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עמוד בית
Sat, 02.03.24

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September 2021
Edwina Landau PhD, Huda Mussaffi MD, Vardit Kalamaro PharmD, Alexandra Quittner PhD, Tammy Taizi RN, Diana Kadosh MSW, Hadas Mantin MA, Dario Prais MD, Hannah Blau MBBS, and Meir Mei-Zahav MD

Background: Adherence to treatment by adolescents and adults with cystic fibrosis (CF) is often poor.

Objectives: To assess the impact of a focused clinical intervention on adherence in individual patients, including help in problem-solving key barriers to adherence. To implement a patient-centered problem-solving intervention using CF My Way tools. To identify and overcome a selected barrier to adherence.

Methods: Medication possession ratios (MPRs), number of airway clearance sessions, forced expiratory volume (FEV1), body mass index (BMI), and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) were measured before and after the intervention.

Results: Sixteen patients with CF, aged 23.4 ± 6.7 years, participated. MPR increased for colistimethate sodium and tobramycin inhalations from a median of 21 (range 0–100) to 56 (range 0–100), P = 0.04 and 20 (range 0–100) to 33.3 (range 25–100), P = 0.03, respectively. BMI standard deviation score rose from -0.37 to -0.21, P = 0.05. No significant improvements were found in FEV1, airway clearance, or HRQoL scores.

Conclusions: The CF My Way problem-solving intervention increased adherence to medical treatments by removing barriers directly related to the needs and goals of young adults with CF

December 2020
Daphna Vilozni PhD, Adi Dagan MD, Ifat Sarouk MD, Bat-El Bar-Aluma MD, Moshe Ashkenazi MD, Yael Bezalel MD, and Ori Efrati MD

Background: The single-breath diffusing capacity of the lungs (DLCOSB) test measures the extent to which carbon monoxide (CO) passes from the lung air sacs into the blood. The accessible alveolar volume (VASB) is measured by inert gas during a 10-second period. The single-breath transfer coefficient of the lung for carbon monoxide (KCOSB) is the DLCOSB divided by VASB. Cystic fibrosis (CF) disease comprises progressive airway obstruction with bronchiectasis and parenchyma fibrosis. Yet, the KCOSB appears insignificant in the assessment of pulmonary function in CF.

Objectives: To challenge the precision of normal KCOSB in CF.

Methods: The authors collected pulmonary function tests (PFT) data from 74 confirmed CF patients (mean age 26 ± 10 years) with various levels of pulmonary disease severity. Tests included spirometry, DLCOBP, and body plethysmography (BP). Anatomical dead space was calculated by deducting anatomical dead space from total lung capacity TLC(BP) to establish alveolar volume (VABP) and to determine KCOBP. We also included individual data of arterial pCO2 blood-gas level.  

Results: KCOSB values were normal or higher in most patients, regardless of patient FEV1 value (R2 = 0.2204; P < 0.02). In contrast, the measurements of KCOBP were low corresponding with low FEV1 values, and negatively correlated with the elevation of trapped air and pCO2 levels (R2 = 0.1383; P = 0.0133, P > 0.05, respectively).

Conclusions: The 10- second perfusion time of the inert gas during DLCOSB represent the communicative alveolar volume in CF patients with advanced pulmonary disease. The findings justify the use of DLCOSB with the deterioration of FEV1 and elevation of pCO2 levels.

September 2012
R. Sukenik-Halevy, U. leil-Zoabi, L, Peled-Perez, J. Zlotogora, and S. Allon-Shalev

Background: Genetic screening tests for cystic fibrosis (CF), fragile X (FRAX) and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) have been offered to the entire Arab population of Israel in the last few years. Since 2008, screening for CF is provided free of charge, but for FRAX and SMA the screening is privately funded with partial coverage by complementary health insurance programs.

Objectives: To assess the compliance of Arab couples for genetic screening tests, and the factors that affect their decisions.

