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עמוד בית
Mon, 15.07.24

Search results

March 2024
Lea Ohana Sarna Cahan MD, Dina Qaraen Saloni MD, Mevaseret Avital MD, Naama Pines MD, Itai Gross MD, Giora Wieser MD, Saar Hashavya MD

Background: Hypothermia, as a sign of serious bacterial infection (SBI) in children and infants older than 90 days is poorly characterized, especially in the post-pneumococcal vaccine era.

Objectives: To assess the prevalence of SBI in children and infants presenting to the pediatric emergency department (PED) with reported or documented hypothermia.

Methods: Retrospective data analysis was conducted of all well-appearing children aged 0–16 years who presented with a diagnosis of hypothermia at two tertiary PEDs from 2010 to 2019.

Results: The study comprised 99 children, 15 (15.2%) age 0–3 months, 71 (71.7%) 3–36 months, and 13 (13.1%) > 36 months. The youngest age group had increased length of stay in the hospital (P < 0.001) and increased rates of pediatric intensive care unit admissions (P < 0.001). Empirical antibiotic coverage was initiated in 80% of the children in the 0–3 months group, 21.1% in the 3–36 months group, and 15.4% in > 36 months (P < 0.001). Only one case of SBI was recorded and no bacteremia or meningitis. Hypothermia of unknown origin was the most common diagnosis in all age groups (34%, 42%, 46%), respectively, followed by bronchiolitis (26%) and hypoglycemia (13.3%) for 0–3 month-old children, unspecified viral infection (20%) and otitis media (7%) for 3–36-month old, and unspecified viral infection (23%) and alcohol intoxication (15.2%) in > 36 months.

Conclusion: There is a low incidence of SBI in well-appearing children presenting to the PED with hypothermia and a benign course and outcome in those older than 3 months.

July 2023
Zach Rozenbaum MD, Orly Sapir MD, Yoav Granot MD, Joshua H. Arnold MD MS, Simon Biner MD, Yan Topilsky MD, Michal Laufer-Perl MD

Background: Small left atria (LA) is associated with an increased risk of mortality.

Objectives: To determine whether the attributed risk of mortality is influenced by the underlying etiologies leading to decreased volumes.

Methods: We retrospectively evaluated patients with an available LA volume index (LAVI) as measured by echocardiography who came to our institution between 2011 and 2016. Individuals with small LA (LAVI < 16 ml/m2) were included and divided according to the etiology of the small LA (determined or indeterminate) and investigated according to the specific etiology.

Results: The cohort consisted of 288 patients with a mean age of 56 ± 18 years. An etiology for small LA was determined in 84% (n=242). The 1-year mortality rate of the entire cohort was 20.5%. Patients with indeterminate etiology (n=46) demonstrated a lower mortality rate compared with determined etiologies (8.7% vs. 22.7%, P = 0.031). However, following propensity score adjustments for baseline characteristics, there was no significant difference between the groups (P = 0.149). The only specific etiology independently associated with 1-year mortality was the presence of space occupying lesions (odds ratio 3.26, 95% confidence interval 1.02–10.39, P = 0.045).

Conclusions: Small LA serve as a marker for negative outcomes, and even in cases of undetected etiology, the prognosis remains poor. The presence of small LA should alert the physician to a high risk of mortality, regardless of the underlying disease.

August 2022
Aviv Gour MD, Emily Elefant MD, Feda Fanadka MD, Meir Kestenbaum MD, and Nirit Lev MD, PhD
December 2019
Danit Dayan MD, Joseph Kuriansky MD and Subhi Abu-Abeid MD

The Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery helps patients achieve excellent excess weight loss, with subsequent improvement or resolution of co-morbidities. However, up to 20% of all RYGB patients, and 40% of the super morbidly obese, experience significant weight regain. The etiology of weight regain is multifactorial; hence, multidisciplinary management is mandatory. Revision options for failed conservative and medical management include resizing the restrictive component of the bypass or intensifying malabsorption. While improvement of restriction generally has limited efficacy, intensifying malabsorption achieves significant long-term excess weight loss. The optimal surgical option should be personalized, considering eating behavior and psychological issues, surgical anatomy of the bypass, and anesthetic and surgical risks.

May 2018
Ronen Zalts MD, Tomer Twizer MD, Ronit Leiba BsC and Amir Karban MD

Background: The identification of the etiology of a pleural effusion can be difficult. Measurement of serum B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels is helpful in the diagnosis of congestive heart failure (CHF) as a cause of respiratory failure, but pleural fluid BNP measurement is still not part of the workup for pleural effusion.

