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עמוד בית
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February 2022
Sara Dovrat PhD, Ela Kashi-Zagdoun BSc, Zvia Soufiev BSc, Ella Mendelson PhD, and Tzion Schlossberg MD

Background: Infections in neonates with herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) following circumcision due to Metzitzah Be'Peh (MBP) performed by a Mohel occur each year in small numbers. One solution to this problem is the use of a mucus extractor device instead of MBP, which has been authorized by some rabbis. Yet, using a mucus extractor remains controversial among ultra-Orthodox Jews; thus, creating a need for additional solutions.

Objectives: To seek to reduce HSV-1 infection of neonates due to MBP.

Methods: We tested several oral rinse solutions for their ability to destroy virus infectivity following incubation for 30 seconds and using plaque reduction assays.

Results: Corsodyl, Decapinol, and Listerine® all destroyed plaques formation of spiked virus, while Gengigel and Tantum Verde were found to be less effective. We focused specifically on Listerine® due to its efficacy in eliminating contagious HSV-1 from saliva after a 30-second oral rinse. Five different products of Listerine® reduced the infectivity of a spiked virus by more than 4 orders of magnitude in 30 seconds. We also showed that Listerine (up to 7% v/v) can stay in the mouth but did not harm living cells and therefore will not cause any damage to the injured tissue.

Conclusions: Significant reduction in cases of infection with HSV-1 due to MBP can be achieved if Mohalim consistently adopt the practice of careful mouth washing with Listerine® just before performing MBP.

November 2014
Alon Nevet MD PhD, Havatzelet Yarden-Bilavsky MD, Shai Ashkenazi MD MSc and Gilat Livni MD

Background: C-reactive protein (CRP) is often used to distinguish bacterial from viral infections. However, the CRP level does have implications, which depend on the clinical scenario and are still under research.

Objectives: To evaluate the distribution of CRP levels in children with primary herpetic gingivostomatitis.

Methods: The electronic database of a tertiary pediatric medical center was searched for all inpatients with a diagnosis of primary herpetic gingivostomatitis without bacterial co-infection. Background and clinical information was collected and CRP levels were analyzed.

Results: The study group consisted of 66 patients aged 8 months to 7.1 years who met the study criteria. The average CRP was 7.4 mg/dl (normal < 0.5 mg/dl). More than a third of the patients had a level higher than 7 mg/dl.

Conclusions: High values of CRP are prevalent in patients with primary herpetic gingivostomatitis, similar to adenoviral infections and some bacterial infections. 

May 2006
H. Joffe, E. Bamberger, S. Nurkin, E. Kedem, Z. Kra-Oz, S. Pollack and I. Srugo

Background: The co-morbidity of human immunodeficiency virus and other sexually transmitted diseases in Israel has not been established. 

Objectives: To compare the prevalence of STDs [1]among HIV[2]-positive patients to HIV-negative patients visiting an STD clinic in northern Israel. 

Methods: Between December 2000 and December 2001, 176 HIV-positive individuals (53% males) were screened and compared to 200 HIV-seronegative individuals (76% males). Demographics, symptomatology and risk factors were obtained via questionnaire. First-void urine samples were tested for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Serum was tested for type-specific herpes simplex virus-2, hepatitis B and syphilis. 

Results: Relative to the seronegative STD patients, HIV-positive patients exhibited significantly greater risk-reducing sexual behaviors such as consistent condom use [29/86 (33.7%) vs. 16/187 (8.6%), P < 0.001], and abstinence in the previous 6 months [43/125 (34%) vs. 7/185 (3.8%), P < 0.001]. Nevertheless, STD prevalence was higher among HIV-positive than HIV-negative patients (79.5% vs. 37.5%, P < 0.001). HSV[3]-2, syphilis and HBV[4] were more common among HIV-positive than HIV-negative patients [120/175 (68.8%)] vs. 18/200 (9%), P < 0.001)], [43/161 (26.7%) vs. 0%, P < 0.001)], [13/171 (7.6%) vs. 3/200 (1.5%), P < 0.01)], respectively. In contrast, Chlamydia and gonorrhea were more commonly found in HIV-negative patients than HIV-positive patients [3/176 (1.7%) vs.13/200 (6.5%), P < 0.05] vs. [0% vs.5/200 (2.5%), P < 0.05], respectively. 

