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עמוד בית
Mon, 22.07.24

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January 2023
Ron Skorochod B MED Sc, Eli Ben-Chetrit MD, David Raveh MD, Bashar Fteiha MD, Yehonatan Turner MD, Yitzhak Skorochod MD

Acute cholecystitis is a common surgical diagnosis. If not addressed properly, it can potentially lead to sepsis, perforation of the gallbladder, and even death.

The most frequent pathogens isolated from bile cultures of patients with cholecystitis are anaerobes and Enterbacterales such as E. coli, Klebsiella species, and Streptococcus species [1].

Streptococcus gordonii belongs to the Viridians streptococci group of oral bacteria and is commonly associated with dental caries. S. gordonii has been previously reported as the causative pathogen in both endocarditis and spondylodiskitis [2]. However, it has rarely been associated with biliary infections. In this report, we presented a patient diagnosed with cholecystitis associated with S. gordonii infection.

October 2022
Ron Skorochod B.MED.SC, David Raveh MD, Yonit Wiener-Well MD, Bashar Fteiha MD, Shimon Shteingart PhD, Yitzhak Skorochod MD

Background: The hepatobiliary system is a sterile micro-environment. Bacterial infection in this system is most commonly associated with anaerobes as well as gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Biliary infections with Staphylococcus aureus are poorly characterized.

Objectives: To depict the clinical characteristics and outcome of patients with S. aureus infection of the hepatobiliary system.

Methods: Medical records of patients with bile cultures positive for S. aureus from January 2006 to November 2020 were extracted from the computerized database of a hospital in Israel.

Results: We analyzed the results of 28 cases that were found in the database. The mean age of study patients was 62.2 ± 19 years. Hypertension, dyslipidemia, chronic kidney disease, diabetes, and benign prostatic hypertrophy were the most common co-morbidities (57.1%, 32.1%, 25%, 25%, and 25%, respectively). Fourteen of the methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) bile cultures (82.3%) were a result of primary S. aureus biliary infections (no other source for S. aureus infection) and the remainder were of a secondary infection. Eight of the MRSA cultures (47.1%) were from hospital acquired infections. Increased hospital mortality in patients with S. aureus hepatobiliary infection was associated with hypertension (P = 0.04), bedridden status (P = 0.01), and nursing home residence (P = 0.003).

Conclusions: Hepatobiliary infection with S. aureus can manifest in a variety of ways. S. aureus should be especially considered in patients who are bedridden, present with hypertension, or live in nursing homes because of their association with in-hospital mortality resulting from this entity.

September 2018
Joseph Mergui MD, David Raveh-Brawer MD, Meydan Ben-Ishai MD, Sarah Prijs MD, Cornelius Gropp MD, Igor Barash MD MHA, Jean-Louis Golmard MD PhD, Sol Jaworowski MBBS FRANZCP

Background: There is scant research on the psychopathology of Israeli soldiers who present to a general hospital emergency department (ED).

Objectives: To assess the psychopathology among a cohort of Israeli soldiers who presented to a general hospital ED for mental health assessment.

Methods: The demographic and clinical characteristics of 124 consecutive soldiers who presented to the ED for psychiatric assessment between January 2008 and September 2012 were reviewed. Twenty-seven soldiers from the cohort were contacted for follow-up by telephone on average 52 months later.

Results: The reasons for presentation to the ED, usually during the early stages of military service, included self-harming behavior, suicidal ideation, somatoform complaints, and dissatisfaction with their military service. Psychiatric diagnoses included adjustment disorder and personality disorder. Self-harming behavior/suicidal ideation was significantly correlated with unspecified adjustment disorder (P = 0.02) and personality disorder (P = 0.001). At follow-up, there was a lack of substantial psychopathology: none of the subjects engaged in self-harming behavior/suicidal ideation and a consistent trend was observed toward clinical improvement.

Conclusions: Psychiatric intervention of soldiers who present to a general hospital ED because of emotional difficulties may provide the opportunity for crisis intervention and validation of the soldier's distress. To the best of our knowledge this is the first Israeli study of psychopathology among soldiers who presented to an ED.

February 2016
Yigal Helviz MD, Ilia Dzigivker MD, David Raveh-Brawer MD, Moshe Hersch MD, Shoshana Zevin MD and Sharon Einav MD

Background: Enoxaparin is frequently used as prophylaxis for deep venous thrombosis in critically ill patients. 

