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עמוד בית
Wed, 29.05.24

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January 2022
Zach Rozenbaum MD, Ilan Merdler MD MHA, Itamar Loewenstein MD, Keren Lee-Rozenfeld MD, Shmuel Banai MD, and Yacov Shacham MD

Background: The extent and impact of obesity as an isolated risk factor for coronary artery disease is not clear since co-morbidities serve as confounders and may mask this association.

Objectives: To examine whether obesity is associated with extensive coronary artery disease among metabolically healthy patients presenting with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and to explore the outcomes according to body mass index (BMI).

Methods: We stratified STEMI patients who had a metabolically healthy phenotype and available weight and height data according to BMI: 18.5–25 kg/m² (lean), 25.01–30 kg/m² (overweight), and > 30 kg/m² (obese).

Results: Overall 381 patients were included, 42% lean, 41% overweight, and 17% obese. Patients with increased BMIs had higher levels of low-density proteins and triglycerides (P < 0.05). Obese patients presented with the lowest rates of multi-vessel disease (12.9% vs. 22.9% for overweight and 28% for lean). In a univariable analysis, obese patients were 60% less likely to be diagnosed with multi-vessel disease (odds ratio 0.4, 95% confidence interval 0.2–0.9, P = 0.021) compared to lean patients. The association remained significant in a multivariable model adjusted for baseline characteristics (P = 0.029). There were no differences in 30-day or long-term mortality (median follow-up 3.2 years) among the groups (P > 0.1 for all comparisons).

Conclusions: Metabolically healthy phenotype obesity was associated with lower rates of multi-vessel disease despite higher levels of triglycerides. However, this association did not translate into increased mortality.

December 2019
Dror B Leviner MD, Guy Witberg MD, Amir Sharon MD, Yosif Boulos BsC, Alon Barsheshet MD, Erez Sharoni MD, Dan Spiegelstein MD, Hana Vaknin-Assa MD, Dan Aravot MD, Ran Kornowski MD and Abid Assali MD

Background: Current guidelines for choosing between revascularization modalities may not be appropriate for young patients.

Objectives: To compare outcomes and guide treatment options for patients < 40 years of age, who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) between 2008 and 2018.

Methods: Outcomes were compared for 183 consecutive patients aged < 40 years who underwent PCI or CABG between 2008 and 2018, Outcomes were compared as time to first event and as cumulative events for non-fatal outcomes.

Results: Mean patient age was 36.3 years and 96% were male. Risk factors were similar for both groups. Drug eluting stents were implemented in 71% of PCI patients and total arterial revascularization in 74% of CABG patients. During a median follow-up of 6.5 years, 16 patients (8.6%) died. First cardiovascular events occurred in 35 (38.8%) of the PCI group vs. 29 (31.1%) of the CABG group (log rank P = 0.022), repeat events occurred in 96 vs. 51 (P < 0.01), respectively. After multivariate adjustment, CABG was associated with a significantly reduced risk for first adverse event (hazard ratio [HR] 0.305, P < 0.01) caused by a reduction in repeat revascularization. CABG was also associated with a reduction in overall repeat events (HR 0.293, P < 0.01). There was no difference in overall mortality between CABG and PCI.

Conclusions: Young patients with coronary disease treated by CABG showed a reduction in the risk for non-fatal cardiac events. Mortality was similar with CABG and PCI.

October 2018
Ahmad Hassan MD, Ronen Jaffe MD, Ronen Rubinshtein MD, Basheer Karkabi MD, David A. Halon MB ChB, Moshe Y. Flugelman MD and Barak Zafrir MD

Background: Contemporary data on clinical profiles and long-term outcomes of young adults with coronary artery disease (CAD) are limited.

Objectives: To determine the risk profile, presentation, and outcomes of young adults undergoing coronary angiography.

Methods: A retrospective analysis (2000–2017) of patients aged ≤ 35 years undergoing angiography for evaluation and/or treatment of CAD was conducted.

Results: Coronary angiography was performed in 108 patients (88% males): 67 acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and 41 non-ACS chest pain syndromes. Risk factors were similar: dyslipidemia (69%), positive family history (64%), smoking (61%), obesity (39%), hypertension (32%), and diabetes (22%). Eight of the ACS patients (12%) and 29 of the non-ACS (71%) had normal coronary arteries without subsequent cardiac events. Of the 71 with angiographic evidence of CAD, long-term outcomes (114 ± 60 months) were similar in ACS compared to non-ACS presentations: revascularization 41% vs. 58%, myocardial infarction 32% vs. 33%, and all-cause death 8.5% vs. 8.3%. Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) was diagnosed in 25% of those with CAD, with higher rates of myocardial infarction (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 2.62, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 1.15–5.99) and revascularization (HR 4.30, 95%CI 2.01–9.18) during follow-up. Only 17% of patients with CAD attained a low-density lipoprotein cholesterol treatment goal < 70 mg/dl.

