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עמוד בית
Mon, 26.02.24

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May 2023
Larisa Gorenstein MD, Shelly Soffer MD, Eyal Klang MD

Gallbladder metastasis is an extremely rare entity [1]. It is mainly secondary to melanoma but has also been reported as originating from breast cancer, renal cell carcinoma, and gastric cancer. Its diagnosis is often late in the advanced stage of the disease with the involvement of other organ systems [2].

We present a case of a patient who developed gastric cancer gallbladder metastasis. These findings are usually incidental on pathology of cholecystectomy specimens [1]. In our case, the metastatic lesion was demonstrated on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) prior to surgery. Of note, the lesion had a similar enhancement pattern to the primary tumor.

September 2020
Chaya Shwaartz MD, Ron Pery MD, Mordechay Cordoba MD, Mordechai Gutman MD and Danny Rosin MD

Background: The safe completion of cholecystectomy is dependent on proper identification and secure closure of the cystic duct. Effecting this closure poses a great challenge when inflammatory changes obscure the anatomy. Subtotal cholecystectomy allows for near complete removal of the gallbladder and complete evacuation of the stones while avoiding dissection in the hazardous area.

Objectives: To describe experience with laparoscopic subtotal cholecystectomy.

Methods: Subtotal cholecystectomy was performed when the critical view of safety could not be achieved. Surgical technique was similar in all cases and included opening the Hartmann’s pouch, removing stones obstructing the gallbladder outlet, and identifying the opening of the cystic duct, as well as circumferential transection of the gallbladder neck, closure of the gallbladder stump, and excision of the gallbladder fundus. Data retrieved from patient charts included demographics, pre-operative history, operative and postoperative course, and late complications. No bile duct injuries were observed in this series.

Results: A total of 53 patients underwent laparoscopic subtotal cholecystectomy (2010–2018). Ten patients were operated during the acute course of the disease and 43 electively. Acute cholecystitis was the leading cause for gallbladder removal. Cholecystostomy tube was placed in 18 patients during acute hospitalization. The gallbladder remnant was closed and a drain was placed in most patients. Of the 53 patients, 42 had an uneventful postoperative course.

Conclusions: Laparoscopic subtotal cholecystectomy is an effective surgical technique to avoid bile duct injury when the cystic duct cannot safely be identified. Subtotal cholecystectomy has acceptable morbidity and obviates the need for conversion in these difficult cases.

January 2019
Sarah Israel MD, Hila Fruchtman MD, David Hakimian MD and Zvi Ackerman MD

Background: Since the implementation of a hepatitis A virus (HAV) immunization program for children, which began in 1999 in Israel, HAV infections in the country have occurred mostly in adults. HAV infection in adults is usually symptomatic and may present with hepatic, as well as extrahepatic, abdominal complications.

Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of extrahepatic abdominal complications in patients diagnosed with HAV.

Methods: Most extrahepatic abdominal complications corresponding to HAV infection have ultrasonographic manifestations; therefore, we retrospectively collected findings from ultrasound examinations in addition to laboratory data from adult patients with HAV infection who were admitted to our medical center between 2004 and 2016. Associations between ultrasonographic findings and laboratory parameters that reflect disease severity were identified.

Results: A total of 43 consecutive adult patients were included in this study. None presented with fulminant hepatic failure. Thirty patients (70%) had at least one ultrasonographic finding. Ascites was noted in 8 patients, a thickened gallbladder wall was observed in 14, pericholecystic fluid was found in 8, and biliary sludge was observed in 4. Significant associations included the presence of any ultrasonographic finding and peak total bilirubin levels (P = 0.021), the presence of ascites with peak aspartate and alanine aminotransferase levels (P = 0.041 and P = 0.038, respectively), and the presence of biliary sludge and nadir albumin during the HAV disease course (P = 0.037).

Conclusions: Abdominal ultrasonographic findings, such as ascites and gallbladder abnormalities, are frequently observed during acute HAV infection and are significantly associated with disease severity.

November 2015
Asnat Raziel MD, Nasser Sakran MD, Amir Szold MD, Judith Sandbank MD, Dan Hershko MD and David Goitein MD

Background: Gallbladder (GB) cancer is rare. Most cases are incidentally found in specimens after a cholecystectomy. Cholelithiasis is almost always present when this diagnosis is made. Obesity is a known risk factor for gallstone formation and thus may be related to GB cancer. 

Objectives: To highlight the importance of evaluation of the gallbladder before surgery, resection of the gallbladder whenever required, and screening the resected tissue for malignancy.

Methods: We retrospectively queried a prospectively maintained database of all bariatric procedures during the last 8 years for cases of concomitant laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) and laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). Pathologic reports of the gallbladders were reviewed. Demographic data and perioperative parameters were documented. 

