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עמוד בית
Fri, 30.09.22

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May 2018
David Peleg MD, Yechiel Z. Burke MD, Ido Solt MD and Menachem Fisher MD

Cesarean section has undergone a transformation that has radically changed the prognosis of both the pregnant woman and her unborn child. The attributed mortality rate of Cesarean section during the 19th century was over 50% worldwide. Today, mortality from Cesarean delivery is rare. However, the technique of transversely incising the uterus in its lower uterine segment, although less than a century old, is passed on from instructor to apprentice, often without either of them being aware of its noble history. In this brief review, we discuss the reported history regarding this incision and the significant role played by John Munro Kerr.

September 2017
Sody A Naimer MD and Edward Fram MA MPhil PhD

Background: Maternal cardiac arrest during gestation constitutes a devastating event. Training and anticipant preparedness for prompt action in such cases may save the lives of both the woman and her fetus. 

Objectives: To address a previous Jewish guideline that a woman in advanced pregnancy should not undergo any medical procedure to save the fetus until her condition is stabilized. 

Methods: Current evidence on perimortal cesarean section shows that immediate section during resuscitation provides restoration of the integrity of the mother’s vascular compartment and increases her probability of survival. We analyzed Jewish scriptures from the Talmud and verdicts of the oral law and revealed that the Jewish ethical approach toward late gestational resuscitation was discouraged since it may jeopardize the mother. 

Results: We discuss the pertinent Jewish principles and their application in light of emerging scientific literature on this topic. An example case that led to an early perimortem cesarean delivery and brought about a gratifying, albeit only partially satisfying outcome, is presented, albeit with only a partially satisfying outcome. The arguments that were raised are relevant to such cases and suggest that previous judgments should be reconsidered.  

Conclusions: The Jewish perspective can guide medical personnel to modify and adapt the concrete rules to diverse clinical scenarios in light of current medical knowledge. With scientific data showing that both mother and fetus can prosper from immediate surgical extrication of the baby during resuscitation of the advanced pregnant woman, these morals should dictate training and practice in urgent perimortal cesarean sections whenever feasible. 

 

September 2014
Arieh Riskin MD MHA, Ron Gonen MD, Amir Kugelman MD, Elias Maroun MD, Gregory Ekhilevitch MD and David Bader MD MHA

Background: Previous studies led to the recommendation to schedule planned elective cesarean deliveries at or after 39 weeks of gestation, and not before 38 weeks. The question is whether this practice is appropriate in face of possible risks to the newborn should the pregnancy have to be ended by cesarean section before the scheduled date.

Objectives: To compare the outcomes of newborn infants who were delivered on their scheduled day by elective cesarean section versus those who required delivery earlier.

Methods: This single-center retrospective study was based on medical records covering a period of 18 months. We compared the neonatal outcomes of 272 infants delivered by elective cesarean section as scheduled (at 38.8 ± 0.8 weeks gestation) and 44 infants who had to be delivered earlier than planned (at 37.9 ± 1.1 weeks). 

Results: We found no morbidity directly related to delivery by cesarean section before the scheduled date. There were no significant differences in the need for resuscitation after delivery. Although more of the infants who were delivered early were admitted to intensive care and overall stayed longer in the hospital (5.8 ± 7.3 vs. 3.9 ± 0.8 days, P < 0.02), their more severe respiratory illness and subsequent longer hospitalization was the result of their younger gestational age. Transient tachypnea of the newborn was associated with younger gestational age at delivery in both groups.

Conclusions: We suggest continuing with the current recommendation to postpone elective cesarean singleton deliveries beyond 38–39 weeks of gestation whenever possible.

July 2009
A. Toker, Z.H. Perry, E. Cohen and H. Krymko

Background: The rate of cesarean section is increasing and recently exceeded 30% of all deliveries in the United States. Birth injuries during CS[1] are relatively rare. Femur fractures have a very low incidence during both vaginal delivery and CS.

Objectives: To assess our 10 year experience (2008–1997) in managing fractured femur during CS, including a typical case.

Methods: We reviewed the prevalence of femur fractures in two tertiary, academic, level one trauma center hospitals in Israel (Hadassah in Jerusalem and Soroka in Beer Sheva).

Results: During the study period 221,939 deliveries occurred in both hospitals. Of these, 17.6% were cesarean sections (33,990 CS). Of the total number of deliveries, the incidence of femur fracture was 0.082 per 1000 deliveries (17 fractures), and the incidence of femur fracture during CS was 0.308 per 1000 CS (12 fractures).

Conclusions: Cesarean section increases the risk of femur fractures (P < 0.001) with an odds ratio of 11.26 (confidence interval 3.97–31.97).






[1] CS = cesarean section



 
October 2004
M. Korem, Z. Ackerman, Y. Sciaki-Tamir, G. Gino, S. Salameh-Giryes, S. Perlberg and S.N. Heyman
August 2003
O. Goldstick, A. Weissman and A. Drugan

Background: Even operative deliveries defined as “urgent” show marked diurnal variation with a significant increase during regular working hours.

Objective: To investigate the diurnal variation of urgent operative deliveries and its potential implications on the outcome of newborns.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of all deliveries in a public hospital from 1 January 1990 to 31 December 1998. Delivery mode variables analyzed were spontaneous vaginal delivery, urgent cesarean section and operative vaginal delivery. Deliveries were stratified hourly throughout the day. The rate of operative deliveries was calculated and the analysis was then performed according to the daily routine shifts of the medical staff. Birth weight and Apgar scores at 1 and 5 minutes were retrieved as outcome measures.