Conclusions: CAD in young adults is associated with marked burden of traditional risk factors and high rates of future adverse cardiac events, regardless of acuity of presentation, especially in patients with FH, emphasizing the importance of detecting cardiovascular risk factors and addressing atherosclerosis at young age.

May 2016
Shiyovich MD, Ygal Plakht RN PhD, Katya Belinski RN BN and Harel Gilutz, MD

Background: Catastrophic life events are associated with the occurrence of cardiovascular incidents and worsening of the clinical course following such events.

Objectives: To evaluate the characteristics and long-term prognosis of Holocaust survivors presenting with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) compared to non-Holocaust survivors.

Methods: Israeli Jews who were born before 1941 and had been admitted to a tertiary medical center due to AMI during the period 2002–2012 were studied. Holocaust survivors were compared with non-Holocaust survivor controls using individual age matching.

Results: Overall 305 age-matched pairs were followed for up to 10 years after AMI. We found a higher prevalence of depression (5.9% vs. 3.3%, P = 0.045) yet a similar rate of cardiovascular risk factors, non-cardiovascular co-morbidity, severity of coronary artery disease, and in-hospital complications in survivors compared to controls. Throughout the follow-up period, similar mortality rates (62.95% vs. 63.9%, P = 0.801) and reduced cumulative mortality (0.9 vs. 0.96, HR = 0.780, 95%CI 0.636–0.956, P = 0.016) were found among survivors compared to age-matched controls, respectively. However, in a multivariate analysis survival was not found to be an independent predictor of mortality, although some tendency towards reduced mortality was seen (AdjHR = 0.84, 95%CI 0.68–1.03, P = 0.094). Depression disorder was associated with a 77.9% increase in the risk for mortality. 

Conclusions: Holocaust survivors presenting with AMI were older and had a higher prevalence of depression than controls. No excessive, and possibly even mildly improved, risk of mortality was observed in survivors compared with controls presenting with AMI. Possibly, specific traits that are associated with surviving catastrophic events counter the excess risk of such events following AMI.

 

April 2016
Adam Mazurek MD, Teresa Iwaniec PhD, Maria Olszowska MD PhD, Carlo Perricone MD PhD, Barbara Markiewicz MD, Piotr Podolec MD PhD, Jacek Musial MD PhD and Wojciech Plazak MD PhD

Background: The role of autoimmune factors in the etiology of coronary artery disease (CAD) was suggested in numerous studies but has not been definitively determined.

Objectives: To assess the possible influence of antiphospholipid and antinuclear antibodies on atherosclerosis development in young patients after myocardial revascularization procedures.

Methods: The study group included 39 patients younger than 45 years with coronary artery disease (CAD) who underwent myocardial revascularization. Serum levels of antiphospholipid (aPL), antinuclear (ANA) and antineutrophil cytoplasmatic (ANCA) antibodies were tested within 1 month after the procedure.

Results: All three types of aPL were significantly higher in CAD patients when compared to healthy controls: anti-β2-glycoprotein I (aβ2GPI), both immunoglobulin (Ig)G and IgM classes (median 4.10 SGU, range 3.45–21.63 vs. 0.76, 0.12–6.01, P < 0.001, and 2.82 SGU, 1.44–11.70 vs. 1.08, 0.44–3.64, P < 0.001, respectively); anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL) both IgG and IgM classes (3.13 GPL, 1.32–14.03 vs. 2.42, 0.96–18.45, P = 0.0037, and 6.94 MPL, 1.90–26.40 vs. 4.32, 1.9–28.73, P < 0.008, respectively); and lupus anticoagulant (LA) (27.7% vs. 0%, P = 0.005). ANA were elevated in one patient and ANCA in 23 (60%). The levels of aPL did not correlate with the presence of a clot in a coronary vessel detected during angiography or with exacerbation of coronary artery atherosclerosis.

Conclusions: In young patients with CAD who underwent myocardial revascularization the levels of aPL were significantly higher than in young healthy subjects. Thus, besides the classic risk factors for CAD, autoimmunity may play an important role in atherosclerotic plaque formation and progression.

February 2016
Shirit Kazum MD, Alon Eisen MD, Eli I. Lev MD, Zaza Iakobishvili MD, Alejandro Solodky MD, David Hasdai MD, Ran Kornowski MD and Aviv Mager MD

Background: Concomitant carotid artery disease (CaAD) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) is associated with worse cardiac and neurologic outcomes. The reported prevalence and risk factors for concomitant CaAD in CAD patients varied among previous studies. 

