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עמוד בית
Sat, 22.06.24

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October 2019
William Nseir MD, Rola Khamisy-farah MD, Amir Amara MD and Raymond Farah MD

Background: The incidence of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) is increasing and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Therefore, there is a need to find new tools to determine the severity of the disease.

Objectives: To investigate the prognostic values of inflammatory markers such as mean platelet volume (MPV), neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) in patients with CDAD.

Methods: The study comprised of 100 patients diagnosed with CDAD. The study included an additional control group of 69 patients with diarrhea who were negative for C. difficile toxin. The control group was age- and sex-matched and hospitalized at the same time period. NLR and MPV were obtained from complete blood count results. Serum CRP levels were measured by the latex particle enhanced immunoturbidimetric assay. Blood samples for all inflammatory markers were collected at time of diagnosis and prior to initiating the antibiotic therapy. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, and prognostic data were collected from medical records for a period of 90 days from the initial diagnosis of CDAD.

Results: The mean age of the CDAD group was 68.6 ± 21.5 years compared to 65.6 ± 24.5 in the control group (P = 0.29). Our findings show that patients with CDAD had significantly higher NLR, MPV and serum CRP levels compared to the control group (P < 0.001)). Moreover, significantly higher levels were observed when CDAD was fatal (P < 0.001).

Conclusions: Elevated NLR, MPV, and serum CRP levels may serve as biomarkers for prediction of recurrence and mortality in patients with CDAD.

August 2019
Eyal Meltzer MD, Lara Weiss, Mollie Lobl, Eyal Leshem MD and Shmuel Stienlauf MD

Background: Travelers' diarrhea (TD) is frequently encountered in people traveling from high-income to low-income countries; however, its epidemiology in those traveling between high-income countries is not known.

Objectives: To evaluate the incidence of diarrhea in North American students relocating to Israel.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study involving medical students from the United States and Canada relocating to Israel was conducted. Students who relocated to Israel during 2010–2016 were contacted by email to participate in an anonymous survey. Data included demographic information as well as occurrence, timing, duration, and outcome of diarrhea after relocation.

Results: Ninety-seven students participated in the survey. Most (93.7%) students relocated from the United States or Canada. The period-prevalence of diarrhea was 69.1%. The incidence of diarrhea declined from 34.8 cases per 100 student-months during the first month after relocation to 1.3 cases per 100 student-months after 1 year. The duration of diarrhea was up to 1 week in 72.7%. Students who reported diarrhea were younger than students who did not (mean age 24.0 ± 2.2 and 28.4 ± 1.8 years, respectively, P < 0.001). No other demographic parameter was significantly associated with a higher likelihood of diarrhea.

Conclusions: A high proportion of North American medical students relocating to Israel reported diarrhea with clinical and epidemiological features similar to classic TD. Further studies are needed to elucidate the causative agents of TD in Israel.

May 2017
Dvora S. Shapiro MD, Reuven Friedmann MD, Ashraf Husseini MD, Hefziba Ivgi PhD, Amos M. Yinnon MD and Marc V. Assous MD PhD

Background: It is a challenge to diagnosis Clostridium difficile colitis.

Objectives: To determine, among patients who developed nosocomial diarrhea, whether serum procalcitonin (PCT) can distinguish between C. difficile toxin (CDT)-positive and CDT-negative patients.

Methods: This prospective study included 50 adults (>18 years) who developed diarrhea during hospitalization, 25 with a positive fecal test for CDT (study group) and 25 CDT negative (control group).

Results: Baseline demographic and underlying illnesses were similar in both groups. Duration of diarrhea was 6 ± 4 days and 3 ± 1 in the study and control groups, respectively (P = 0.001). Mean blood count was 20 ± 15 and 9.9 ± 4, respectively (P = 0.04). CRP level was higher in the study than in the control group (10.9 ± 7.4 and 6.6 ± 4.8, P = 0.028). PCT level was higher in the study group (4.4 ± 4.9) than the control group (0.3 ± 0.5, P = 0.102). A PCT level > 2 ng/ml was found in 7/25 patients (28%) and 1/25 (4%), respectively [odds ratio 9.33, 95% confidence interval (0.98 to 220), P = 0.049]. Multivariate analysis showed that only duration of diarrhea and left shift of peripheral leucocytes were significant indicators of CDT (P = 0.014 and P = 0.019, respectively). The mortality rate was 12/25 (48%) vs. 5/25 (20%), respectively (P = 0.04).

