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עמוד בית
Mon, 15.07.24

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August 2023
Michal M. Amitai MD, Nadin Kanaan MD, Shelly Soffer MD, Lee Alper, Noa Rozendorn MD, Daniel Jacob Harrington, Uri Kopylov MD, Adi Lahat MD, Doron Yablecovitch MD, Rami Eliakim MD, Shomron Ben-Horin MD, Eyal Klang MD

Background: Jejunal disease is associated with worse prognosis in Crohn's disease. The added value of diffusion weighted imaging for evaluating jejunal inflammation related to Crohn's Disease is scarce.

Objectives: To compare diffusion weighted imaging, video capsule endoscopy, and inflammatory biomarkers in the assessment of Crohn's disease involving the jejunum.

Methods: Crohn's disease patients in clinical remission were prospectively recruited and underwent magnetic resonance (MR)-enterography and video capsule endoscopy. C-reactive protein and fecal-calprotectin levels were obtained. MR-enterography images were evaluated for restricted diffusion, and apparent diffusion coefficient values were measured. The video capsule endoscopy-based Lewis score was calculated. Associations between diffusion weighted imaging, apparent diffusion coefficient, Lewis score, and inflammatory biomarkers were evaluated.

Results: The study included 51 patients, and 27/51 (52.9%) with video capsule endoscopies showed jejunal mucosal inflammation. Sensitivity and specificity of restricted diffusion for video capsule endoscopy mucosal inflammation were 59.3% and 37.5% for the first reader, and 66.7% and 37.5% for the second reader, respectively. Diffusion weighted imaging was not statistically associated with jejunal video capsule endoscopy inflammation (P = 0.813).

Conclusions: Diffusion weighted imaging was not an effective test for evaluation of jejunal inflammation as seen by video capsule endoscopy in patients with quiescent Crohn's disease.

August 2022
Anton Bermont MD, Daniel L Cohen MD, Vered Richter MD, Efrat Broide MD, and Haim Shirin MD

Background: One of the main causes of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is chronic gastrointestinal blood loss. The use of video capsule endoscopy (VCE) after negative bidirectional endoscopy in patients with IDA is controversial.

Objectives: To evaluate the effect of VCE in the management and long-term outcomes of IDA patients.

Methods: A retrospective case-control study was performed on all patients with IDA undergoing VCE over a 5-year period. We compared those with positive findings on VCE to those with normal findings. All participants previously underwent a negative bidirectional endoscopy

Results: We performed 199 VCE examinations; median follow-up time was 4 years (IQR 2–5). Positive findings were identified in 66 patients (diagnostic yield 33.2%). Double balloon enteroscopy or push enteroscopy was performed in eight patients (18.6%); only one was therapeutic. The main therapy in both groups was iron supplementation. There were no significant differences in iron treatment before and after VCE in each group and between groups. Anemia improved in both groups. There was no difference in the level of hemoglobin change between the groups during each year of follow-up compared to the baseline level prior to VCE. Anemia resolved in 15 patients (35%) in the positive VCE group and in 19 (45%) in the negative VCE group (P = 0.33).

Conclusions: Positive findings on VCE led to subsequent endoscopic interventions only in a small percentage of patients with IDA. Anemia improved and resolved equally whether or not there were VCE findings. The main intervention that appears to help IDA is iron supplementation.

April 2008
Z. Fireman and Y. Kopelman

Capsule endoscopy was launched at the beginning of this millennium and has since become a well‑established tool for evaluating the entire small bowel for manifold pathologies. CE[1] far exceeded our early expectations by providing us with a tool to establish the correct diagnosis for such elusive gastrointestinal conditions as obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, Crohn's disease, polyposis syndrome and others. Recent evidence has shown CE to be superior to other imaging modalities – such as small bowel follow‑through X-ray, colonoscopy with ileoscopy, computerized tomographic enterography, magnetic resonance enteroclysis and push enteroscopy – for diagnosing small bowel pathologies. Since the emergence of CE, more than 500,000 capsules have been swallowed worldwide, and more than 700 peer-reviewed publications have appeared in the literature. This review summarizes the essential data that emerged from these studies.






[1] CE = capsule endoscopy


April 2005
O. Barkay, M. Moshkowitz and S. Reif
 Background: Approximately one‑fourth of new Crohn’s disease diagnoses are made in individuals under the age of 20 years in whom proximal Crohn’s disease tends to be more common.

Objectives: To describe the role of wireless capsule endoscopy in diagnosing isolated small intestinal Crohn’s disease in two adolescents.

Methods: Wireless capsule endoscopy was performed in two adolescents with severe protein-losing enteropathy and negative standard diagnostic workup.

Results: Wireless capsule endoscopy successfully diagnosed Crohn’s disease with uncharacteristic presentations and negative radiographic and endoscopic findings in both patients.

Conclusions: The non-invasiveness and ease in performance of capsule endoscopy on an ambulatory basis make this diagnostic modality especially advantageous for children.

September 2004
Z. Fireman, Y. Kopelman, L. Fish, A. Sternberg, E. Scapa and E. Mahajna

Background: During ingestible capsule endoscopy, video images are recorded throughout the device's natural propulsion through the digestive system. Shortening the transit time of the wireless video capsule through the stomach and small bowel could reduce the time needed to read and analyze the resultant images, utilize more effectively the short life of the capsule battery (7 ± 1 hours) and make it possible to image the entire small bowel.

Objective: To measure gastric and small bowel transit times, with and without preparation, using capsule endoscopy.

Methods: Capsule transit times through the stomach, small bowel and colon were evaluated by analysis of the videos generated during the capsule's passage. The study group included 62 patients with small and large bowel pathologies (e.g., iron deficiency anemia, Crohn's disease). The patients were divided into three groups: prepared with polyethylene glycol (Group A, n = 9), prepared with sodium phosphate (Group B, n = 13), and with no preparation (Group C, n = 40).

Results: The gastric emptying times were 20.4 ± 15.2 minutes in group A, 55.7 ± 45.1 in group B, and 48.3 ± 28.7 in group C (P = 0.01). The capsule produced views of the cecum in only 49 of the 62 patients. The mean small bowel transit time for these 49 patients was 238.8 ± 82.1 minutes, making the mean times for the groups (A,B,C) 148.9 ± 32.6, 289.4 ± 77.2 and 249.3 ± 73.9 minutes respectively (P = 0.0001).

Conclusion: Compared to both SP[1] and no preparation, preparation of the colon with PEG[2] significantly shortened the transit time of the capsule through the stomach and small bowel.







[1] SP = sodium phosphate

[2] PEG = polyethylene glycol


September 2002
Zvi Fireman, MD, Arkady Glukhovsky, PhD, Harold Jacob, MD, FACG, Alexandra Lavy, MD, Shlomo Lewkowicz, DSc and Eitan Scapa, MD
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