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עמוד בית
Sun, 21.07.24

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August 2022
Ido Tzanani MD MPH, Daniel Bendayan MD, Anat Jaffe MD PHD, and Zohar Mor MD MPH MHA

Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the risk factors for progression from latent to active tuberculosis. However, the effect of DM on subsequent tuberculosis treatment is still inconclusive.

Objectives: To compare tuberculosis treatment outcomes and the rate of drug resistance of tuberculosis patients with or without DM.

Methods: This case-control study was conducted between 2005 and 2015 at the only tuberculosis ward in Israel. All 80 tuberculosis patients who had DM and were hospitalized during the study period were included in this study, as were a randomized sample of 213 tuberculosis patients without DM. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were collected from patient files in the hospital and clinics after discharge.

Results: Tuberculosis patients with DM were more often older and more likely to be Israeli citizens with a lower socioeconomic status than patients without DM. No statistically significant differences were found in clinical presentation, radiological findings, and sputum smear tests between the two groups. Culture converting times were prolonged in patients with DM compared to normoglycemic patients. Multidrug drug resistance tuberculosis was more common among normoglycemic tuberculosis patients than tuberculosis patients with DM (9.2% vs. 1.6%, P = 0.12). Treatment success rates were 76.2% and 83.1% for tuberculosis patients with or without DM, respectively (P = 0.18). DM was not statistically significant in the multivariate analysis predicting treatment success, which controlled for age, citizenship, compliance, addictions, and chronic diseases.

Conclusions: The presence of DM does not necessarily affect tuberculosis treatment outcomes as long as treatment compliance is optimal.

September 2021
Roy Rafael Dayan MD, Yosef Ayzenberg MD, Tzachi Slutsky MD, Ela Shaer MD, Alon Kaplan BMedSc, and Vladimir Zeldetz MD

Background: Limited data exist regarding the safety of ultrasound-guided femoral nerve blockade (US-FNB) in patients with hip fractures treated with anti-Xa direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC).

Objectives: To compare the safety outcomes of US-FNB to conventional analgesia in patients with hip fractures treated with anti-Xa DOAC.

Methods: This observational exploratory prospective study included 69 patients who presented to our emergency department (ED) in 3 years with hip fracture and who were treated with apixaban or rivaroxaban. Patients received either a US-FNB (n=19) or conventional analgesics (n=50) based on their preference and, and the presence of a trained ED physician qualified in performing US-FNB. Patients were observed for major bleeding events during and 30 days after hospitalization. The degree of preoperative pain and opioid use were also observed.

Results: We found no significant difference in the number of major bleeding events between groups (47.4% vs. 54.0%, P = 0.84). Degree of pain measured 3 and 12 hours after presentation was found to be lower in the US-FNB group (median visual analog scale of pain improvement from baseline of -5 vs. -3 (P = 0.002) and -5 vs.-4 (P = 0.023), respectively. Opioid administration pre-surgery was found to be more than three times more common in the conventional analgesia group (26.3% vs.80%, P < 0.0001).

Conclusions: Regarding patients treated with Anti-Xa DOAC, US-FNB was not associated with an increase in major bleeding events compared to conventional analgesia, although it was an effective means of pain alleviation. Larger scale randomized controlled trials are required to determine long-term safety and efficacy.

March 2020
Rakefet Yoeli-Ullman MD, Nimrod Dori-Dayan MD, Shali Mazaki-Tovi MD, Roni Zemet MD, Neomi Kedar, Ohad Cohen MD and Tali Cukierman-Yaffe MD

Background: Pregestational diabetes mellitus (PGDM) carries a significantly elevated risk of adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. There is evidence that certain interventions reduce the risk for adverse outcomes. Studies have shown that a multi-disciplinary approach improves pregnancy outcomes in women with PGDM.

Objectives: To determine pregnancy outcomes in women with PGDM using a multi-disciplinary approach.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed consecutive women with pregestational type 1 and type 2 diabetes who were monitored at a high-risk pregnancy clinic at the Sheba Medical Center. Clinical data were obtained from the medical records. All data related to maternal glucose control and insulin pump function were prospectively recorded on Medtronic CareLink® pro software (Medtronic MiniMed, Northridge, CA).

