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עמוד בית
Mon, 15.07.24

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February 2019
Sol Jaworowski MBBS FRANZCP, Jean-Louis Golmard MD PhD, Morag Engelberg MD, Sarah Prijs, Lital Twizer, Cornelius Gropp MD and Joseph Mergui MD

Background: A history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been linked to a variety of physical and psychiatric illnesses, including ischemic heart disease and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

Objectives: To determine the prevalence of past CSA and re-traumatization among hospital psychiatric consultations and to determine whether a CSA group in a hospital setting shared characteristics with community samples described in the literature.

Methods: We divided 228 consecutive psychiatric consultations into two groups. One group comprised patients with a past history of CSA while the other group had no such history. Both groups were further divided into a subgroup that presented with features of re-traumatization.

Results: In the cohort, 38% described a history of CSA. Twenty patients were identified as presenting with features of re-traumatization. There were significant differences between the two groups. The patients with a history of CSA were more likely to have arrived at the emergency department (ED) during the preceding 12 months with a diagnosis of PTSD, personality disorder, and substance use disorder. There was a greater proportion of patients in the CSA group who had grown up in an ultra-Orthodox Jewish household and who currently identified as being secular.

Conclusions: The characteristics of the patients with past CSA in this study are similar to community-based samples, except for a significant gender difference. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to investigate CSA history during hospital ED psychiatric consultations. A history of CSA should be considered during psychiatric consultations in a general hospital ED admission.

September 2018
Joseph Mergui MD, David Raveh-Brawer MD, Meydan Ben-Ishai MD, Sarah Prijs MD, Cornelius Gropp MD, Igor Barash MD MHA, Jean-Louis Golmard MD PhD, Sol Jaworowski MBBS FRANZCP

Background: There is scant research on the psychopathology of Israeli soldiers who present to a general hospital emergency department (ED).

Objectives: To assess the psychopathology among a cohort of Israeli soldiers who presented to a general hospital ED for mental health assessment.

Methods: The demographic and clinical characteristics of 124 consecutive soldiers who presented to the ED for psychiatric assessment between January 2008 and September 2012 were reviewed. Twenty-seven soldiers from the cohort were contacted for follow-up by telephone on average 52 months later.

Results: The reasons for presentation to the ED, usually during the early stages of military service, included self-harming behavior, suicidal ideation, somatoform complaints, and dissatisfaction with their military service. Psychiatric diagnoses included adjustment disorder and personality disorder. Self-harming behavior/suicidal ideation was significantly correlated with unspecified adjustment disorder (P = 0.02) and personality disorder (P = 0.001). At follow-up, there was a lack of substantial psychopathology: none of the subjects engaged in self-harming behavior/suicidal ideation and a consistent trend was observed toward clinical improvement.

Conclusions: Psychiatric intervention of soldiers who present to a general hospital ED because of emotional difficulties may provide the opportunity for crisis intervention and validation of the soldier's distress. To the best of our knowledge this is the first Israeli study of psychopathology among soldiers who presented to an ED.

March 2017
Irina Briskman MD, Assaf Shelef MD MHA, Uri Berger MA, Yehuda Baruch MD MHA, Gali Bar MA, Jack Asherov MD, Artur Lvovski MD, Alan Apter MD and Yoram Barak MD MHA

Background: Deliberate self-harm (DSH) increases the danger of future suicide death and the risk increases with age. Self-harm in older adults is often associated with greater suicidal intent and lethality. 

Objectives: To investigate clinical and psychosocial variables of older patients (age ≥ 65 years) assessed due to DSH, compared with younger adults.

Methods: Patients admitted to the Emergency Department following DSH during an 8 year period were included.

Results: Of 1149 participants, 187 (16.6%) were older adults (age ≥ 65) and 962 (83.4%) were younger adults (< 65). The older adults reported DSH closer to mid-day (P < 0.01) and suffered more frequently from adjustment disorder and depression. Personality disorders and schizophrenia were less commonly diagnosed (P < 0.001). Prescription medication (sedatives and hypnotics) were a more frequent means (88% vs. 71%) of DSH among older patients. Younger patients with DSH used over-the-counter medications (21.9% vs. 6.4%) three times more than did the older patients (P < 0.01). Past DSH was significantly more frequent in younger adults. Following DSH the older patients were frequently admitted for further general hospitalization (P < 0.001). 