Conclusion: Despite the low risk sexual behavior of Israeli HIV patients, they had a high prevalence of chronic STDs (e.g., HSV-2, HBV and syphilis). The lower prevalence of Chlamydia and gonorrhea among HIV-immunosuppressed patients may be attributed to routine antibiotic prophylaxis against opportunistic infections. Nevertheless, as advocated by international health organizations, it appears prudent to recommend the routine screening of these asymptomatic HIV-positive patients for STD pathogens. 


 




[1] STD = sexually transmitted diseases

[2] HIV = human immunodeficiency virus

[3] HSV = herpes simplex virus

[4] HBV = hepatitis B virus


April 2005
E. Bamberger, R. Madeb, J. Steinberg, A. Paz, I. Satinger, Z. Kra-0z, O. Natif and I. Srugo
Background: Although the current literature attributes most cases of hematospermia to an infectious agent, identification of the specific pathogens involved has been limited.

Objectives: To determine the prevalence of different pathogens in patients presenting to our sexually transmitted disease clinic with hematospermia.

Methods: Between January 1999 and January 2000, 16 patients presented to our STD[1] clinic with hematospermia after other non-infectious pathologies had been excluded by a referring physician. After obtaining informed consent, subjects completed a questionnaire addressing symptoms and sexual behavior. First void urine samples, as well as genitourinary and serum specimens were tested for Chlamydia trachomatis, Ureaplasma urealyticum and Herpes simplex virus. Standard bacterial cultures were also performed.

Results: Laboratory testing detected a pathogen in 12 of the 16 males presenting with hematospermia. The sexually transmitted pathogens detected were Herpes simplex virus in 5 patients (42%), Chlamydia trachomatis in 4 (33%), Enterococcus fecalis in 2 (17%), and Ureaplasma urealyticum in 1 (8%). In all cases in which a pathogen was identified, the appropriate antimicrobial agent was administered. Symptoms resolved for each patient following antimicrobial therapy. During a 1 year follow-up, all 12 patients remained free of disease.

Conclusions: Recent advances in microbiologic diagnostic techniques have facilitated the detection of pathogens in patients with hematospermia, thereby enhancing the efficacy of treatment.

____________________

[1] STD = sexually transmitted disease

December 2003
September 2003
P.A. Feldman, J. Steinberg, R. Madeb, G. Bar, O. Nativ, J. Tal and I. Srugo

Background: Seroepidemeliogic surveys have provided valuable information on the prevalence and incidence of herpes simplex virus-2 infection in general and in selected populations.

Objective: To review the reliability of traditional diagnostic approaches in herpes simplex virus-2 infection.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 472 patients attending a clinic for sexually transmitted disease in 1998-1999 were evaluated for HSV-2 infection through collection of epidemiologic and clinical data.

HSV-2 infection was confirmed by the presence of specific Viral glycoprotein, gG-2, antibody in sera.

Results: The seroprevalence of HSV-2 among clinic attendees was 9.33%. Of these attendees only 22% presented with or reported a history of typical vesicular lesions in the genital area. Infection rate was  higher in patients with multiple sex partners (20.8% vs. 8.7%, P< ( 0.0023 in individuals aged 30 or older (12.6 vs. 6.4%, P = 0.03) and  in the Israeli Jewish population as compared to the Israeli Arab population (11.1% vs. 2.4%, P ~ 0.01). Females with multiple sex partners exhibited higher rates of infection than did their male counterparts (50 vs. 16.1%, P < 0.0275(.

Conclusion: The findings support the need for HSV-2 serologi  testing in patients presenting to STD clinics even when typical genital  lesions are not evident but where risk factors for HSV-2 infection are  identified.
 

April 2001
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