Results: This study comprised 121 neonates from 116 pregnancies of 94 women. In 83% of the pregnancies continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) sensors were applied during a part or all of the pregnancy. Pregnancy outcomes among women who were followed by a multi-disciplinary team before and during pregnancy, and during labor and puerperium resulted in better glucose control (hemoglobin A1c 6.4% vs. 7.8%), lower risk for pregnancy induced hypertension/preeclampsia (7.7% vs. 15.6%), lower birth weight (3212 g vs. 3684 g), and lower rate of large size for gestational age and macrosomia (23.1% vs. 54.2% and 3.3% vs. 28.4%, respectively), compared to data from European cohorts.

Conclusions: The multi-disciplinary approach for treating women with PGDM practiced in the high-risk pregnancy clinic at the Sheba Medical Center resulted in lower rates of macrosomia, LGA, and pregnancy induced hypertension compared to rates reported in the literature.

January 2020
Danit Dayan MD, Subhi Abu-Abeid MD, Joseph Kuriansky MD, Guy Lahat MD and Boaz Sagie MD

Background: Primary retroperitoneal neoplasms (PRN) arise from diverse retroperitoneal tissues. Soft tissue sarcomas (STS) comprise the majority and are well studied. Other non-sarcomatous PRN are very rare and less familiar.

Objectives: To evaluate the clinicopathologic and radiologic features of non-sarcomatous PRN, as well as the outcome of complete tumor resection (TR).

Methods: Retrospective data were collected on consecutive patients (June 2006 to January 2015) who underwent resection of retroperitoneal lesions at our department. Final pathology of non-sarcomatous PRN was included.

Results: The study population included 36 patients (26% with PRN). PRN were neurogenic (17%), fat-containing (3%), and cystic (6%). The preoperative diagnosis was correct in only 28%. All patients underwent TR via laparotomy (72%) or laparoscopy (28%), for mean operative time of 120 ± 46 minutes. En bloc organ resection was performed in 11%. Complete TR was achieved in 97%. Intra-operative spillage occurred in 8%. Intra-operative, 90-day postoperative complications, and mortality rates were 11%, 36%, and 0%, respectively. The mean length of stay was 6.5 ± 5.5 days. The median overall survival was 53 ± 4.9 months.

Conclusions: Familiarity with radiologic characteristics of PRN is important for appropriate management. Counter to STS, other PRN are mostly benign and have an indolent course. Radical surgery is not required, as complete TR confers good prognosis. Expectant management is reserved for small, asymptomatic, benign neoplasms.

December 2019
Danit Dayan MD, Joseph Kuriansky MD and Subhi Abu-Abeid MD

The Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery helps patients achieve excellent excess weight loss, with subsequent improvement or resolution of co-morbidities. However, up to 20% of all RYGB patients, and 40% of the super morbidly obese, experience significant weight regain. The etiology of weight regain is multifactorial; hence, multidisciplinary management is mandatory. Revision options for failed conservative and medical management include resizing the restrictive component of the bypass or intensifying malabsorption. While improvement of restriction generally has limited efficacy, intensifying malabsorption achieves significant long-term excess weight loss. The optimal surgical option should be personalized, considering eating behavior and psychological issues, surgical anatomy of the bypass, and anesthetic and surgical risks.

April 2015
Mahmoud Soubra MD, Yehudith Assouline-Dayan MD and Ron Schey MD FACG
December 2012
M. Papiashvili, I. Bar, L. Sasson, M. Lidji, K. Litman, A. Hendler, V. Polanski, L. Treizer and D. Bendayan

Background: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) presents a difficult therapeutic problem due to the failure of medical treatment. Pulmonary resection is an important adjunctive therapy for selected patients with MDR-TB.

Objectives: To assess the efficacy of pulmonary resection in the management of MDR-TB patients.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of MDR-TB patients referred for major pulmonary resections to the departments of thoracic surgery at Assaf Harofeh and Wolfson Medical Centers. For the period under study, 13 years (from 1998 to 2011), we analyzed patients’ medical history, bacteriological, medical and surgical data, morbidity, mortality, and short-term and long-term outcome.

Results: We identified 19 pulmonary resections (8 pneumonectomies, 4 lobectomies, 1 segmentectomy, 6 wedge resections) from among 17 patients, mostly men, with a mean age of 32.9 years (range 18–61 years). Postoperative complications developed in six patients (35.3%) (broncho-pleural fistula in one, empyema in two, prolonged air leak in two, and acute renal failure in one). Only one patient (5.8%) died during the early postoperative period, three (17.6%) in the late postoperative period, and one within 2 years after the resection. Of 12 survivors, 9 were cured, 2 are still under medical treatment, and 1 is lost from follow-up because of poor compliance.

