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עמוד בית
Wed, 24.07.24

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March 2019
Ibrahim Zvidi MD, Doron Boltin MBBS, Yaron Niv MD, Ram Dickman MD, Gerald Fraser MD and Shlomo Birkenfeld MD

Background: Temporal trends in the incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in the Arab and Jewish populations in Israel have been poorly described.

Objectives: To compare the annual incidence and prevalence rates of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) in the Arab and Jewish populations in Israel between the years 2003 and 2008.

Methods: We applied a common case identification algorithm to the Clalit Health Services database to both determine trends in age-adjusted incidence and prevalence rates for IBD in both populations during this period and estimate the burden of IBD in Israel.

Results: The incidence of CD in the Arab population increased from 3.1/100,000 in 2003 to 10.6/100,000 person-years in 2008, compared with a decrease in the Jewish population from 14.3/100,000 to 11.7/100,000 person-years for the same period. The incidence of UC in the Arab population increased from 4.1/100,000 in 2003 to 5.0/100,000 person-years in 2008, a low but stable rate, compared with a decrease from 16.4/100,000 to 9.5/100,000 person-years for the same time period in the Jewish population. The prevalence of both diseases increased due to the accumulation of incident cases but remained much lower among Arabs.

Conclusions: Understanding the factors underlying the differences in incidence and prevalence of IBD in the Jewish and Arab populations may shed light on the genetic and environmental factors associated with these diseases.

February 2003
E. Gal, G. Abuksis, G. Fraser, R. Koren, C. Shmueli, Y. Yahav and Y. Niv

Background: The 13C-urea breath test is the best non-invasive test to validate Helicobacter pylori eradication. Serology is unreliable for this purpose due to the slow and unpredictable decline in the antibodies titer.

Objectives: To characterize a specific group of patients who were treated for H. pylori and tested for successful eradication by 13C-UBT[1] in our central laboratory and to correlate the eradication success rate with specific drug combinations, and to evaluate other factors that may influence eradication success.

Methods: 13C-UBT for H. pylori was performed in the central laboratory of Clalit Health Services. The breath test was performed by dedicated nurses in 25 regional laboratories and the samples were analyzed by a mass spectrometer (Analytical Precision 2003, UK). The physician who ordered the test completed a questionnaire computing demographic data (age, gender, origin), indication, use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or proton pump inhibitor, and combination of eradication therapy.

Results: Of the 1,986 patients tested to validate successful H. pylori eradication, 539 (27%) had a positive test (treatment failure group) and 1,447 (73%) had a negative test (successful treatment group). Male gender, older age and European-American origin predicted better eradication rates. Dyspeptic symptoms and chronic PPI[2] therapy predicted treatment failure. Combination therapy that included clarithromycin had a higher eradication rate than a combination containing metronidazole. The combination of omeprazole, amoxicillin and clarithromycin achieved an eradication rate of 81.3%, which was better than the combination of omeprazole, metronidazole and clarithromycin (77.2%) (not significant), or of omeprazole, amoxicillin and metronidazole (66.1%) (P < 0.01).

Conclusion: Gender, age, origin, dyspepsia and PPI therapy may predict H. pylori eradication results. Our findings also support an increase in metronidazole resistance of H. pylori strains in Israel, as described in other countries. We recommend combination therapy with omeprazole, amoxicillin and clarithromycin and avoidance of metronidazole as one of the first-line eradication drugs.






[1]13C-UBT[1]  = 13C-urea breath test



[2] PPI = proton pump inhibitor


June 2002
Yosefa Bar-Dayan, MD, MHA, Simon Ben-Zikrie, MD2, Gerald Fraser, MD, FRCP, Ziv Ben-Ari, MD, Marius Braun, MD, Mordechai Kremer, MD and Yaron Niv, MD
April 2001
Arie Regev, MD, Rafit Drori, MD, Gerald M. Fraser, MD and Yaron Niv, MD

Background: Alkaline tide is the transient increase in blood and urine pH following stimulation of gastric acid secretion. It is attributed to HC03 release from parietal cells in parallel with H+ secretion. The enzyme carbonic anhydrase is thought to be responsible for HC03 production from CO2 and 0H in the parietal cell.

Objective: To examine the effect of pretreatment with the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, acetazolamide, on the alkaline tide phenomenon.

Methods: Ten patients with dyspepsia and demonstrable alkaline tide were tested on three separate days. The pH and base excess were determined in arterialized venous blood before and 45 minutes after an intramuscular injection of pentagastrin. The pH of the urine was measured before and 120 mm after pentagastrin injection. Measurements were performed after pentagastrin alone on day 1 following pretreatment with acetazolamide 60 mm before pentagastrin on day 2, and after the administration of acetazolamide alone on day 3.

Results: Following the administration of pentagastrin alone, the blood base excess increased by 1.61 +0.2 mEq/L (mean + standard deviation) and the calculated alkaline tide at 45 mm was 33.99 ±4.49 mEq. On day 2 with prior adminis­tration of acetazolamide, base excess decreased by 0.21 + 0.39 mEq/L, and the calculated alkaline tide was -3.28±7.57 mEq, which was significantly lower than on day 1 (P=0 0001). On day 3, following acetazolamide alone, the base excess values decreased by 0.53~0.2 mEq/L and the alkaline tide was -10.05 +3.33 mEq there was no significant difference compared with day 2 (P= 0.44).

Conclusion: Pretreatment with acetazolamide abolished the alkaline tide induced by pentagastrin. This finding supports the view that carbonic anhydrase has a major role in the alkaline tide phenomenon.

December 1999
Ram Dickman, MD, Chana Turani, MD, Elimelech Okon, MD, Gerald M. Fraser MD, and Yaron Niv, MD.
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