Methods: We analyzed compliance for genetic screening tests at the Emek Medical Center Genetic Institute, and in outreach clinics in four Arab villages. We enquired about the reasons individuals gave for deciding not to undergo testing. We also assessed the compliance of these individuals for the triple test (a screening test for Down syndrome).

Results: Of the 167 individuals included in our study, 24 (14%) decided not to be tested at all. Of the 143 (86%) who decided to be tested, 109 were tested for CF only (65%) and 34 (20%) for SMA and FRAX (as well as CF). The compliance rate for the triple test was 87%. Technical reasons, mainly financial issues, were the most significant factor for not undergoing all three tests.

Conclusions: The compliance of the Arab community for genetic testing for SMA and FRAX is extremely low. We believe that this low utilization of screening is due to economic reasons, especially when a complementary health plan has not been acquired, and largely reflects the perception that these tests are less important since they are privately funded.
 

November 2007
A.D. Goldbart, A.D. Cohen, D. Weitzman and A. Tal

Background: Rehabilitation camps can improve exercise tolerance and nutrition in cystic fibrosis patients.

Objectives: To assess weight gain, pulmonary function tests and daily symptoms in European CF[1] patients attending a rehabilitation camp at the Dead Sea, Israel.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective study assessing 94 CF patients who participated in winter camps held at the Dead Sea, Israel from 1997 to 2000. The camp program included daily physiotherapy, physical activities, and a high caloric diet. We assessed weight gain, pulmonary function tests, oxyhemoglobin saturation and daily symptoms before (pre), on departure (dep), and up to 3 months after the 3 week rehabilitation camp post). All data were analyzed by ANOVA for repetitive measurements. P < 0.05 was considered significant.

Results: Lung function tests and oxyhemoglobin saturation taken before, on departure and 3 months after camp were available for 35 patients. Forced expiratory volume in the first second (% predicted, average ± SD) improved by 8.2 ± 2.3% (pre, dep, post, P < 0.05). Oxyhemoglobin saturation mildly improved (1 ± 0.3%, pre, dep, post, P < 0.05). Forced vital capacity (% predicted) increased by 3.9 ± 1.2%, but was not significant (P = 0.19). Total body weight of 89 patients improved by 1.9 ± 0.9% during the camp time (P < 0.05, t-test), and in a group of 24 patients weight continuously increased up to 5.0 ± 1.7% at 3 months after the camp (P = 0.004, ANOVA).

Conclusions: In this attrition-limited retrospective study, European CF patients improved their pulmonary function and gained weight during and up to 3 months after a 3 week rehabilitation winter camp at the Dead Sea, Israel.






[1] CF = cystic fibrosis


June 2006
D. Prais, Y. Raviv, D. Shitrit, A. Yellin, G. Sahar, D. Bendayan, Y. Yahav, O. Efrati, N. Reichart, H. Blau, I. Bakal, G. Buchman, M. Saute, B. Vidne and M.R. Kramer
 Background: Lung transplantation is a well-established therapeutic option for end-stage lung disease in cystic fibrosis. Although it confers a clear survival advantage, outcome differs among centers according to local experience, patient selection, transplantation procedure, and postoperative care.

Objectives: To evaluate the national Israeli experience with lung transplantation in patients with CF[1].

Methods: We reviewed the medical charts of all CF patients who underwent lung transplantation between January 1996 and June 2005 at the two Israeli centers that performed this procedure.

Results: Eighteen transplantations were performed in 17 patients. Mean patient age at transplantation was 25.3 ± 9.1 years, and mean duration of follow-up in survivors (n=14) was 37.2 months (range 1–113 months). The actuarial survival rate was 88% at 1 year and 74% at 5 years. Pulmonary function, expressed as percent of predicted normal forced expiratory volume in 1 sec, improved from 22.4 ± 8.1% to 76 ± 16.8% at one year after transplantation. Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome was diagnosed in 5 patients (29%), of whom 2 died and 2 are currently candidates for retransplantation. Median time to onset of BOS[2] was 34.2 months (range 17–64 months).