Results: Of 2708 patients reviewed, 1721 (63.55%) were females and 987 (36.45%) males. Excluded were 145 (5.35%) who had a previous cholecystectomy. Of the remaining 2563, 180 (7.02%) had symptomatic gallbladder disease and underwent LSG with LC. Of these, two females (BMI 53 kg/m² and BMI 47 kg/m², both age 60) were found by histological examination to have adenocarcinoma in their GB specimens (1.11%). Both were reoperated, which included partial hepatectomy of the GB bed, resection of the cystic stump, lymph node dissection, and resection of the port sites. One patient is doing well, with no evidence of disease at a postoperative follow-up of 4 years. The second patient had recurrent disease with peritoneal spread and ascites 20 months post-surgery and died 18 months later. 

Conclusions: GB cancer is a rare finding in cholecystectomy specimens. The incidence of this entity might be higher in obese older females owing to the higher incidence of cholelithiasis in these patients. 

 

June 2014
Nasser Sakran MD, David Goitein MD, Asnat Raziel MD, Dan Hershko MD and Amir Szold MD
 Background: Modifications to conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy (CLC) are aimed at decreasing abdominal wall trauma and improving cosmetic outcome. Although single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) provides excellent cosmetic results, the procedure is technically challenging and expensive compared to the conventional laparoscopic approach.

Objectives: To describe a novel, hybrid technique combining SILS and conventional laparoscopy using minimal abdominal wall incisions.

Methods: Fifty patients diagnosed with symptomatic cholelithiasis were operated using two reusable 5 mm trocars inserted through a single 15 mm umbilical incision and a single 2–3 mm epigastric port. This technique was dubbed “minimal incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy” (MILC).

Results: MILC was completed in 49 patients (98%). In five patients an additional 3 mm trocar was used and in 2 patients the epigastric trocar was switched to a 5 mm trocar. The procedure was converted to CLC in one patient. Mean operative time was 29 minutes (range 18–60) and the average postoperative hospital stay was 22 hours (range 6–50). There were no postoperative complications and the cosmetic results were rated excellent by the patients.

Conclusions: MILC is an intuitive, easy-to-learn and reproducible technique and requires small changes from CLC. As such, MILC may be an attractive alternative, avoiding the cost and complexity drawbacks associated with SILS.

March 2014
Hasan Kais MD, Yehuda Hershkovitz MD, Judith Sandbank MD and Ariel Halevy
June 2012
E. Atar, C. Neiman, E. Ram, M. Almog, I. Gadiel and A. Belenky

Background: The presence of stones in the common bile duct (CBD) may cause complications such as obstructing jaundice or ascending cholangitis, and the stones should be removed.

0bjectives: To report our results with percutaneous elimination of CBD stones from the gallbladder through the papilla.

Methods: During a 4 year period, six patients (five men and one woman, mean age 71.5 years) who had CBD stones and an existing gallbladder drain underwent percutaneous stone push into the duodenum after balloon dilatation of the papilla, with a diameter equal to that of the largest stone. Access into the CBD was from the gallbladder, using an already existing percutaneous gallbladder drain (cholecystostomy tube).

Results: Each patient had one to three CBD stones measuring 7–14 mm. Successful CBD stone elimination into the duodenum was achieved in five of the six patients. The single failure occurred in a patient with choledochal diverticulum, who was operated successfully. There were no major or minor complications during or after the procedures.

Conclusions: Trans-cholecystic CBD stone elimination is a safe and feasible percutaneous technique that utilizes existing tracts, thus obviating the need to create new percutaneous access. This procedure can replace endoscopic or surgical CBD exploration.
 

May 2002
Daphna Weinstein, MD, Mehrdad Herbert, MD, Noa Bendet, MD, Judith Sandbank, MD and Ariel Halevy, MD

Background: Carcinoma of the gallbladder is diagnosed in 0.3–1.5% of all cholecystectomy specimens.

Objectives: To establish the overall rate of gallbladder carcinoma and unexpected gallbladder carcinoma based on our experience.

Methods: We retrospectively evaluated all consecutive cholecystectomies performed in our ward during a 6 year period in order to determine the incidence of gallbladder carcinoma and to identify common characteristics of this particular group of patients.

Results: Of the 1,697 cholecystectomies performed in our ward during the 6 years, gallbladder carcinoma was diagnosed in six patients (0.35%), but was not suspected prior to surgery in any of them. In accordance with the literature, the occurrence in women (5/6) was higher than in men (1/6). The mean age was 70 years (range 55–90). The most common symptom was abdominal pain; the majority (5/6) had cholelithiasis, and the pathologic report confirmed the diagnosis of adenocarcinoma in all six patients.

Conclusions: The overall incidence of unsuspected gallbladder carcinoma in our series was 0.35%. We could not find any common characteristics for this particular group of patients when compared to patients with non-malignant pathology.

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