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עמוד בית
Mon, 15.07.24

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September 2010
G. Rosner, P. Rozen, D. Bercovich, C. Shochat, I. Solar, H. Strul, R. Kariv and Z. Halpern

Background: Patients with multiple (< 100) colorectal adenomatous polyps are at increased risk for colorectal cancer. Genetic evaluation of those patients who test negative for APC gene mutation is both a clinical and economic burden but is critical for counseling and surveillance. In Israel, this is confounded by the fact that national health insurance does not fully cover genetic evaluation of APC gene exon 16.

Objectives: To perform a comprehensive genetic evaluation of APC gene mutation-negative polyposis patients with the aim of developing a future evaluation protocol.

Methods: Genetic analyses were performed in 29 APC gene mutation-negative Jewish individuals with 5 to ≥ 40 colonic adenomas who did not fulfill Amsterdam (clinical) criteria for Lynch syndrome. Analyses included completion of APC gene exon 16 sequencing, analysis for APC gene copy number variations (deletions or duplications), MUTYH gene sequencing, and microsatellite instability in CRC[1] patients fulfilling “Bethesda” (laboratory investigation) criteria for Lynch syndrome.

Results: Completion of APC gene exon 16 sequencing revealed one patient with the E1317Q polymorphism. All were normal by APC multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis. Pathogenic MUTYH mutations were found in three patients, all of North African origin; two additional patients had variants of unknown significance. One of six patients with Bethesda-positive criteria was MSI2-High with immunohistology consistent with MLH1 mutation.

Conclusions: Based on this small but well-characterized cohort with multiple colorectal adenomas, Lynch syndrome needs to be excluded if there are compatible criteria; otherwise MUTYH sequencing is probably the first step in evaluating APC-negative patients, especially for Jews of North African descent. Completing APC exon 16 sequencing and copy number variations analysis should probably be the last evaluations.

 






[1] CRC = colorectal cancer


April 2001
Hana Strul, MD, Michal Carmiel, MD and Fred Konikoff, MD
September 2000
Hana Strul MD and Nadir Arber MD

There is increasing evidence to suggest that aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs reduce the risk of colorectal cancer. This observation is supported by animal studies that show fewer tumors per animal and fewer animals with tumors after administration of several different NSAIDs. Intervention data in familial adenomatous polyposis have established that the effect is exerted on the process of human colonic adenoma formation. Supportive evidence in sporadic colorectal neoplasia, derived from 22 of 24 studies (both case-control and cohort), found a reduced risk in men and women for cancers of the colon and the rectum and for both aspirin and the other NSAIDs. Earlier detection of lesions as a result of drug-induced bleeding does not seem to account for these findings. Although the molecular mechanism responsible for the chemopreventive action of this class of drugs is not yet completely understood, the protection may affect several pathways including both cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis.

In the third millennium the question is not if but how. Based on the consistency of epidemiological, clinical and experimental data, the association between regular long-term aspirin or NSAIDs intake and a decreased death rate from colorectal cancer is sound and there is no need for further placebo trials. At the same time, despite this consistency there is no clear data on the dose, duration or frequency of use for cancer-preventive activity.

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