Objectives: To evaluate three enoxaparin prophylactic regimens in critical care patients with and without administration of a vasopressor.

Methods: Patients admitted to intensive care units (general and post-cardiothoracic surgery) without renal failure received, once daily, a subcutaneous fixed dose of 40 mg enoxaparin, a subcutaneous dose of 0.5 mg/kg enoxaparin, or an intravenous dose of 0.5 mg/kg enoxaparin. Over 5 days anti-activated factor X levels were collected before the daily administration and 4 hours after the injection.

Results: Overall, 16 patients received the subcutaneous fixed dose, 15 received the subcutaneous weight-based dosage, and 8 received the dose intravenously. Around two-fifths (38%) of the patients received vasopressors. There was no difference between anti-activated factor X levels regarding vasopressor administration. However, in all three groups the levels were outside the recommended range of 0.1 IU/ml and 0.3 IU/ml.

Conclusions: Although not influenced by vasopressor administration, the enoxaparin regimens resulted in blood activity levels outside the recommended range.

 

March 2014
Yigal Helviz, Moshe Hersch, David Raveh, Lev Shmulovich and Sharon Einav
May 2012
S. Jaworowski, D. Raveh, J.-L. Golmard, C. Gropp and J. Mergui

Background: Alcohol consumption in Israel has increased over the last 20 years. Patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD) who present at a hospital enable early intervention. Objectives: To examine, for the first time, the characteristics of AUD patients in an Israeli general hospital, including whether their alcohol use is documented in their file.

Methods: A group of 178 consecutive patients referred for psychiatric consultation was compared to a second group of 105 hospitalized patients who were not referred. These two groups were studied to compare risk factors for AUD. Patients in both groups were prospectively interviewed using a CAGE questionnaire, demonstrated as an effective screening instrument for AUD. Patients' files in both groups were examined for documentation of alcohol use.

Results: There was no significant difference between the prevalence of AUD in the two groups. The groups were then merged since no significant difference in the risk factor effects between the two groups was found. The risk factors for AUD in the final statistical analysis were lower educational status, living alone, being born in the Former Soviet Union and weaker religious observance. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), cigarette smoking and substance use were found to be independent risk factors. Soldier status was associated with significant alcohol misuse and AUD (CAGE1–4). Alcohol consumption was documented in the files of AUD patients in 48% of the first group and 21% of the second.

Conclusions: Physicians often neglect to take a history of alcohol consumption. Routine use of the CAGEquestionnaire is recommended in Israeli general hospitals. Special attention should be given to PTSD patients and to soldiers.
 

April 2011
May 2010
O. Toker, S. Schwartz, G. Segal, N. Godovitch, Y. Schlesinger and D. Raveh

Background: Ritual circumcision in neonates may cause a urinary tract infection within 2 weeks of the procedure.

Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence of urinary tract infection among Jewish male circumcised neonates (¡Ü 28 days old) evaluated for fever in the emergency room.

Methods: All available medical records of neonates presenting to the pediatric emergency room for evaluation of fever over a 10 year period were reviewed. Data included gender, ethnic background, age in days on presentation to the emergency room, age in days when circumcision was performed (in males ¡Ý 8 days of age), and results of urine, blood and cerebrospinal fluid cultures. Families of males older than 8 days of age who had a UTI[1] were contacted by telephone to verify the circumcision status when the infant presented to the ER[2], to ascertain whether the circumcision was performed ritually by a mohel*
or by a physician, and, when not recorded in the chart, to verify the day of life on which circumcision was performed.

Results: Among neonates older than 8 days of age, 60 (24.7%) of the 243 febrile Jewish males had a UTI, as compared to 12 (8.4%) of 143 females (P < 0.0001). In 39 of 54 male neonates (72%) for whom circumcision was performed ritually on the eighth day of life, UTI occurred within 9 days of the circumcision. For females, there was no such clustering of UTI cases in the second week of life, nor during any other time period.

Conclusions: Febrile male neonates who have undergone ritual circumcision have a high prevalence of UTI and must be evaluated and treated accordingly.
 

[1] UTI = urinary tract infection

[2] ER = emergency room

* Mohel is a Jewish man trained in the practice of Brit milah (circumcision).