Conclusion: In Israel, the early and intermediate-term results of lung transplantation for cystic fibrosis are encouraging. BOS remains a major complication that threatens long-term outcome.


 





[1] CF = cystic fibrosis

[2] BOS = bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome


January 2006
R. Soferman

Background: Sentinel lymph node mapping is the standard of care for patients with malignant melanoma and breast cancer. Recently, SLN[1] mapping was introduced to the field of gastric cancer.

Objectives: To evaluate SLN mapping in patients with gastric cancer.

Methods: In 43 patients with gastric cancer, open intraoperative subserosal dye injection in four opposing peritumoral points was used. Ten minutes following dye injection, stained LNs were located, marked and examined postoperatively from the surgical specimen.

Results: SLN mapping was performed in 43 with gastric cancer; 782 lymph nodes were harvested and evaluated. SLNs were stained in 34 of the patients (79.1%) with a mean of 2.85 SLNs per patient. The false negative rate was 20.9%, the positive predictive value 100%, the negative predictive value 78.6% and the sensitivity 86.9%.

Conclusions: SLN mapping in patients with gastric cancer is feasible and easy to perform. SLN mapping may mainly affect the extent of lymph node dissection, and to a lesser degree gastric resection. However, more data are needed.






[1] Sentinel lymph node


D. Katzelson

The pulmonary microbiology is a dominant element in cystic fibrosis and the main cause of death. Contemporary consensus accords an exclusive role in this to a single microorganism, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The evidence convincingly shows that the microbiology consists of a multiplicity of species living in perpetual interaction and in a variety of forms – planktonic, sessile, anaerobic – and in organized communities as microcosms, biofilms and ecosystem. This compound microbiology, the essence of the pulmonary disease, is of necessity exposed to constant influence both from without (the air) and within (via the blood), leading to a perpetual state of flux with consequent impact on the clinical course. It is perhaps significant that to date, most or all microbiologic studies were probably conducted, classically, with inert instruments (glass? plastic?), whereas in real life the CF[1] microbiology lives in “test-tubes” of live mucosa with which it maintains a permanent “cross-talk.” The difference to microbial life between these two media may well be very important. It therefore justifies study and may be far-reaching in its effect. There is persuasive argument to strive for a novel holistic view of the totality of the complex microbiology of CF, and to initiate fresh concepts, strategies and methods.






[1] CF = cystic fibrosis


H. Blau

In this issue of IMAJ, two articles discuss and review the roles of chronic airway infection (1) and inflammation (2) respectively in cystic fibrosis lung disease.

February 2005
A. Barak, M. Dulitzki, O. Efrati, A. Augarten, A. Szeinberg, N. Reichert, D. Modan, B. Weiss, M. Miller, D. Katzanelson and Y. Yahav
Background: Along with the increased life expectancy in cystic fibrosis and the remarkable progress in its management and therapy, issues of female fertility and pregnancy are frequently raised. These include infertility, severity of lung disease, pancreatic insufficiency, poor nutritional status, glucose intolerance and diabetes, drug safety, and long-term maternal and neonatal outcome.

Objective: To describe the experience of our CF[1] center in the management of CF pregnant woman from 1977 to 2004.

Methods: We analyzed 27 years of records (1977–2004) of the national CF registry of all CF women who wished to conceive and became pregnant.

Results: Eight CF women (mean age 24 ± 4.5 years) who wished to conceive had 11 pregnancies and delivered 12 neonates. The pregestational results of forced expiratory volume per 1 second varied significantly among patients (59 ± 23%), yet most (10/11) stayed stable throughout the pregnancy course. Maternal deterioration in CF condition occurred in only one mother, necessitating cesarean section. In 9 of the 11 pregnancies the women were pancreatic-insufficient. Of the 11 pregnancies, 2 CF women had diabetes mellitus and 3 developed gestational diabetes. One pregnancy occurred in a mother with a transplanted lung. Of the 12 neonates, 3 were preterm and one was born with esophageal atresia. No miscarriages, terminations or neonatal mortalities occurred. Although most of the CF mothers had FEV1[2] below 55% before pregnancy, the maternal and neonatal outcome was favorable and lung function tests generally remained stable.