Objectives: To identify the correlation between pleural fluid BNP levels and clinical diagnosis.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, data from 107 patients admitted to the department of internal medicine between November 2009 and January 2015 were obtained from medical records. Patients underwent a diagnostic thoracocentesis as part of their evaluation. They were grouped according to final diagnosis at discharge and clinical judgment of the attending physician.

Results: Serum BNP levels were significantly higher in the CHF patients compared to patients with non-cardiac causes of pleural effusion (1519.2 and 314.1 respectively, P < 0.0001). Mean pleural fluid BNP was also significantly higher in the CHF patients (1063.2 vs. 208.3, P < 0.0001). Optional cutoff points to distinguish between cardiac and non-cardiac etiology of pleural effusion were 273.4 pg/ml (sensitivity 83.3%, specificity 72.3%, accuracy 76.7%) or 400 pg/ml (sensitivity 78.6%, specificity 86.2%, accuracy 83.0%). A strong correlation was found between serum BNP and pleural fluid BNP levels.

Conclusions: High levels of serum BNP in patients presenting with pleural effusion suggest CHF. In cases with doubt regarding the etiology of pleural effusion, high levels of pleural fluid BNP can support the diagnosis, but are not superior to serum BNP levels.

January 2017
Boris Knyazer MD, Jenna Smolar MD, Isaak Lazar MD, Eli Rosenberg MD, Erez Tsumi MD, Tova Lifshitz MD and Jaime Levy MD

The identification and prompt diagnosis of Horner syndrome (HS) is essential for preventing permanent damage. HS may arise when a lesion presents anywhere along the three-neuron oculosympathetic pathway that begins at the posterior-lateral nuclei of the hypothalamus all the way through to the orbit. We present four cases and review the literature to familiarize the reader with the identification, diagnosis and treatment of Horner syndrome. The four patients, three adults and one child, were followed for at least 6 months following the initial diagnosis (range 6–18 months). There was partial resolution in three of the four cases, while the fourth resolved completely. There are numerous causes of HS, some of them iatrogenic. While iatrogenic cases of HR are rare in both adults and children, HS is seen more often following surgical procedures. Prompt recognition of the syndrome and correction of the offending agent may prevent permanent damage to the neuronal pathway. It is therefore recommended that practitioners be aware of the risks for development of iatrogenic HS and the signs for early detection.

January 2016
Yariv Goldstein MD, Oleg Dolkart PhD, Ehud Kaufman MD, Eyal Amar MD, Zachary T. Sharfman MSc, Ehud Rath MD, Gavriel Mozes MD and Eran Maman MD

Background: The popularity of bicycle riding for recreation, exercise and transportation has grown enormously in recent years, which has led to an increased incidence of bicycle-related injuries. While these injuries involve mainly the musculoskeletal system, data on shoulder-specific injuries incurred while bike riding are lacking. Classifying these shoulder injuries may provide insight and assistance in the creation and implementation of effective protective gear and measures. 

Objectives: To investigate the types and mechanisms of shoulder injuries among cyclists.

Methods: This study retrospectively examined all cyclists who incurred shoulder injuries while riding and were admitted to the emergency department and shoulder clinic between January 2008 and November 2013. The study included 157 subjects with various bicycle-related shoulder injuries treated with either conservative or surgical measures. 

Results: Eighty-four percent of injuries were caused by a direct blow to the shoulder, 7% by falling on an outstretched hand, 6% were traction injuries, and 3% were due to hyper-abduction. Nine different clinical types of injury were observed; the most common injuries were clavicle fractures (32%), followed by acromioclavicular joint dislocations (22%), rotator cuff tears (22%), and humeral fractures (8%). Fifty-one percent of subjects were managed with conservative care and the remaining patients required surgical interventions. 

Conclusions: The shoulder injuries incurred while riding a bicycle span the entire spectrum of shoulder injuries and often result in debilitating conditions. Although the use of helmets is increasing, there is currently no effective protective gear or measures to prevent riders from suffering shoulder injuries. 


May 2011
August 2010
F. Shibli, B. Chazan, O. Nitzan, E. Flatau, H. Edelstein, O. Blondheim, R. Raz and R. Colodner

Background: Community-acquired pneumonia is a common infection and is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Most patients with CAP[1] are treated empirically.

Objectives: To identify common pathogens causing CAP in hospitalized patients in northern Israel and to evaluate the correlation between etiology and disease severity.