October 2008
J. Mergui, D. Raveh MD, J-L. Golmard, A. Fuer, C. Gropp and S. Jaworowski

Background: General hospital staff are often required to care for physically ill patients who arouse concern regarding risk of harm to themselves or others. Some of these patients will receive one-to-one "constant observation." This is the first Israeli study of general hospital patients with high risk behavior.

Objectives: To examine a population of general hospital patients whose behavioral management required the use of constant observation. Demographic and clinical parameters including physical diagnoses were examined, and risk factors for constant observation were identified. The findings of this study were compared to findings in previous studies.

Methods: This prospective observational study examined 714 inpatients referred for psychiatric consultation; 150 were found to require constant observation, and 156 who did not served as a control group.

Results: In this study younger age, suicidal concerns and alcohol/substance abuse were identified as risk factors for ordering constant observation. Ischemic heart disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were the only physical diagnoses found to be significantly correlated with a longer duration of observation, regardless of admission duration. Constant observation was less frequently used in the management of organic brain syndrome patients in this study compared to other studies.  

Conclusions: Some of our results (predictive factors for constant observation) confirmed the findings of overseas studies. Our finding that a diagnosis of organic brain syndrome was not a predictive factor for constant observation was unexpected and requires further investigation. The correlation between a diagnosis of ischemic heart disease or COPD[1] and duration of observation has not been reported previously and warrants further studies.  






[1] COPD = chronic obstructive pulmonary disease


October 2006
V.H. Eisenberg, D. Raveh, Y. Meislish, B. Rudensky, Y. Ezra, A. Samueloff, A.I. Eidelman and M.S. Schimmel
 Background: Previous assessments of maternal group B Streptococcus carrier rates in women delivering at Shaare Zedek Medical Center ranged between 3.5 and 11% with neonatal sepsis rates of 0.2–0.9/1000 live births. Because of low colonization and disease rates, routine prenatal cultures of GBS[1] were not recommended, and intrapartum prophylaxis was mainly based on maternal risk factors.

Objectives: To determine whether this policy is still applicable. 

Methods: We performed prospective sampling and follow-up of women admitted for labor and delivery between February 2002 and July 2002. Vaginal and rectal cultures were obtained before the first pelvic examination. GBS isolation was performed using selective broth medium, and identified by latex agglutination and serotyping. Demographic data were collected by means of a standardized questionnaire. Data on the newborns were collected throughout 2002.

Results: Of the 629 sampled women, 86 had a positive culture and a carrier rate of 13.7%. A borderline significantly higher carriage rate was observed among mothers of North American origin (21% vs. 13.1%, P = 0.048), and a higher attack rate in their infants (3.8/1000 compared with 0.5/1000 live births in our general maternal population, P = 0.002). Eight newborns had early-onset neonatal GBS sepsis (a rate of 0.8/1000 live births), but none of them benefited from intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis.

Conclusions: An increased neonatal disease rate was observed in a population with a higher colonization rate than previously seen. In lieu of the higher carrier rates, we now recommend routine prenatal screening for GBS in our perinatal population.


 





[1] GBS = group B Streptococcus


September 2005
S. Schwartz, A.I. Eidelman, A. Zeidan, D. Applebaum and D. Raveh
Background: Large family size may be a risk factor for childhood accidents. A possible association with quality of child supervision and rapidity of seeking medical care has not been fully evaluated.

Objectives: To determine whether children with multiple siblings are at increased risk for accidents, to assess whether quality of child supervision varies with family size, and to evaluate the relationship of family size with the rapidity of seeking medical care after an accident.

Methods: We prospectively studied 333 childhood accidents treated at TEREM (emergency care station) or Shaare Zedek Medical Center. Details on family composition and the accident were obtained through parental interview. Family size of the study population was compared with that of the Jerusalem population. Families with one to three children (Group 1) and four or more children (Group 2) were compared with regard to type of supervision and different "Gap times" – the time interval from when the accident occurred until medical assistance was sought ("Gap 1"), the time from that medical contact until arrival at Shaare Zedek ("Gap 2"), and the time from the accident until arrival at Shaare Zedek for those children for whom interim medical assistance either was ("Gap 3A") or was not ("Gap 3B") sought.