Conclusions: We conclude that pregnancy in CF is feasible with a positive maternal and neonatal outcome. Early participation of the CF physician in the wish of the CF woman to reproduce is required. The integration of an intensive multidisciplinary approach during pregnancy, which includes close follow-up of maternal and fetal condition by the various specialists, should ensure an optimal outcome.

_______________________

[1] CF = cystic fibrosis

[2] FEV1 = forced expiratory volume per 1 sec

September 2004
O. Efrati, D. Modan-Moses, A. Barak, Y. Boujanover, A. Augarten, A. Szeinberg, I. Levy and Y. Yahav

Background: Pulmonary disease is the most frequent cause of morbidity and mortality in cystc fibrosis patients. New techniques such as non-invasive positive pressure ventilation have resulted in prolongation of life expectancy in CF[1] patients with end-stage lung disease.

Objectives: To determine the role of NIPPV[2] in CF patients awaiting lung transplantation.

Methods: Between 1996 and 2001 nine CF patients (5 females) with end-stage lung disease were treated with bi-level positive airway pressure ventilation in the "spontaneous" mode.

Results: The patients' mean age at initiation of BiPAP[3] was 15 years (range 13–40 years) and the mean duration of BiPAP usage was 8 months (range 3–16 months). Four patients underwent successful lung transplantation, three patients died while awaiting transplantation, and the remaining two are still on NIPPV while waiting for transplantation. Patients' body mass index increased significantly (P < 0.05) during BiPAP therapy (from 16.1 to 17.2 kg/m2). Blood pH, paCO2, and bicarbonate improved significantly (from 7.31 to 7.38, 90.8 to 67.2 mmHg, and 48.9 to 40.3 mEq/L, respectively). Pulmonary function tests were not affected by BiPAP usage. The patients experienced a significant alleviation in morning headaches and improvement in quality of sleep (P < 0.003). There were no major complications during BiPAP usage.

Conclusions: We demonstrated that long-term NIPPV can stabilize and improve physiologic parameters such as ventilation, arterial blood gases and body mass index, as well as subjective symptoms such as sleep pattern, daily activity level, and morning headaches in CF patients with end-stage lung disease. Further prospectively controlled studies are needed to evaluate the potential of BiPAP therapy and its influence on morbidity and mortality in the post-lung transplantation period.






[1] CF = cystic fibrosis

[2] NIPPV = non-invasive positive pressure ventilation

[3] BiPAP = bi-level positive airway pressure ventilation


D. Greenberg, P. Yagupsky, N. Peled, A. Goldbart, N. Porat and A. Tal

Background: Transmission of Pseudomonas aeruginosa among cystic fibrosis patients attending health camps has been reported previously.

Objectives: To determine the transmission of P. aeruginosa among CF[1] patients during three winter camps in the Dead Sea region in southern Israel.

Methods: Three consecutive CF patient groups were studied, each of which spent 3 weeks at the camp. The patients were segragated prior to camp attendance: patients who were not colonized with P. aeruginosa constituted the first group and colonized patients made up the two additional groups. Sputum cultures were obtained upon arrival, at mid-camp and on the last day. Environmental cultures were also obtained. Patients were separated during social activities and were requested to avoid social mingling. Isolates were analyzed by antibiotics susceptibility profile and by pulsed field gel electrophoresis.

