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עמוד בית
Mon, 28.11.22

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July 2012
R. Marom, R. Lubetzky, F.B. Mimouni, H. Bassan, L. Ben Sira, I. Berger, S. Dollberg and D. Mandel

Background: Infants with severe intraventricular-periventricular hemorrhage (IVH) have higher absolute nucleated red blood cell counts (aNRBC) at birth (a marker of intrauterine hypoxia) than controls. Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) is known to be associated with prenatal and postnatal events. Whether PVL is also linked to intrauterine hypoxia is unknown.

Objectives: To test the hypothesis that infants with PVL have higher aNRBC counts at birth than controls.

Methods: We studied 14 very low birth weight infants with PVL and compared them with 14 pair-matched controls without PVL. Head ultrasound scans were performed in all infants on days 3–5 and 21–25 of life. Paired tests, Fisher exact tests and stepwise logistic regression were performed for analysis.

Results: Groups were similar for gestational age (GA), birth weight (BW), prolonged rupture of membranes (PROM), Apgar scores, IVH, and aNRBC counts. PVL correlated significantly with low partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) and IVH (P < 0.01). In logistic regression, when GA, gender, PROM, antenatal steroid therapy, 1 (or 5) minute Apgar scores, IVH grade, nosocomial sepsis, patent ductus arteriosus, necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), need for pressors, aNRBC counts and lowest pCO2 were used as independent variables, pCO2 (P = 0.002), IVH grade (P = 0.001), GA (P = 0.038), NEC (P = 0.061) and use of dopamine (P = 0.010) remained in the analysis (total R2 = 68.2%).

Conclusions: In contrast to severe IVH, aNRBC counts do not predict the development of PVL.

January 2012
Ronit Lubetzky, MD, Galit Zaidenberg-Israeli, MD, Francis B. Mimouni, MD, Shaul Dollberg, MD, Eyal Shimoni, PhD, Yael Ungar, PhD and Dror Mandel, MD

Background: Human milk produced during prolonged lactation (> 1 year) is extraordinarily rich in fat and has a higher energy content than human milk produced during short lactation.

Objectives: To estimate the fatty acid (FA) profile of human milk and to test the hypothesis that the proportion of C12 and C14 (two dietary saturated FA known to most promote hypercholesterolemia) in human milk during prolonged lactation is similar to that in short lactation.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 30 mothers of term infants lactating for more than 1 year as compared with 25 mothers of full-term infants who lactated for 2–6 months. Milk was collected by manual expression in mid-breastfeeding.

Results: The two groups did not differ in maternal height, weight, body mass index, diet, infant birth weight and gestational age, but mothers in the prolonged lactation group were significantly older. There was a significant correlation between lactation duration and C12 or C14. The percentage of all FA combined (except for C12 and C14) decreased significantly over time. In contrast, C12:0 and C14:0 combined increased significantly during lactation (R2 = 10.0%, P < 0.03).

Conclusions: Women who lactated for more than 1 year had higher C12 and C14 FA percentages in their milk than women who lactated for 2–6 months.

November 2010
S. Hudara, F. Mimouni, Y. Rachman, B. Dayan, A. Silbermintz and D. Turner

Background: Optimil® is an infant formula, manufactured in Israel and introduced to the market in May 2008.

Objectives: To assess, for the first time, the effect of this formula on infant growth.

Method: The study group comprised 52 infants who for the first 6 months of life consumed Optimil, which constituted at least 25% of their total daily intake. Anthropometric data were collected from the records of the well-baby clinics. Weight, length and head circumference at baseline and 3 months thereafter were converted to gender and age-matched standard deviation Z-scores. As an exploratory uncontrolled analysis, questionnaires were sent to the caregivers to assess satisfaction with the formula and to note the rate of constipation, irritability and vomiting as well as apparent palatability.

Results: The baseline Z-scores of all three parameters were below zero but increased significantly after 3 months (-0.2 ± 0.88 to 0.12 ± 0.88, P = 0.013 for weight; -0.44 ± 0.87 to 0.10 ± 0.72, P < 0.001 for length; and -0.58 ± 0.78 to -0.1 ± 0.76, P < 0.001 for head circumference). There was a significant dose-response effect of the formula with weight gain. The formula was generally well accepted, with 8% constipation, 8% vomiting and 6% significant irritability.

Conclusions: This study provides the first evidence that infants consuming Optimil under age 6 months have adequate growth. Nonetheless, breastfeeding during this period should be preferred in almost all cases.

May 2005
S. Dollberg, Z. Haklai, F.B. Mimouni, I. Gorfein and E.S. Gordon
 Background: Lacking curves of “intrauterine” growth, most birthing centers in Israel use United States-based curves as standards.

Objective: To establish population-based standards of birth weight of singletons in Israel.

Methods: Data on birth weight and gestational age were obtained from the registries of the Israel Ministry of Health and Ministry of the Interior. During the 8 year study period there were 1,074,122 infants delivered in Israel; 787,710 (73%) were included in this analysis.