Conclusions: Older adults with DSH are a unique group with different clinical characteristics. There is a need for targeted prevention strategies and education of caregivers regarding DSH in older adults.

 

October 2015
Barak Raguan BSc, Efrat Wolfovitz MD and Efrat Gil MD

Background: Physical restraints are a common, albeit controversial, tool used in the acute care setting. 

Objectives: To determine the prevalence of physical restraint use in an acute care hospital. Secondary objectives were to determine whether physical restraints are used more commonly in night shifts, identify patient risk factors for physical restraint use, and establish if staff-to-patient ratio correlated with physical restraint use.

Methods: An observational cross-sectional study was conducted over 3 months in 2013 in the medical, surgical and intensive care units in a mid-sized general hospital. All the physically restrained patients in each observation were added to the registry. At each observation one department was selected for comparison and all non-restrained patients were added to the registry.

Results: The study population comprised 2163 patients. Seventy-six were restrained and 205 were included as case-controls. The prevalence of physical restraint use was 3.51% (95%CI = 2.79–4.37%). Physical restraint use was more common in night shifts than day shifts: 4.40% vs. 2.56% (P = 0.03). Male gender, dependency, invasive ventilation, invasive tubes (nasogastric tube or urine catheter), and bedsores were all significantly correlated with restraint use. Staff-to-patient ratios were not significantly correlated with use of physical restraints.

Conclusions: Physical restraints are relatively common in acute care wards. The use of physical restraints seems to correlate with certain patient characteristics but not with staff-to-patient ratios, and seems more common at night. 

 

May 2012
S. Jaworowski, D. Raveh, J.-L. Golmard, C. Gropp and J. Mergui

Background: Alcohol consumption in Israel has increased over the last 20 years. Patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD) who present at a hospital enable early intervention. Objectives: To examine, for the first time, the characteristics of AUD patients in an Israeli general hospital, including whether their alcohol use is documented in their file.

Methods: A group of 178 consecutive patients referred for psychiatric consultation was compared to a second group of 105 hospitalized patients who were not referred. These two groups were studied to compare risk factors for AUD. Patients in both groups were prospectively interviewed using a CAGE questionnaire, demonstrated as an effective screening instrument for AUD. Patients' files in both groups were examined for documentation of alcohol use.

Results: There was no significant difference between the prevalence of AUD in the two groups. The groups were then merged since no significant difference in the risk factor effects between the two groups was found. The risk factors for AUD in the final statistical analysis were lower educational status, living alone, being born in the Former Soviet Union and weaker religious observance. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), cigarette smoking and substance use were found to be independent risk factors. Soldier status was associated with significant alcohol misuse and AUD (CAGE1–4). Alcohol consumption was documented in the files of AUD patients in 48% of the first group and 21% of the second.

Conclusions: Physicians often neglect to take a history of alcohol consumption. Routine use of the CAGEquestionnaire is recommended in Israeli general hospitals. Special attention should be given to PTSD patients and to soldiers.
 

June 2011
G. Katz, R. Durst, E. Shufman, R. Bar-Hamburger and L. Grunhaus

Background: Some specialists and policy makers advocate progression of the mental health reform in Israel by transferring beds from psychiatric to general hospitals.

Objectives: To compare the demographic, diagnostic and psychopathological profiles of psychiatric inpatients hospitalized in psychiatric and general hospitals, as well as their patterns of drug abuse and to estimate the preparedness of general hospitals for the possible expansion of their psychiatric services.

Methods: Between 2002 and 2006 a total of 250 patients were consecutively admitted to the Jerusalem Mental Health Center-Kfar Shaul Hospital and 220 to the psychiatric department of Sheba Medical Center, a general hospital in central Israel; the patients’ ages ranged from 18 to 65. The two groups were compared for demographic features, psychiatric diagnoses and severity of psychopathology (utilizing PANSS, HAD-21, YMRS rating scales). Drug abuse was diagnosed by urine analyses and self-report.