Results: Ninety isolates from 19 patients produced 28 different fingerprint patterns by PFGE[2]. Isolates from two siblings and two patients from the same clinic displayed the same fingerprint pattern. These patients were already colonized with these organisms upon arrival. Two couples were formed during the camp, but PFGE showed no transmission of organisms. All other patients' isolates displayed unique fingerprint patterns and were distinguishable from those of other attendees, and none of the P. aeruginosa-negative patients acquired P. aeruginosa during camp attendance. Environmental cultures were negative for P. aeruginosa.

Conclusions: We were unable to demonstrate cross-infection of P. aeruginosa among CF patients participating in health camps at the Dead Sea who were meticulously segregated.






[1] CF = cystic fibrosis

[2] PFGE = pulsed field gel electrophoresis


July 2003
H. Blau, M. Livne and H. Mussaffi

Background: Cystic fibrosis is no longer a terminal illness of childhood and mean survival is now over 30 years. Adult patients with atypical CF[1] are increasingly being diagnosed. In Israel, all patients are still followed in pediatric centers.

Objectives: To describe our experience with adult CF, stressing the importance of adult-related health and psychosocial issues.

Methods: Twenty-five CF patients aged 20–50 years, constituting 44% of the 57 patients followed at our center, were analyzed for pulmonary and extrapulmonary features and management.

Results: Nineteen were diagnosed as children and 6 as adults. Nineteen were pancreatic-insufficient and 6 were pancreatic-sufficient, including 5 diagnosed as adults. Pulmonary status was usually stable, with forced expiratory volume in 1 second 66.3 ± 21% (mean ± SD) and no difference between pancreatic-sufficient and insufficent patients. The latter had more hemoptysis, Pseudomonas infection, intestinal obstruction, liver disease and diabetes. Two patients died of malignancy and two of advanced lung disease. A majority received continuous inhaled and oral antibiotics, bronchodilators, Dnase, physiotherapy and periodic home intravenous antibiotics. Psychosocial functioning was excellent: 60% were employed, 36% were married and 40% had children (none with CF). Patients diagnosed as adults had mild multisystem disease or isolated severe lung disease.

Conclusions: CF adults generally have a good quality of life. Advances in understanding the CF defect and a plethora of new treatment modalities bode well for the future. Patients must be maintained in optimal condition to reap the benefits, and there is an urgent necessity for adult physicians to develop expertise in CF.

_______________________


[1] CF = cystic fibrosis

February 2000
Yitzhak Lotem MD, Asher Barak MD, Huda Mussaffi MD, Mordechai Shohat MD, Michael Wilschanski MD, Yakov Sivan MD and Hannah Blau MD

Background: Cystic fibrosis is the most common life-limiting autosomal recessive genetic disorder in Caucasians. Typically it is a multisystem disease diagnosed by increased chloride levels on sweat testing, with mortality due mainly to progressive respiratory disease. The clinical spectrum of CF has recently been much expanded.

Genetic testing for mutant CF transmembrane regulator has revealed atypical cases where sweat test results are borderline or normal. In other patients, genetic mutations cannot be identified but abnormal CFTR function is shown using nasal potential difference measurement.

Objectives: To highlight the diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas in cases of atypical cystic fibrosis.

Methods: We reviewed patients with atypical CF and widely varying phenotype who are managed at Schneider Children’s Medical Center of Israel. 

Results: Two patients had severe lung disease but little expression in other organs. Accurate diagnosis was essential to enable aggressive therapy in a specialized center. Four other patients are in excellent general health but have symptoms limited to male infertility, heat exhaustion, pancreatitis or transient liver dysfunction, while lung disease is minimal. For these patients, careful counseling is needed to avoid unnecessary upheaval, inappropriately aggressive management, and the psychosocial implications of a CF diagnosis. These dilemmas have increased considerably in our center, as in others worldwide.

Conclusion: It is our obligation as clinicians - at the level of both primary physician and referral center - to maintain an ever higher index of suspicion for CF, tempered by a rational program of counseling and management appropriate to the individual.

 

__________________________________

 

CF= cystic fibrosis

CFTR= CF transmembrane regulator

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