Conclusions: We found a non-significant tendency to higher PCT levels in patients with CDT-positive vs. CDT-negative nosocomial diarrhea. However, a PCT level > 2 ng/ml may help distinguish between these patients.

October 2016
Nathaniel A. Cohen MD, Dan M. Livovsky MD, Shir Yaakobovitch BSc, Merav Ben Yehoyada PhD, Ronen Ben Ami MD, Amos Adler MD, Hanan Guzner-Gur MD, Eran Goldin MD, Moshe E. Santo MD, Zamir Halpern MD, Kalman Paz MD and Nitsan Maharshak MD

Background: Antibiotic treatment of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has a high failure rate. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has proven very effective in treating these recurrences. 

Objectives: To determine which method of fecal microbiota transplantation (upper or lower gastrointestinal) and which type of donor (a relative or unrelated) is superior.

Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of treatment protocols and outcomes in 22 patients with refractory or recurrent CDI who underwent FMT at two Israeli facilities. Each center used a different donor type, stool preparation and method of delivery. The Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center used unrelated fecal donors and frozen stool samples and delivered them primarily (92%) via the lower gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Shaare Zedek Medical Center used fresh donor stool of relatives and delivered them primarily (90%) via the upper GI tract.

Results: FMT had an overall 2 month cure rate of 89%. Patients treated with FMT that was executed through the lower GI tract recovered faster from the infection (1.6 ± 1.08 vs. 2.4 ± 1 days for the upper tract, P = 0.03). The results also showed that patients who received lower GI tract FMTs were more likely to be cured of CDI (100% vs. 75% for upper tract FMTs, P = 0.16). Five patients (22%) died of CDI/FMT-unrelated causes and two (10%) died of CDI/FMT-related causes during the study period.

Conclusions: Lower GI tract FMT is a safe and effective treatment for refractory and recurrent CDI, and yields quicker results than upper GI tract FMT. 

 

August 2015
Nathaniel Aviv Cohen MD, Ronen Ben Ami MD, Hanan Guzner-Gur MD, Moshe Erwin Santo MD, Zamir Halpern MD and Nitsan Maharshak MD

Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea is a problem most hospital-based physicians will face in their career. This review aims to refresh current knowledge with regard to Clostridium difficile infection and bring physicians up to date with the latest developments in the growing field of fecal microbiota transplantation, the benefits it offers, and the promise this and other developments hold for the future. 

October 2007
February 2004
J. Delgado, B. Delgardo, I. Sztarkier, A. Baer and E. Depsames
December 2001
Yuri Viner, MD, Dan Miron, MD, Emanuel Gottfried, MD, Dora Segal and Anthony Luder, MBBS (UK)
May 2001
Yehuda Edoute, MD, PhD, Yuval Karmon, MD, Ariel Roguin, MD and Haim Ben-Ami, MD
Raz Somech, MD, Yael Leitner, MD and Zvi Spirer, MD
May 2000
Dan Miron MD, Raul Colodner MSc and Yoram Kenes PhD

Background: Two recent studies found that the prevalence of cryptosporidiosis among children in Israel was 3.4-7.4%.

Objectives: To assess the cumulative infection rate by testing immunoglobulin A and G seroprevalence for Cryptosporidium in children and adults in Israel.

Patients and Methods: The seroprevalence of IgA and IgG anti-Cryptosporidium antibodies was determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay procedure in a group of 163 healthy children and adults.

Results: The overall seroprevalence rates for IgG, IgA, both IgA and IgG, and any immunoglobulin were 12.6%, 23%, 30% and 65.6% respectively. Half the children under the age of 12 years were already infected, with seroprevalence increasing to 95.6% in those over age 13 (P<0.05). Seropositivity for IgG or IgA did not significantly increase with age.

Conclusions: These results indicate that a large percentage of healthy children and adults in northern Israel have been infected with Cryptosporidium, and at early ages.

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