Conclusions: Pulmonary resection for MDR-TB patients is an effective adjunctive treatment with acceptable morbidity and mortality.
 

May 2012
D. Amital, H. Amital, G. Shohat, Y. Soffer and Y. Bar-Dayan

Background: On 4 February 2008, two terrorists armed with suicide bombs arrived at the open market in the southern Israeli city of Dimona. One detonated his bomb at approximately 10:30 a.m. causing multiple casualties. Short-term emotional effects and acute stress reactions usually appear among survivors after such incidents.

Objectives: To compare the differences in emotions and in disturbances of daily life activities that emerge a couple of days following such an event and to identify patterns of stress development among resilient and low-resilient members of the population in Dimona and in the general population of Israel.

Methods: A telephone survey of two randomly selected representative samples of adults (428 Israeli residents and 250 Dimona residents) was conducted 2 days after the event.

Results: A higher prevalence of stress and fear and a lower prevalence of joy were reported among the population of Dimona compared to the general population in Israel (P < 0.05). Differences were also recorded when the population of Dimona was categorized by their personal degree of resilience (P < 0.05). A higher prevalence of disturbances in daily life activities and changes in leisure activity was found in the low-resilient population in Dimona (P < 0.01).

Conclusions: This study demonstrates that following a public terror event, self-reported low-resilient subjects have a higher prevalence of disturbances in daily life activities, as well as adverse emotional responses. These differences must be addressed by the relevant social service agencies for immediate public intervention

February 2012
D. Bendayan, A. Hendler, K. Litman and V. Polansky
Background: Interferon-gamma release tests are appealing alternatives to the tuberculin skin test (TST) for latent tuberculosis infection.

Objectives: To determine the yield of the Quantiferon TB Gold test (QFT-G) in the diagnosis of active tuberculosis disease, with a focus on elderly patients, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection, and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB).

Methods: The QFT-G test was performed in 98 patients suspected of having active tuberculosis. The results were evaluated for each subgroup of patients and compared to the results of the TST.

Results: Active tuberculosis was diagnosed in 92 of the 98 patients. Sixteen (17.3%) were elderly patients (over age 70), 15 (16%) were co-infected with HIV, and 14 (15%) had EPTB. QFT-G was positive in 49 patients (53%) and indeterminate in 4. The results were not significantly affected by HIV co-infection (P = 0.17), old age (P = 0.4), or the presence of EPTB (P = 0.4). There was a good correlation between the TST and the QFT-G test (P < 0.001). In EPTB and in the elderly, the QFT-G test appears to be better than the TST.

Conclusions: The QFT-G test is suboptimal in its ability to detect active tuberculosis and should not be used to exclude it.
November 2010
S. Hudara, F. Mimouni, Y. Rachman, B. Dayan, A. Silbermintz and D. Turner

Background: Optimil® is an infant formula, manufactured in Israel and introduced to the market in May 2008.

Objectives: To assess, for the first time, the effect of this formula on infant growth.

Method: The study group comprised 52 infants who for the first 6 months of life consumed Optimil, which constituted at least 25% of their total daily intake. Anthropometric data were collected from the records of the well-baby clinics. Weight, length and head circumference at baseline and 3 months thereafter were converted to gender and age-matched standard deviation Z-scores. As an exploratory uncontrolled analysis, questionnaires were sent to the caregivers to assess satisfaction with the formula and to note the rate of constipation, irritability and vomiting as well as apparent palatability.

Results: The baseline Z-scores of all three parameters were below zero but increased significantly after 3 months (-0.2 ± 0.88 to 0.12 ± 0.88, P = 0.013 for weight; -0.44 ± 0.87 to 0.10 ± 0.72, P < 0.001 for length; and -0.58 ± 0.78 to -0.1 ± 0.76, P < 0.001 for head circumference). There was a significant dose-response effect of the formula with weight gain. The formula was generally well accepted, with 8% constipation, 8% vomiting and 6% significant irritability.

Conclusions: This study provides the first evidence that infants consuming Optimil under age 6 months have adequate growth. Nonetheless, breastfeeding during this period should be preferred in almost all cases.

U. Katzenell, E. Bakshi, I. Ashkenazi, Y. Bar-Dayan, E. Yeheskeli and E. Eviatar

Background: The criteria for tonsillectomy for recurrent tonsillitis were established by prospective studies in the pediatric population and are applied to adults as well. No studies have been conducted to assess whether these guidelines are followed. 