Methods: We conducted a prospective study of patients with CAP hospitalized at HaEmek Medical Center, Afula. We collected demographic, clinical and laboratory data (blood and sputum cultures, serology, pneumococcal urinary antigen test, and respiratory multiplex-polymerase chain reaction from nasopharyngeal swab), and radiologic evaluation was performed.

Results: A total of 126 patients and 24 controls were enrolled. At least one pathogen was identified in 84 cases (66.7%), more than one in 43 patients (34.1%), and no pathogens in 42 (33.3%). Typical bacteria were found in 23 (18.3%), atypical bacteria in 66 (52.4%), and viruses in 42 (33.3%). The number (%) of patients with pathogens isolated was: Chlamydophila pneumoniae 26 (20.6%), Streptococcus pneumoniae 23 (18.3%), Mycoplasma pneumoniae 23 (18.3%), influenza virus A-B 20 (15.9%), Coxiella burnetti 8 (6.3%), and parainfluenza and adenovirus 13 (10.3%) each. A correlation was found only between a high PORT score on admission and S. pneumoniae, although atypical pathogens did not show class predominance.

Conclusions: S. pneumoniae, M. pneumoniae and C. pneumoniae were the most common pathogens isolated, while co-infection was very frequent. PORT score did not predict any of the pathogens involved. The choice of empiric antimicrobial treatment for CAP should be made according to local epidemiologic data.

[1] CAP = community-acquired pneumonia

February 2008
A Shiyovich, I. Munchak, J. Zelingher, A. Grosbard and A. Katz

Background: Syncope is a common clinical problem that often remains undiagnosed despite extensive and expensive diagnostic evaluation.

Objectives: To assess the diagnostic evaluation, costs and prognosis of patients hospitalized for syncope in a tertiary referral center according to discharge diagnosis.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with a diagnosis of syncope discharged from a tertiary referral center in 1999. In addition, mortality data were obtained retrospectively a year after discharge for each patient.

Results: The study group comprised 376 patients. Discharge etiologies were as follows: vasovagal 26.6%, cardiac 17.3%, neurological 4.3%, metabolic 0.5%, unexplained 47.3%, and other 4%. A total of 345 patients were admitted to the internal medicine department, 28 to the intensive cardiac care unit, and 3 to the neurology department. Cardiac and neurological tests were performed more often than other tests, with a higher yield in patients with cardiac and neurological etiologies respectively. The mean evaluation cost was 11,210 ± 8133 shekels, and was higher in the ICCU[1] than in internal medicine wards (19,210 ± 11,855 vs. 10,443 ± 7314 shekels, respectively; P = 0.0015). Mean in-hospital stay was 4.9 ± 4.2 days, which was longer in the ICCU than in medicine wards (7.2 ± 5.6 vs. 4.6 ± 3.5 days, respectively; P = 0.024). Short-term mortality rates (30 days after discharge) and long-term mortality rates (1 year after discharge) were 1.9% and 8.8% respectively, and differed according to discharge etiology. LTM[2] rates were significantly higher in patients discharged with cardiac, neurological and unknown etiologies (not for vasovagal), compared with the general population of Israel (1 year mortality rate for the age-adjusted [65 years] general population = 2.2%). The LTM rate was higher in patients discharged with a cardiac etiology than in those with a non-cardiac etiology (15.4% vs. 7.4%, P = 0.04). Higher short and long-term mortality rates were associated with higher evaluation costs.

Conclusions: Hospitalization in a tertiary referral center for syncope is associated with increased mortality for most etiologies (except vasovagal), cardiac more than non-cardiac. Despite high costs of inpatient evaluation, associated with more diagnostic tests, longer in-hospital stay and higher mortality rates, nearly half of the patients were discharged undiagnosed. Outpatient evaluation should be considered when medically possible.

[1] ICCU = Intensive Cardiac Care Unit

[2] LTM = long-term mortality

September 2007
J. Haik, A. Liran, A. Tessone, A. Givon, A. Orenstein and K. Peleg

Background: Burns are a major public health problem, with long hospitalization stay in both intensive care units and general wards. In Israel about 5% of all hospitalized injuries are burn injuries. There are no long-term epidemiological studies on burn injuries in adults in Israel.

Objectives: To identify risk factors for burn injuries and provide a starting point for the establishment of an effective prevention plan.

Methods: We analyzed the demographic, etiologic and clinical data of 5000 burn patients admitted to the five major hospitals with burn units in Israel during a 7 year period (1997–2003). Data were obtained from the records of the Israeli National Trauma Registry. The differences between various groups were evaluated using the chi-square test.