Objectives: To examine these factors in ambulatory patients with CAD and well-documented cholesterol levels treated with cholesterol-lowering medications. 

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed prospectively collected data from 325 unselected patients with CAD (89 women, mean age 68.8 ± 9.9 years) undergoing routine evaluation at the coronary clinic of our hospital. 

Results: The low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) was < 100 mg/dl in 292 patients (90%). Age at onset of CAD symptoms was 59.4 ± 10.8 years. Carotid stenosis ≥ 50% was seen in 83 patients (25.5%) and between 30% and 49% in 55 patients (17%) (duplex method). Carotid stenosis was significantly associated with hypertension (P = 0.032), peripheral arterial disease (P = 0.002) and number of coronary arteries with ≥ 50% stenosis (P = 0.002), and showed a borderline association with age at CAD onset (P = 0.062) and diabetes mellitus (P = 0.053). On linear regression analysis, independent predictors of CaAD were peripheral vascular disease (OR 3.186, 95%CI 1.403–7.236, P = 0.006), number of coronary arteries with ≥ 50% stenosis (OR 1.543, 95%CI 1.136–2.095, P = 0.005), and age at CAD onset (OR 1.028, 95%CI 1.002–1.054, P = 0.003). None of the variables studied predicted freedom from CaAD. 

Conclusions: Carotid atherosclerosis is very common in stable ambulatory patients with CAD regularly taking statins. The risk is higher in patients with peripheral arterial disease, a greater number of involved coronary arteries, and older age at onset of CAD. 

 

March 2015
Dan Oieru MD, Nir Shlomo, Israel Moalem, Eli Rozen MD, Alexey Naimushin MD, Robert Klempfner MD, Ilan Goldenberg MD and Ronen Goldkorn MD

Abstract

Background: Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis has been shown to be a predictor of sudden cardiac death and all-cause mortality in patients with cardiac disease.

Objectives: To examine whether newer HRV analysis algorithms, as used by the HeartTrends device, are superior to exercise stress testing (EST) for the detection of myocardial ischemia in patients without known coronary artery disease (CAD).

Methods: We present pilot data of the first 100 subjects enrolled in a clinical trial designed to evaluate the yield of short-term (1 hour) HRV testing for the detection of myocardial ischemia. The study population comprised subjects without known CAD referred to a tertiary medical center for EST with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). All patients underwent a 1 hour electrocardiographic acquisition for HRV analysis with a HeartTrends device prior to EST with MPI. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV, respectively) were calculated for EST and HRV analysis, using MPI as the gold standard for the non-invasive detection of myocardial ischemia.

Results: In this cohort 15% had a pathologic MPI result. HRV analysis showed superior sensitivity (85%), PPV (50%) and NPV (97%) as compared to standard EST (53%, 42%, 90%, respectively), while the specificity of the two tests was similar (86% and 85%, respectively). The close agreement between HRV and MPI was even more pronounced among patients > 65 years of age.

Conclusions: Our pilot data suggest that the diagnostic yield of the novel HeartTrends HRV algorithm is superior to conventional EST for the non-invasive detection of myocardial ischemia.

May 2013
A. Hamdan, O. Goitein, S. Matetzky, S. Yishay, E. Di Segni, D. Yakubovitch, D. Silverberg, M. Halak, M. Eldar and E. Konen
Background: Over the past few years dobutamine stress magnetic resonance (DSMR) has proven its efficacy as an integral part of the diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD).

Objectives: To present the feasibility and safety of DSMR in Israel.

Methods: Thirty patients with suspected or known CAD were studied. DSMR images were acquired during short breath-holds in three short axis views and four-, two-, and three-chamber views. Patients were examined at rest and during a standard dobutamine-atropine protocol. Regional wall motion was assessed in a 16-segment model and the image quality was evaluated using a four-point scale for the visibility of the endocardial border.

Results: In 28 patients (93.4%) DSMR was successfully performed and completed within an average of 55 ± 6 minutes. One patient could not be examined because of claustrophobia and another patient, who was on beta-blockers, did not reach the target heart rate. Image quality was excellent and there was no difference between the rest and stress images in short axis (3.91 ± 0.29 vs. 3.88 ± 0.34, P = 0.13, respectively) and long axis (3.83 ± 0.38 vs. 3.70 ± 0.49, P = 0.09, respectively) views. Segmental intra-observer agreement for wall motion contractility at rest and stress cine images was almost perfect (κ = 0.88, 95% confidence interval = 0.93–0.84, and κ = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.88–0.76) respectively. No serious side effects were observed during DSMR.

Conclusion: The present study confirms the feasibility, safety and excellent image quality of DSMR for the diagnosis of coronary artery diseases.

 

 

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