Objectives: To examine the eligibility for tonsillectomy of tonsillectomized patients who were referred because of recurrent acute tonsillitis.

Methods: A retrospective case series in an ambulatory military otolaryngology clinic was conducted, and the medical records of 44 tonsillectomized patients who suffered from throat infections in the year before surgery were analyzed. The number of tonsillar infections that met the referral criteria was counted.

Results: The average number of throat infections that met the referral criteria was 1.89 per year. The average number of visits to the clinic due to upper respiratory tract infection was 12.92 (range 2–36) per year. The average number of visits for any cause was 45.13 (range 6–64) per year. One patient with eight documented throat infections met the criteria of more than six infections in the last year.

Conclusion: Although the referral criteria were not strictly met, we speculate that surgery was probably beneficial. This study shows that the indications for tonsillectomy referral are not strictly followed, and that new criteria for referral of adults for tonsillectomy need to be established.

August 2010
A. Leiba, N. Dreiman, G. Weiss, B. Adini and Y. Bar-Dayan

Background: The growing numbers of H1N1 "swine influenza" cases should prompt national health systems to achieve dual preparedness: preparedness of clinicians to recognize and treat cases of human H1N1 flu, and national preparedness for an influenza pandemic. This is similar to recent contingency planning for an avian flu pandemic.

Objectives: To evaluate hospital personnel's knowledge on avian flu (zoonotic, sporadic, pandemic), comparing among nurses, residents and faculty, and between those who attended lectures or other educational modalities targeted at avian flu and those who did not.

Methods: A 14 item multiple choice questionnaire was designed to test crucial points regarding preparedness for human avian flu. The directors of 26 general hospitals were instructed by the Ministry of Health to improve knowledge of and preparedness for different avian flu scenarios, and to expect an official inspection. As part of this inspection, we distributed the questionnaires to nurses, residents and senior physicians.

Results: Altogether, 589 questionnaires were collected from the 26 hospitals. Examinees who participated in training modules (course, lecture or any training provided by the hospital) did somewhat better (scoring 78 points out of 100) than those who did not attend the training (70 points) (P < 0.05). Differences in nurses’ knowledge were even more striking: 66 points for the non-attendants compared to 79 for nurses who attended the lecture (P < 0.05).  Residents had significantly lower scores compared to nurses or senior physicians: 70 compared to 77 and 78 respectively (P < 0.05).

May 2010
H. Rosenblum, Y. Bar-Dayan, Z. Dovrish, S. Lew, N. Weisenberg, A. Neumann, T. Klein and H. Amital

Background: Obstruction of urine outflow can result from mechanical blockade as well as from functional defects. In adults, urinary tract obstruction is due mainly to acquired defects, such as pelvic tumors, calculi, and urethral stricture. In childhood it is mostly due to congenital malformations. In this article we present two rare cases of acute obstructive renal failure that presented with hydronephrosis. These cases underline the wide range of causes that may lead to this clinical feature. 

February 2010
D. Bendayan, K. Littman and V. Polansky

Background: Tuberculosis is the most common opportunistic infection among people infected with human immunodeficiency virus and its first cause of morbidity and mortality.

Objectives: To analyze the characteristics of a population in Israel with both tuberculosis disease and HIV[1] infection in order to identify factors that contribute to outcome.

Methods: The study group comprised patients hospitalized in the Pulmonary and Tuberculosis Department of Shmuel Harofeh Hospital during the period January 2000 to December 2006. They were located by a computer search in the hospital registry and the pertinent data were collected.

Results: During the study period 1059 cases of active tuberculosis disease were hospitalized; 93 of them were co-infected with HIV. Most of them came from endemic countries (61.2% from Ethiopia and 20.4% from the former Soviet Union; none of them was born in Israel). Ten percent of the cases were multiple-drug resistant and 32% showed extrapulmonary involvement. The response rate to the treatment was good, and the median hospitalization time was 70 days. The mortality rate was 3.2%.

Conclusions: Despite the high prevalence of pulmonary disease in our group, the short-term outcome was good and the Mycobacterium was highly sensitive to first-line drugs. These encouraging results can be attributed to the fact that tuberculosis patients in Israel are identified early and treated continuously and strictly, with early initiation of antiretroviral therapy, which ensures that the development of drug resistance is low.






[1] HIV = human immunodeficiency virus


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