidate gene for breast cancer susceptibility. Indeed, the CHEK2*1100delC truncating mutation was reported in a subset of mostly North European breast cancer families. The rate of the CHEK2*1100delC variant in the Ashkenazi* Jewish population was reported to be 0.3%.

Objectives: To evaluate whether CHEK2 germline mutations contribute to a breast cancer predisposition in Ashkenazi-Jewish high risk families.

Methods: High risk Ashkenazi Jewish women, none of whom was a carrier of the predominant Jewish mutations in BRCA1/BRCA2, were genotyped for germline mutations in the CHEK2 gene by exon-specific polymerase chain reaction followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and sequencing of abnormally migrating fragments.

Results: Overall, 172 high risk women were genotyped: 75 (43.6%) with breast cancer (average age at diagnosis 49.6 ± 9.6 years, mean ± SD) and 97 asymptomatic individuals (age at counseling 48.3 ± 8.2 years). No truncating mutations were noted and four previously described missense mutations were detected (R3W 1.2%, I157T 1.2%, R180C 0.6% and S428F 5%), one silent polymorphism (E84E 20.5%) and one novel missense mutation (Y424H 1.2%). Segregation analysis of the I157T and S428F mutations (shown to affect protein function) with the cancer phenotype showed concordance for the CHK2*I157T mutation, as did two of three families with the CHK2*S428F mutation.

Conclusions: CHEK2 missense mutations may contribute to breast cancer susceptibility in Ashkenazi Jews.

 






*  Of East European descent


March 2003
I. Hadas-Halpern, M. Patlas, M. Knizhnik, I. Zaghal and D. Fisher

Background: The mainstay of therapy for acute cholecystitis is cholecystectomy, which has a mortality of 14–30% in high risk patients. An alternative approach in patients suffering from acute cholecystitis with contraindications to emergency surgery is percutaneous cholecystostomy.

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of percutaneous cholecystostomy as the initial treatment of acute cholecystitis in high risk patients.

Methods: Eighty consecutive patients (42 men, 38 women) underwent ultrasound-guided percutaneous cholecystostomy over a 5 year period. Sixty-five patients suffered from acute calculous cholecystitis, 4 patients had acalculous cholecystitis, and 11 patients had sepsis of unknown origin.

Results: Sixty-eight patients improved after the percutaneous gallbladder drainage, 10 patients died from co-morbid disease and 2 patients died from biliary peritonitis. During a 1 year follow-up, 32 of the patients underwent interval cholecystectomy, 4 additional patients died from a co-morbid disease, 18 patients did not suffer from any gallbladder symptoms, and 14 were lost to follow-up.

Conclusions: Percutaneous cholecystostomy is an effective contribution to the treatment of acute cholecystitis in high risk patients.

Legal Disclaimer: The information contained in this website is provided for informational purposes only, and should not be construed as legal or medical advice on any matter.
The IMA is not responsible for and expressly disclaims liability for damages of any kind arising from the use of or reliance on information contained within the site.
© All rights to information on this site are reserved and are the property of the Israeli Medical Association. Privacy policy

2 Twin Towers, 35 Jabotinsky, POB 4292, Ramat Gan 5251108 Israel