Results: Male gender was twice as frequent as female gender in burn patients (68.0% vs. 31.9%), and Jewish ethnicity was more common than non-Jewish (62.3% vs. 36.8%). Second and third-degree burns with body surface areas less than 10% constituted the largest group (around 50%). The largest age group was 0–1 years, constituting 22.2% of the cases. Inhalation injury was uncommon (1.9%). The most common etiologies were hot liquids (45.8%) and open fire (27.5%). Children less than 10 years old were burnt mainly by hot liquids while the main cause of burns for adults > 20 years old was an open flame. The majority of burns occurred at home (58%); around 15% were work related. The mean duration of hospitalization was 13.7 days (SD 17.7); 15.5% were in an intensive care unit with a mean duration of 12.1 days (SD 17.1). Surgical procedures became more common during the period of the study (from 13.4% in 1998 to 26.59% in 2002, average 19.8%). The mortality rate was 4.4%. We found a strong correlation between burn degree and total body surface area and mortality (0.25% mortality for 2nd to 3rd-degree burns with less than 10% TBSA[1], 5.4% for 2nd to 3rd-degree burns with 20–39% TBSA, and 96.6% for burns > 90% TBSA). The worst prognosis was for those over the age of 70 (mortality rate 35.3%) and the best prognosis was for the 0–1 year group (survival rate 99.6%).

Conclusions: The groups at highest risk were children 0–1 years old, males and non-Jews (the incidence rate among non-Jews was 1.5 times higher than their share in the general population). Those with the highest mortality rate were victims of burns > 90% TBSA and patients older than 70. Most burns occurred at home.

[1] TBSA = total body surface area

November 2006
R. Segal, A. Furmanov and F. Umansky
 Background: The recent occurrence of a spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage in Israel’s Prime Minister placed the scrutiny of local and international media on neurosurgeons as they made therapeutic decisions. In the ensuing public debate, it was suggested that extraordinary measures (surgical treatment) were undertaken only because of the celebrity of the patient.

Objectives: To evaluate the criteria used to select surgical versus medical management for SICH.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the files of 149 consecutive patients admitted with SICH[1] from January 2004 through January 2006 to our medical center. Their mean age was 66 (range 3–92 years), and 62% were male. SICH localization was lobar in 50% of patients, thalamus in 23%, basal ganglia in 15%, cerebellum in 13%, intraventricular in 6%, and pontine in 1%. Mean admission Glasgow Coma Score was 9 (range 3–15). Risk factors included hypertension in (74%), diabetes mellitus (34%), smoking (14%) and amyloid angiopathy (4%). Fifty percent of patients were on anticoagulant/antiplatelet therapy, including enoxaparin (3%), warfarin (7%), warfarin and aspirin (9%), or aspirin alone (34%).      

Results: Craniotomy was performed in 30% of patients, and ventriculostomy alone in 3%. Rebleed occurred in 9% of patients. Six months after the treatment 36% of operated patients were independent, 42% dependent, and 13% had died. At 6 months, 37% of non-operated patients were independent, 15% dependent, and 47% had died.

Conclusions: One-third of the SICH patients, notably those who were experiencing ongoing neurologic deterioration and had accessible hemorrhage, underwent craniotomy. The results are good, considering the inherent mortality and morbidity of SICH.


[1] SICH = spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage

June 2005
Z. Laron, H. Lewy, I. Wilderman, A. Casu, J. Willis, M.J. Redondo, I. Libman, N. White and M. Craig
 Background: Type 1 childhood-onset diabetes mellitus has a multifactorial origin involving an interplay between genetic and environmental factors. We have previously shown that many children who subsequently develop T1DM[1] have a different seasonality of birth than the total live births of the same population, supporting the hypothesis that perinatal viral infection during the yearly epidemics are a major trigger for the autoimmune process of T1DM.

Objectives: To compare the seasonality of children with T1DM in different populations around the world for which data were available.

Methods: We analyzed large cohorts of T1DM patients with a clinical disease onset before age 14 or 18 years.

Results: We found a seasonality pattern only in ethnically homogenous populations (such as Ashkenazi Jews, Israeli Arabs, individuals in Sardinia and Canterbury, New Zealand, and Afro-Americans) but not in heterogeneous populations (such as in Sydney, Pittsburgh and Denver).

Conclusions: Our findings attempt to explain the controversial data in the literature by showing that ethnically heterogeneous populations with a mixture of patients with various genetic backgrounds and environmental exposures mask the different seasonality pattern of month of birth that many children with diabetes present when compared to the general population.


[1] T1DM = type 1 childhood-onset diabetes mellitus

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