Results: Children from families with 1, 2, 3, 4 and ≥5 children comprised 7.2%, 18.3%, 14.4%, 18.6% and 41.4% of our sample compared to 20.4%, 21.8%, 18.4%, 14.7% and 24.7% in the general population respectively. Children from Group 2 were less often attended to by an adult (44.5% vs. 62.0%) and more often were in the presence only of other children at the time of the accident (27.0% vs. 10.5%). Gaps 1, 2 and 3A in Group 2 (6.3 hours, 16.5 hours, 27.8 hours respectively) were longer than for Group 1 (2.7, 10.7, 13.3 hours respectively).

Conclusions: The risk for accidents is increased among children from families with four or more children. The adequacy of child supervision in large families is impaired. There is a relative delay from the time of the accident until these children are brought for treatment. 

December 2003
Y. Schlesinger, S. Yahalom, D. Raveh, A.M. Yinnon, R. Segel, M. Erlichman, D. Attias and B. Rudensky

Background: Nasal colonization with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the community is being increasingly reported, but there is a general lack of data on MRSA[1] colonization in children in chronic care institutions and on colonization rates in Israeli children.

Objectives: To define the rate of MRSA nasal colonization in a generally healthy pediatric population in Jerusalem, to compare it with that of children in chronic care institutions, to define risk factors for colonization, and to compare community and hospital-acquired MRSA strains.

Methods: Anterior nares culture for the presence of methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant S. aureus was taken from 831 healthy children attending primary pediatric clinics or emergency department and 118 children hospitalized in three chronic care institutions in Jerusalem.


Results: Of the 831 healthy children, 195 (23.5%) were colonized with S. aureus, as compared to 43 of 118 (36.4%) chronically institutionalized children (P < 0.005). Five of the 195 S. aureus isolates from healthy children (2.6%) were MRSA, as compared to 9 of 43 (21%) from chronically institutionalized children (P < 0.001). Older age and a family member who is a healthcare worker were associated with S. aureus colonization in the population of healthy children, and older age was associated with MRSA colonization in the chronically institutionalized children. The antibiotic susceptibility pattern was similar for both groups, and pulsed field gel electrophoresis of the isolates showed a wide and random distribution in both groups.

Conclusions: MRSA colonization in the studied pediatric community in Jerusalem was very low, whereas that of patients hospitalized in chronic care institutions was significantly higher. In the small number of isolates detected, no significant differences were found in antibiotic susceptibility or PFGE[2] pattern between hospital-acquired and community-acquired strains.






[1] MRSA = methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus



[2] PFGE = pulsed field gel electrophoresis


November 2002
Gabriel S. Breuer, MD, David Raveh, MD, Bernard Rudensky, PhD, Raina Rosenberg, MD, Rose Ruchlemer, MD and Jonathan Halevy, MD
November 2001
Haim Ashkenazi, MD, Bernard Rudensky, PhD, Esther Paz, MA, David Raveh, MD, Jonathan A. Balkin, MBBCh, Dan Tzivoni, MD and Amos M. Yinnon, MD

Background: Recent studies have suggested a possible association between Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and coronary heart disease.

Objectives: To determine titers of antibodies to Chlamydia pneumoniae in patients with acute  myocardial infraction compared with titers in several control groups.

Methods: This prospective case-control study investigated 209 individuals. We assessed the serum IgG antibody titers to Chlamydia pneumoniae in 57 consecutive patients admitted with AMI to our intensive coronary care unit during a 4 month period. A serum sample was drawn upon admission after 6 weeks. Results were compared with those of four control groups: a) patients admitted with community-acquired pneumonia (n=18), b) patients with community-acquired urinary tract infection (n=42), c) patients with angiographically normal coronary artery disease (n=44), and d) patients with stable coronary artery disease (n=48). Serum immunoglobin G antibody titers to C. pneumoniae were determined using standard micro-immunofluorescene technology.

Results: Of 57 patients with AMI, 32 (56%) had a high lgG titer to C. pneumoniae (>=1:256) on the initial test, which remained unchanged (62%) after 6 weeks. The percentage of patients with high titers was significantly lower in the control groups: 5 of 18 patients (28%) in the pneumonia group (P<0.01), 11 of 42 (26%) in the urinary tract infection group (P<0.01), 11 of 44 (25%) with normal coronary arteries (P<0.01), and 17 of 48 (35%) with stable chronic ischemic heart disease (P<0.05).

Conclusion: The detection of high titers of lgG antibodies to C. pneumoniae in many patients with AMI, compared to control groups, suggest that chronic Chlamydia pneumoniae infection plays a role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and acute ischemic events.

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