Results: The patients in the psychiatric hospital were significantly younger, predominantly male, and more dependent on social security payments. In the general hospital, diagnoses of affective and anxiety disorders prevailed, while in the psychiatric hospital schizophrenic and other psychotic patients constituted the majority. The patients in the general hospital were decidedly more depressed; in the psychiatric hospital, notably higher rates of manic symptoms as well as positive, negative and general schizophrenic symptoms were reported. For the most abused substances (opiates, cannabis and methamphetamines) the rates in the psychiatric hospital were significantly higher.

Conclusions: The differences between the two groups of inpatients were very pronounced, and therefore, the transferring of psychiatric beds to general hospitals could not be done without serious and profound organizational, educational and financial changes in the psychiatric services of general hospitals. Since each of the two inpatient systems has particular specializations and experience with the different subgroups of patients, they could coexist for a long time.
 

October 2008
J. Mergui, D. Raveh MD, J-L. Golmard, A. Fuer, C. Gropp and S. Jaworowski

Background: General hospital staff are often required to care for physically ill patients who arouse concern regarding risk of harm to themselves or others. Some of these patients will receive one-to-one "constant observation." This is the first Israeli study of general hospital patients with high risk behavior.

Objectives: To examine a population of general hospital patients whose behavioral management required the use of constant observation. Demographic and clinical parameters including physical diagnoses were examined, and risk factors for constant observation were identified. The findings of this study were compared to findings in previous studies.

Methods: This prospective observational study examined 714 inpatients referred for psychiatric consultation; 150 were found to require constant observation, and 156 who did not served as a control group.

Results: In this study younger age, suicidal concerns and alcohol/substance abuse were identified as risk factors for ordering constant observation. Ischemic heart disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were the only physical diagnoses found to be significantly correlated with a longer duration of observation, regardless of admission duration. Constant observation was less frequently used in the management of organic brain syndrome patients in this study compared to other studies.  

Conclusions: Some of our results (predictive factors for constant observation) confirmed the findings of overseas studies. Our finding that a diagnosis of organic brain syndrome was not a predictive factor for constant observation was unexpected and requires further investigation. The correlation between a diagnosis of ischemic heart disease or COPD[1] and duration of observation has not been reported previously and warrants further studies.  






[1] COPD = chronic obstructive pulmonary disease


May 2003
N. Bentur and S. Resnizky

Background: An important question on the health agenda concerns the most appropriate place to hospitalize stroke patients and its effect on acute stroke care.

Objectives: To examine how the existing hospital system treats these patients, specifically: a) the departments to which stroke patients are admitted; b) differences in the admission, diagnosis and rehabilitative care of stroke patients, by department; c) patient characteristics, by department; and d) mortality rates during hospitalization.

Methods: We surveyed 616 people with acute stroke (ICD-CM9 430-433, 436) admitted consecutively to one of seven large general hospitals in Israel between October 1998 and January 1999. Data were collected from medical records at admission and at discharge.

Results: Forty-two percent of the patients were admitted to an internal medicine department, 56% to a neurology department, and only 2% to a geriatric department. The majority (95%) underwent a computed tomography scan of the brain, but other imaging tests were performed on fewer patients, with significant differences among hospitals and between internal medicine and neurology departments. Patients admitted to neurology departments were younger and had milder stroke symptoms than did patients admitted to internal medicine departments. Fifty-three percent of patients received at least one type of rehabilitative care during their hospital stay – usually physiotherapy, and least often occupational therapy. Seventeen percent of stroke patients died during hospitalization. Mortality was not found to be related to the admitting department.

Conclusions: Uniform realistic policies and work procedures should be formulated for all hospitals in Israel regarding the admitting department and processes as well as the performance of diagnostic imaging. Standards of medical and rehabilitative care and discharge destination should be developed to promote quality of care while containing utilization and costs.
 

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