Results: In this study we provide data of birth weight by gestational age of live infants born in Israel between 1993 and 2001. Ranges of birth weight by gestational age are also depicted for singleton and multiple pregnancies. Fetuses in multiple pregnancies grow in a similar manner to singletons until 30 weeks of gestation, after which their growth slows down.

Conclusions: Use of these data as a standard for “intrauterine” growth better represents the Israeli neonatal population than the American standards. In addition, curves of multiple pregnancies are significantly different from those of singleton pregnancies and might be more appropriate in these pregnancies.

March 2005
E. Zimlichman, D. Mandel, F.B. Mimouni, S. Vinker, I. Kochba, Y. Kreiss and A. Lahad
Background: The health system of the medical corps of the Israel Defense Force is based primarily upon primary healthcare. In recent years, health management organizations have considered the primary care physician responsible for assessing the overall health needs of the patient and, accordingly, introduced the term “gatekeeper.”

Objectives: To describe and analyze how PCPs[1] in the IDF[2] view their roles as primary care providers and to characterize how they perceive the quality of the medical care that they provide.

Methods: We conducted a survey using a questionnaire that was mailed or faxed to a representative sample of PCPs. The questionnaire included demographic background, professional background, statements on self-perception issues, and ranking of roles as a PCP in the IDF.

Results: Statements concerning commitment to the patient were ranked higher than statements concerning commitment to the military organization. Most physicians perceive the quality of the medical care service that they provide as high; they also stated that they do not receive adequate continuous medical education.

Conclusions: Our survey shows that PCPs in the IDF, like civilian family physicians, perceive their primary obligation as serving the needs of their patients but are yet to take on the full role of “gatekeepers” in the IDF’s healthcare system. We conclude that the Medical Corps should implement appropriate steps to ensure that PCPs are prepared to take on a more prominent role as “gatekeepers” and providers of high quality primary medical care.

__________________

[1] PCP = primary care physician

[2] IDF = Israel Defense Force

September 2004
E. Zimlichman, D. Mandel, F.B. Mimouni, R. Wartenfeld, M. Huerta, I. Grotto and Y. Kreiss

Background: Oral contraceptive users are at increased risk for both arterial and venous thrombosis, some of which can be fatal. Studies are consistent with the existence of a synergism between cigarette smoking and OC[1] use in the pathogenesis of myocardial infarction in young women.

Objectives: To study the relationship between OC use, cigarette smoking and other cardiovascular risk factors among young women.

Methods: A systematic sample of military personnel, upon discharge from service in the Israel Defense Forces, was asked to complete a research questionnaire. Body weight and height were measured and body mass index computed.

Results: Overall, 16,258 questionnaires were collected and analyzed during this 20 year study. There was a gradual, significant increase in OC use until the mid-1980s, from approximately 45% to 60% (P < 0.001), followed by steady rates of 58–64% since then. In contrast, the rates of smoking decreased significantly in the mid-1980s, from approximately 42% to a nadir of 22% in 1991. Since then, the rate of smoking has increased slowly but steadily, to reach a level of 35% in 1999. The OC users were more often of western (Ashkenazi) origin and came from families with more education and fewer siblings. They were more often smokers than non-OC users, and started smoking at a younger age. They had significantly lower BMI[2] than non-users. OC use was nearly identical in groups with or without multiple cardiovascular risk factors (smoking, obesity, family history).

Conclusions: Smoking and OC use are strongly associated. Other cardiovascular risk factors (smoking, obesity, family history) do not prevent OC users from smoking or smokers to use OC. We suggest that primary care physicians discourage smoking among adolescent females who wish to start using OC. A thorough medical history should be obtained to recognize all risk factors for cardiovascular disease and to provide for appropriate contraception counseling.






[1] OC = oral contraceptives

[2] BMI = body mass index


February 2004
D. Mandel, Y. Littner, F.B. Mimouni, Z. Stavarovsky and S. Dollberg

Background: Increased serum potassium and intraventricular hemorrhage occur frequently in preterm infants.

Objective: To retrospectively analyze data obtained on infants with severe IVH[1] in relation to blood K+ concentrations.

Methods: We identified all patients with severe IVH born between July 1997 and July 2000. Each patient was pair-matched with a control infant of the same gestational age (±1 week) without IVH in terms of head ultrasound findings on day 5, and whole blood K+ on days 3–5.

Results: There were 24 infants in each group. The IVH group had significantly lower 1 minute Apgar scores and pH and higher blood K+ than the control group. Blood pH and K+ were inversely correlated. Stepwise regression analysis, taking into account blood pH and 1 minute Apgar score, showed a correlation only between blood K+ and IVH status.

Conclusions: Severe IVH is significantly associated with higher blood K+ concentrations. A causal relationship cannot be ascertained at this point.






[1] IVH = intraventricular hemorrhage



 
December 2003
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