Results: The rate of urgent cesarean deliveries increased significantly between 8 a.m. and 2 p.m. (150%–230%) from that predicted. The lowest rate of urgent cesarean sections was found between 5 a.m. and 6 a.m. (5.3%). Mean birth weight in spontaneous deliveries was higher in the morning hours than during the night shift (3,293 ± 520 g vs. 3,277 ± 510 g, respectively, P < 0.005). Apgar scores of newborns delivered by urgent cesarean section during the morning were higher compared to those delivered during night shifts and the rate of low Apgar scores was lower in the morning than in evening and night shifts.

Conclusions: Our results indicate a marked diurnal variation in urgent operative deliveries, caused perhaps by varying definition of “urgency” according to the time of day.
 

September 2001
Carin Hagberg, MD, Tiberiu Ezri, MD and Ezzat Abouleish, MD

Background: The incidence of spinal failure necessitating general anesthesia and endotracheal intubation following spinal anesthesia for cesarean section is extremely low. Aspiration prophylaxis prior to spinal anesthesia is often recommended in case of spinal failure or excessive spinal block requiring the emergency administration of general anesthesia.

Objectives: To determine the incidence of endotracheal intubation following spinal anesthesia for cesarean section.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the pen-operative course of parturients undergoing cesarean section under spinal anesthesia at our institution from February 1991 to December 1993. If spinal failure occurred, 10 ml of sodium bicarbonate was administered by mouth prior to induction of general anesthesia.

Results: Among the 743 cases that we reviewed, spinal failure occurred in 15 patients (2%) because of inadequate analgesia in 14 patients (1.9%) and unexpected prolonged surgery for hysterectomy in one patient (0.1%). No patient required intubation due to excessive spinal block. In none of the patients was a record of pulmonary aspiration identified.

Conclusions: The extremely low incidence of spinal failure or excessive block necessitating endotracheal intuba­tion suggests that routine aspiration prophylaxis may not be necessary prior to spinal anesthesia. However, these results should be confirmed by a prospective, controlled study on larger populations. An antacid should be readily available and administered whenever general anesthesia is required.
 

July 2000
Shlomo Shimonovitz MD, Anda Botosneano MD and Drorith Hochner-Celnikier MD

Background: Uterine rupture is a catastrophic obstetric complication, most often associated with a preexisting cesarean section scar. Although a vaginal birth after a cesarean is considered safe in modern obstetrics, it is not known whether repeated VBACs increase the risk of rupture, or whether the first VBAC proves the strength and durability of the scar, predicting further successful and less risky vaginal deliveries.

Objectives: To evaluate the effect of repeated vaginal deliveries on the risk of uterine rupture in women who have previously delivered by cesarean section.

Methods: In this retrospective study, 26 VBAC deliveries complicated by uterine rupture were matched for age, parity, and gravidity with 66 controls who achieved VBAC without rupture. The histories, demography, pregnancy, labor and delivery records, as well as neonatal outcome were compared.

Results: We found that the risk of rupture decreases dramatically in subsequent VBACs. Of the 40 cases of uterine rupture recorded during the 18 year study period, 26 occurred during VBAC deliveries. Of these, 21 were complicated first VBACs. We also found that the use of prostaglandin-estradiol, instrumental deliveries, and oxytocin had been used significantly more often during deliveries complicated with rupture than in VBAC controls.

Conclusions: Once a woman has achieved VBAC the risk of rupture falls dramatically. The use of oxytocin, PGE2 and instrumental deliveries are additional risk factors for rupture, therefore caution should be exerted regarding their application in the presence of a uterine scar, particularly in the first vaginal birth after cesarean.

___________________________________

 

VBAC= vaginal birth after cesarean section

PGE2= prostaglandin-estradiol

January 2000
Rosa Michlin MD, Moshe Oettinger MD, Maruan Odeh MD, Samer Khoury MD, Ella Ophir MD, Mila Barak MD, Margareta Wolfson MD and Avshalom Strulov MD, MPH

Background: Obesity, a common condition in developed countries, is recognized as a threat to health.

Objectives: To describe the distribution of weight in pregnant women and evaluate the influence of obesity on pregnancy outcome in a high parity northern Israeli population.

Methods: The study included 887 women who gave birth in the Western Galilee Medical Center during the period August to November 1995. The patients were classified as underweight, normal weight, overweight, or obese according to body mass index. Maternal demographic, obstetric, and perinatal variables were compared. A control group of 167 normal weight women were matched with the obese group for maternal age, parity, and gestational age.

Results: Obese mothers had a higher incidence of gestational diabetes and pregnancy-induced hypertension compared to normal weight mothers (5.4% vs. 1.8%, and 7.2% vs. 0.6% respectively, P<0.01), a higher rate of labor induction (20.4% vs. 10.2%, P<0.01), and a higher cesarean section rate (19.6% vs.10.8%, P<0.05). There was also a significant difference in the prevalence of macrosomia in the offspring (16.8% vs. 8.4%, P<0.05).

Conclusion: Obese pregnant women are at high risk for complications during delivery and therefore need careful pre-conception and prenatal counseling, as well as perinatal management.

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